web-based admin system can provide convenience, efficiency and effectiveness when dealing with disaster and communication. The most important element in dealing with disaster is undeniably the speed, so response time in every aspect of emergency handling is critical and ways should always be explored to improve it. The response time of this web-based system is very low. In future expansion, the project should expand to include different disaster type and to only alert relevant parties based on the disaster type. Based on the evaluation, this project is considered successful in proving of the concept. A web-based admin system for IntegratedDisasterManagement System should be seriously considered as a solution.
communication. The most important element in dealing with disaster is undeniably the speed, so response time in every aspect of emergency handling is critical and ways should always be explored to improve it. The response time of this web-based system is very low. In future expansion, the project should expand to include different disaster type and to only alert relevant parties based on the disaster type. Based on the evaluation, this project is considered successful in proving of the concept. A web-based admin system for IntegratedDisasterManagement System should be seriously considered as a solution.
In our proposed system, disaster alarming system is presented. The pro-posed system is created with the use of different sensors, Raspberry Pi as controller and Cloud for storing the data from Raspberry Pi and sending the command to raspberry-pi for detecting disaster. The generated data can be viewed using web interface. The advantage of the system is to provide the immediate message alarming of the naturally occurring disaster to each worshipper, user, and others. The proposed model can be implemented as a part of the smart city.
The Thirteenth Finance Commission (FC) recommended that the existing National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) be merged into the National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) proposed under the DM Act 2005, with effect from 1 April 2010, and that the balances in the NCCF at the end of 2009-10 be transferred to the NDRF. As far as financing of the NDRF is concerned, as per the Act it should be credited with amounts that the Central Government may provide, after due appropriations made by the Parliament. It recommended that the Calamity Relief Fund or CRF be merged with the State Disaster Response Funds (SDRFs) of the respective states. The contribution to the SDRFs is to be shared between the centre and states in the ratio of 75:25 for general category states and 90:10 for
Like the other islands between Japan and the Philippines off the eastern and southeastern coasts of Asia, Taiwan is visited by three to four typhoons per year, on average. Some extreme cases of torrential and sustained rainfall brought by typhoons have caused flooding, severe damage, and significant loss of lives and properties in the past two decades, such as the flooding in Taipei caused by severe Typhoon Winnie (August 18, 1997), the flooding in Kaohsiung and Pingtung caused by Tropical Storm Trami (July 11, 2001), the flooding in Taipei and Keelung caused by Typhoon Nari (September 17, 2001), the flooding in Kaohsiung and Pingtung caused by Typhoon Mindulle (July 2– 4, 2004), the flooding in middle and southern Taiwan caused by Typhoon Kalmaegi (July 17–18, 2008), and the flooding in middle, eastern, and southern Taiwan caused by Typhoon Morakot (August 6– 10, 2009). To improve our knowledge of flood prevention and emergency response requires a sound collection and analysis of information that is transformed from a huge amount of data. Apart from the historical, real-time, and forecast data in meteorology, the status of pumping stations and mobile machines, the available resources and facilities, as well as many other data are both crucial and useful to the government and general public. The data must be identified, collected, integrated, processed, analyzed, distributed, and visualized rapidly through the Internet, in order to support a variety of management decisions, particularly a timely response to an urgent event. This was not possible until the Google Earth application programming interface (API) was released on May 28, 2008. After the
The built environment is an abstract concept used to describe the products of human building activity and includes any physical alteration to the natural environment (Lawrence and Low, 1990). In the recent years there has been a growing recognition that the construction industry and the built environment professionals have a vital role in contributing to society‟s improved resilience (Haigh & Amaratunga, 2010). As most of the material damages of disasters are on engineering related facilities in the built environment, a serious effort of the built environment professionals are required for rebuilding efforts after an onset of a disaster (Thayaparan et al., 2010). Accordingly the expertise of the construction sector is essential at the design, construction and operation phases (Bosher et al., 2007). It is also important that resilience is to be systematically built in to the whole design, construction and operation process and not simply added on as an afterthought (Bosher et al., 2007). This would further require expertise of the professionals in the field of built environment. As such the knowledge and the expertise of the built environment professionals are also essential in the pre disaster phase especially in planning, designing and implementing disaster mitigation and prevention methods.
In 2004, December 26, tsunami hit the south - eastern coast of India and there was a huge damage in terms of lives, economy and property. Tamilnadu state and Andaman and Nicobar islands were severely hit. 11,000 people died in India and 5,000 went missing. 3,80,000 Indians have been displaced by the disaster and reconstruction is expected to cost more than 1.2 billion US dollars. For the after economics of the disaster – 125 million dollars required to repair the damaged sea vessels (only 3 out of 15,000 were saved). No employment for the fishermen, huge decline in demand of fish further jeopardising the local economy. This scenario from India gives a picture of nature’s furry which took its toll on innocent people living on sea shores. But this is not what it seems. The picture could be different if there was a forecasting mechanism and on time evacuation. This might sound very vague in Indian context but this is exactly
Illustratively, the Aceh / Nias tsunami disaster in 2004 caused damage and losses of more than Rp.41.4 trillion, while losses for the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006 were more than Rp.26.1 trillion or USD3.1 billion (OECD, 2015). In addition, the total damage and losses caused by the earthquake in Yogyakarta in 2006 were much higher than those caused by the tsunamis in Sri Lanka (2004, USD1.45 billion), India (2001, USD2.6 billion), and Thailand (2004, USD2.2 billion) although with relatively similar earthquake strength. The government issued a budget to finance reconstruction activities of more than Rp. 37.0 trillion for the earthquake and tsunami in Aceh and Nias, and around Rp. 1.6 trillion for the earthquake in Yogyakarta (BKF, 2018). In Indonesia, studies are underway to provide preliminary estimates of future possible public spending linked to disasters. Data on past events, estimated from the number of buildings destroyed and damaged, have been exercised as a basis for simulating possible future spending needs related to natural hazards. Moreover, risk metrics such as Annual Average Loss (AAL) and Probable Maximum Loss (PML) are being calculated. While the annual economic impact of natural disasters is estimated at 0.3% of GDP over the last decade, simulations show that a major earthquake (with a return period of 250 years) could cause losses in excess of USD 30 billion (approximately 3% of GDP) (GFDRR, 2011). Currently there is a paradigm shift in disastermanagement. Previously, government emphasized more on aspects of emergency response and reactive financing. Whereas, the current paradigm of disaster risk management is to realize development and environmentally sound. Disaster risk management is a combination of technical and scientific sides with a focus on social, economic, and politics in disaster risk reduction planning. It aims to increase the ability of the community to manage and reduce the risk of disasters and the potential loss if a disaster occurs.
Key challenges of information management in disastermanagement mainly caused by lack of information sharing amongst relief agencies, having limited access to information and lack of resources which lead to coordination and communication problems. In all four stages of disastermanagement, information are required in providing relief to the victims. In the initial stages of disaster, the main objective is to save lives and provides assistance to injured persons, and information need to be relayed to first-response organizations such as fire departments, police or medical organizations. Accurate and correct information need to be delivered on the right time to ensure the victims get the best possible aid. During the recovery period, information is required to provide help to victims; which may be the resources needed getting employment, starting business or getting medical care. In all distinct phases of disastermanagement: mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery, different types of information is required for different needs and objectives.
DRR includes the systematic development and application of policies, strategies and practices to prevent or prepare for hazards, or to mitigate their adverse effects (UNISDR 2010b). The Department for International Development (DFID) (2005) has divided DRR measures into five categories: policy and planning measures; physical coping and/or adaptive measures; physical preventative measures; and community capacity building measures. Four ways of reducing vulnerability, which can be used for DRR, have also been identified by McEntire, Crocker and Peters (2010). These are: engineering methods – focusing on ways to increase resistance through construction practices in the built environment; physical science methods – stressing exposure to hazards and risk reduction in unsafe environments; structural methods – concentrating on socio-economic factors and demographic characteristics with a focus on cultural and traditional perceptions of vulnerability; and organisational dimensions, which focus on the effectiveness of preparedness, response, recovery, and management operations. DRR takes place under the auspices of governance.
is developing at a high speed, while the society productivity development level is unbalanced. The foundation of the public security guaranteeing system is poor, and the heavy accidents and events occur constantly. It’s estimated that every year, the economic loss caused by disasters (public security problems) amounts to hundreds of billion RMB, 3%-6% of China’s total GDP. So the pubic security events have brought about great influence on the people’s daily life and social sustainable development. Facing the serious public security events happening constantly these years, such as the heavy tropical storm, SARS, fowl influenza, Benzene pollution in Songhua River, etc, in order to minimize the socio-economic loss and bad influence of the public security events, the Chinese government has enhanced the disaster risk (public security) management from all government levels, both the central and the local governments. The Emergency Management Office of State Council at the national level establishment is established and the public emergency planning has been promulgated and implemented. Also according to some main public security factors, a series of laws, regulations and decisions have been carried out. At present, the Chinese integrateddisaster risk management is still at the initial development stage, and has some problems needed to improving. So it’s supposed to promote and consummate the disaster risk management on the base of the existing work, and establish a scientific and efficient integrateddisaster risk management system. Meanwhile, it’s significant to assimilate the worldwide advanced disaster risk management experience and technology, and strengthen the international cooperation in this field, with the purpose of making the whole world safer.
In the last several decades, the world has seen an increase in the number of natural disasters. Not only has the trend shown an increased in the number of disaster events, the number of the affected people and the financial damages and losses are also increasing. The Emergency Event Database – EM-DAT, reveals that in the last three decades, nearly 300 natural disaster events occur each year with an average of more than US$ 70 billion worth of damages annually. According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, 2004), natural disaster events are scattered across the world and strike 75% of the world’s area at least once in the last three decades. In addition to the increasing number of natural disaster events, the geographical distribution of the natural disaster has also been unequal, leaving some regions being more vulnerable to disaster than the others. In the last three decades, EM-DAT records of the natural (EM-DAT, 2013) for the period of 30 years between 1984 and 2013 shows that Asia experiences the largest number of disasters, particularly in the southern, south-eastern, and the eastern part of the continent. The three regions had experienced nearly 3400 disaster events with a total of more than US$ 1,084 billion worth of damage, killing more than 1.1 million people. Furthermore, the statistical data suggest that the three most destructive natural disasters - storms, earthquakes and flood, frequently occur in the developing countries. The Inter-American Development Bank IaDB (2010) highlights that while 75% of the world population are concentrated in the developing countries, they suffer 99% of the mortality caused by the natural disasters.
The institutional and policy mechanisms for carrying out response, relief and rehabilitation have been well-established since Independence. These mechanisms have proved to be robust and effective insofar as response, relief and rehabilitation are concerned. The existing mechanisms had based on post-disaster relief and rehabilitation and they have proved to be robust and effective mechanisms in addressing these disaster requirements. The changed policy/approach, however, mandates a priority to full disaster aspects of mitigation, prevention and preparedness and new institutional and policy mechanisms are being put in place to address the policy change. As per the provisions of DisasterManagement Act, 2005, the Government of Jammu and Kashmir has constituted the State DisasterManagement Authority (SDMA), the State Executive Committee (SEC) and the District DisasterManagement Authorities. The Authority would meet as often as required and review the status of warning systems, mitigation measures and disaster preparedness. When a disaster strikes, the Authority will coordinate disastermanagement activities. The Authority will be responsible for coordinating Government’s policies for disaster reduction/mitigation; ensuring adequate preparedness at all levels in order to meet disasters; coordinating response to a disaster when it strikes; coordination of post disaster relief and rehabilitation. At the State level disastermanagement was being handled by the Departments of Relief & Rehabilitation. At the district level, the District Magistrate who is the chief coordinator will be the focal point for coordinating all activities relating to prevention, mitigation and preparedness
Government is only one of many types of organisations that become involved in disasters. The trend in government has been towards less government and more privatisation. Former government roles in welfare and service provision are now provided by private enterprise. There is a blurred line between companies that are providing services to the public, and the traditional NGOs that began life as charities. At the further end of the business end of this continuum of organisations are companies that are in business to make profits for their shareholders, but which possess plant, machinery and expertise or infrastructure to play a very significant role in community recovery. Some companies are devastated or go out of business in a disaster, but for many others it is an opportunity for expansion, and inevitably profit, although individuals working for these companies may be no less motivated by altruism than members of government and relief organisations. The need to operate profitably does not in any way lessen their commitment to any of the phases of Emergency Management. At the same time they may even be able to provide services more efficiently and at a lower cost. That is often the aim of privatisation.
Abstract Bangladesh is a country which is geographically prone to disaster. It is exposed to some common disasters (cyclone, flood, tornado, and drought are among them) in every year that have resulted in heavy damages in economic, social, and human life. The main causes behind these damages are high vulnerability of people (unaware), housing (dilapidated), location (coastal area), and infrastructure (lack of dam, embankment, and shelter house). Hazards are increasing day by day due to climate change. Using burning fossil fuel and other unsafe energy at a record amount, we are contributing to climate change. No short term initiative can be taken as a tool of disastermanagement. There should be a comprehensive approach before, during and in the post disaster period comprising disaster preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery.
mosque as a central community institution (Abdel-Hady, 2010; Haque, 2009) drawing attention to the use of the mosque and its social conduct rather than the mosque itself. On this point, it presents a case for engagement rather than disengagement with the mosque as shown by some organisations and Muslim-minority western countries such as the USA (Jamal, 2005). As a community-based religious institution that is embedded in the everyday socio-cultural life of people, the mosque continues to exist, serve, and enjoy its revered position in society. In this way, people will not change their priorities and abandon their affiliation with the mosque just because it has become contentious for the state and any other multi-lateral development or humanitarian role-player. The findings show that all the seven imams and one Christian bishop included in this research showed readiness to engage with the state for the religiously virtuous cause of saving human beings in the face of disaster. Therefore, this dissertation argues that local, regional, national and international level disastermanagement institutions should acknowledge and engage with the mosque, and utilise its grassroots position for effective and efficient disastermanagement and to reduce the loss of human lives and assets. This research adds to a growing understanding that it is difficult to ignore the increasing role of religious institutions where religion is one of the defining features and custodians of the social and cultural values and norms of communities (Chester & Duncan, 2010; Clarke, 2007). Disasters give rise to a situation where people from different parts of the world, quite unfamiliar with each other, come in contact to save lives, provide necessities and rebuild homes during the disastermanagement cycle. International civil
The DisasterManagement Act (57 of 2002) and National DisasterManagement Framework (2005) include a rich referral to the words sought after. Health institutions are mentioned as some of the portfolios that should sit in advisory forum meetings, such as the International Committee of DisasterManagement (ICDM) and the National DisasterManagement Advisory Forum (NDMAF), and other forums at different spheres of the South African government. Specifically in the DisasterManagement Framework of 2005, under Key Performance Area 1, on integrated institutional capacity for disaster risk management, it is stated that an effective and comprehensive disaster risk management strategy cannot be achieved without participative decision making, involving a wide range of role players. It also states that it is imperative, for disaster risk management in South Africa, to be informed by a global perspective so that it remains at the cutting edge of developments. It must associate itself with selected international development protocols, agendas and commitments, such as the millennium development goals outlined in the UN Millennium Declaration. Having such guidance in the National Framework is a strong indication of the South African Governments participation in achieving the goals of the MDGs. The Framework further states that the National DisasterManagement Centre (NDMC) should forge links with national agencies such as the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS). To keep abreast of international developments, the framework has key performance indicators, and one relevant indicator specific to this study is that a disaster risk management forum must be established for the purpose of co-operation with countries in the SADC region, for effective operation. South Africa’s commitment to contributing to and achieving MDG 6 is found in these two statutes.
A project team under a line function can be convened to take responsibility for activities that address the causal factors of a disaster / incident. Such teams will receive a brief from and report back to the DisasterManagement Coordinating Committee as well as senior management, and work in close co-operation with the DMC.
911 Centre is one of the sources for dissemination of early warning messages to communities at risk. The District DisasterManagement Centre operates a bulk SMS system to disseminate early warnings of severe weather which are received from the South African Weather Services (SAWS). Umvoti receives the information from the district.
This move puts on more emphasis on strengthening people's capacity to take in stress, maintain core functions during a catastrophe, and recover from disasters. The DRRM Act mandates and legalizes the best practices of local communities that have been implementing effective DRRM in their respective areas. The DRRM team members shared the commendable practices implemented by several communities on disaster preparedness with the establishments such as schools and public offices. As stated in the Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual (Safer School Resource Manual, 2008), the Department of Education as the agency responsible for schools acknowledges that aside from providing primary education, the department is also responsible for providing safe teaching-learning facilities. It is also in charge in making a hazard-free environment to the school children. Caraga Region, particularly Butuan City, has also gained its share in disaster. It garnered national attention regarding vulnerability to disasters such as floodings, landslides, typhoons, earthquakes, and even to several man-made disasters like armed conflicts which all brought damages and destructions to the lives of Butuanons (DepEd Memo No. 87 s.2015). In 2012, the city mourned over the seventeen (17) victims who perished in the fire incident that broke out at 3:55 a.m at Novo Jeans, Montilla Boulevard. Lack of fire drills was one of the causes cited in the City Risk Profile (2014). A particular study also showed that almost 40% of the total land area of Butuan was subjected to moderate to severe soil erosion because of shifting cultivation and inappropriate farming practices in the uplands. Typhoons Agaton and Seniang in 2014 were two of the recently recorded calamities that struck the city