Integrated Impact Assessment

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Problematic practice in integrated impact assessment:  the role of consultants and predictive computer models in burying uncertainty

Problematic practice in integrated impact assessment: the role of consultants and predictive computer models in burying uncertainty

The Basslink draft Integrated Impact Assessment Statement (IIAS), over 6,000 pages in length, involved no less than 30 consultant firms (NSR En- vironmental Consultants Pty Ltd, 2001: 1.12–1.14, 2.6–2.7). Notably, predictions about future environ- mental impacts and scenarios for mitigation were derived from the modelling of the economic aspects of the project. This approach, which directly linked predicted environmental conclusions to the project’s economic forecasts, appeared to give the propo- nent’s case for Basslink considerable coherence (see JAP, 2002a; 2002b). It has also meant that the scru- tinised environmental conclusions were anchored to an economic future that, as yet, has not eventuated.
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Impact Assessment Board report for 2008. Commission staff working document accompanying the third strategic review of better regulation. SEC (2009) 55 final, 28 January 2009

Impact Assessment Board report for 2008. Commission staff working document accompanying the third strategic review of better regulation. SEC (2009) 55 final, 28 January 2009

The President of the Commission created the Board on 14 November 2006. 9 In doing so, he delivered on the commitment he made to the European Parliament in the plenary session of April 2006 to establish a body under his personal authority that would provide independent quality support and control for Commission impact assessments. The President appoints the Members of the Board, ad personam, from the Commission services with the most direct expertise in the three dimensions (economic, social and environmental) of integrated impact assessment 10 . The Board is chaired by the Deputy Secretary-General responsible for Better Regulation. An alternate is appointed for each Member to replace him/her in case of absence. The Board complements the Commission's existing impact assessment system which aims at ensuring impact assessments of high quality through:
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Strategic impact assessment : a new impact assessment method using value engineering and system engineering elements

Strategic impact assessment : a new impact assessment method using value engineering and system engineering elements

Based on the observed problems in the impact assessment community, this report asks the question: How can the methods of system engineering and value engineering be integrated with the environmental impact assessment and can the resulting integrated impact assessment method be used to find and solve or mitigate the environmental, social and economic impact of a planned golf resort on St. Eustatius? The question contains two phases. The first is a theory developing study, which develops the integrated impact assessment (IIA) method. The second phase is a case study, which applies the created method to find benefits and limitations. It was found that the current impact assessment procedure has a large resemblance with a design process. Based on stakeholder requirements different alternative designs are created, which are reviewed for their impact. Within the field of construction management the design process also plays a prominent role. The methods of system engineering and value engineering are used to combine the expertise of different experts and work with the stakeholders to reach a design solution. It is therefore expected that the construction management methods can offer a new framework for the integrated impact assessment process.
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Opening new institutional spaces for grappling with uncertainty: a constructivist perspective

Opening new institutional spaces for grappling with uncertainty: a constructivist perspective

Here uncertainty is rendered manageable by its requisite disclosure. Understandably, it is assumed that such disclosures lead to greater scrutiny of development projects and better policy decisions. Such was the expectation of an independent statutory body overseeing the integrated impact assessment of the major energy infrastructure project in Australia known as Basslink – a 360 kilometre undersea electricity cable that now links the Australian mainland to its southern island state of Tasmania. The project proponents were directed to be explicit about what was uncertain and contingent in their methodologies and conclusions in respect of the project:
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Integrated assessment : new assessment methods literature review

Integrated assessment : new assessment methods literature review

Reviews of literature such as this one have significant limitations and we recognise that the documents we have reviewed may provide a somewhat different picture of assessment in social work education than is actually occurring. Furthermore, no single form of assessment (whether or not identified in this review) is either universally appropriate or without some shortcomings. The task of identifying appropriate assessment methods is made more difficult given that rigorous evidence of effectiveness is often scant or nonexistent (eg Desai, 2000; Hollister and McGee, 2000; Marotta et al., 2000). It is critical that assessment methods can reliably discriminate between students who have met the grade and those who have not (Visvesaran, 2000) but this is not often considered in evaluations of assessment. More commonly, published evaluations of assessment methods report positive feedback from students (eg Montalvo, 1999). These say much about the acceptability of the task but not necessarily whether it is an effective or appropriate way of determining if students have acquired particular knowledge or developed specified competencies.
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Integrated Risk Assessment: Case Study of Lithuanian Family Farms

Integrated Risk Assessment: Case Study of Lithuanian Family Farms

Ponti, Rijk & Ittersum (2012) have used standard deviation as the risk measure estimating the gap between conventional and organic systems. Beukes et al. (2005) calculated standard deviation to compare the risk affected by climate and price variability in a conventional, twice-a- day milking farm system with once-a-day milking and high- input systems. Wauters et al. (2011) compared individual risk-return profiles to a particular benchmark as well as evaluated risk-return profiles of conventional versus organic cropping systems. Fleege et al. (2004) investigated the performance of weather derivatives in managing risks of specialty crops in order to show how the farms can improve their net income distribution through the use of weather derivative strategies. Leblois & Quirion (2013) investigated agricultural insurances based on meteorological indices, and pointed out that the expected payout and the measures of the risk such as standard deviation and VaR can be calculated either by Monte Carlo simulations from the distribution or, in the case of simple distributions and indemnity schedules, analytically. Manfredo, Richards & McDermott (2003), using simulation methods, presented insight into how both traditional and innovative risk management practices influence the distribution of key financial variables for agricultural cooperatives. Nydene, Patrick & Baker (1999) have used standard deviation, coefficient of variation and Sharpe ratio for assessment of the effects of risk management strategies with diversified hog/crop production. Kobzar (2006) have applied a portfolio modelling approach in order to balance risk and return of alternative crop production plan under the assumption of normally distributed returns: mean and variance (standard deviation). The assumption is related to the decision maker’s indifference to other characteristics: the level of asymmetry in distribution (skewness) and the measure of thickness (kurtosis). Zgajnar & Kavcic (2010) have used QRP model for measurement of efficiency of risk reduction on Slovenian livestock farms. QRP model is based on the original Markowitz formulation of the mean variance approach, whereby the objective is to minimize the total variance expressed as standard deviation.
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Assessing of environmental impact for the 
		coal fired power plant based on expert system

Assessing of environmental impact for the coal fired power plant based on expert system

materials that exist in one location, the associated processes and mitigation. Therefore, for that matter, needed an expert system that is able to predict the contamination material from observation data of physical, chemical and biological environment. So the system can provide suggestions for investigating and mitigating the pollution to the environment experts. Therefore the complexity in making an environmental impact assessment then this article is a summary of research activities that have been made in the development of environmental impact assessment applications of the coal- fired power plant located in South Sulawesi (Indonesia) by using an expert system.
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Measuring disease activity in adults with systemic lupus erythematosus: the challenges of administrative burden and responsiveness to patient concerns in clinical research

Measuring disease activity in adults with systemic lupus erythematosus: the challenges of administrative burden and responsiveness to patient concerns in clinical research

Measuring lupus disease activity accurately remains a challenging and demanding task given the complex multi-system nature of lupus, an illness known for its variability between patients and within the same patient over time. Many have attempted to define what disease activity means and how it should be measured, and several instruments were devised for a standardized assessment of disease activity and outcome domains in clinical research. Several of these measuring tools have been able to detect clinical improvement and have demonstrated adequate reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change in observational studies, and some were found to be useful in randomized controlled trials. However, several failed clinical trials have confronted these metrics, as they were not intended for clinical trials. The Outcome Measures Rheumatology group and the US Food and Drug Administration have recommended using measures of disease activity, cumulative organ damage, health-related quality of life, and adverse events as outcomes of interest. Composite responder indices that determine disease global improvement, ensure no significant worsening in unaffected organ systems, and include a physician ’ s global assessment have been used in randomized clinical trials. Yet unmet therapeutic needs were further challenged by the complex content and psychometric information of the updated instruments, including increased administrative burden associated with demanding training and cost of instruments, and small effect size associated with responsiveness to patient concerns. Nevertheless, with the progress of novel targeted therapy, refining the disease activity metrics is essential. Selection of the disease activity endpoints which is a defining aspect of clinical trial design must be tailored to the outcome of interest and measured by a reliably rated scale characterized by minimal administrative burden. An optimal scale should be simple and practical and incorporate elements of patient concerns.
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"Rapid impact” 10 years after: The first “decade” (2006–2016) of integrated neglected tropical disease control

"Rapid impact” 10 years after: The first “decade” (2006–2016) of integrated neglected tropical disease control

The reduction in DALYs likely reflects both the reduction in disease prevalence and inten- sity due to either the direct impact of MDA on worm burdens or, in some cases, to the inter- ruption of disease transmission. In addition, there may be added effects due to reductions in disability that result from patient care. The data sources we report here do not enable a distinc- tion between these pathways. Thus, while such information does not prove that MDA and other pro-poor policies produced these results, it presents a plausible hypothesis for future investigations given that there has been limited expansion of other determinants of infection such as specific health education, clean water provision, and improved sanitation.
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Health risk assessment and management as an effective tool to solve issues to ensure the health and epidemiological well-being of the Russian Federation population

Health risk assessment and management as an effective tool to solve issues to ensure the health and epidemiological well-being of the Russian Federation population

Connection between the two processes is very important: risk assessment and development of methods of generating health risk evidence, which is a database of health decrease cases (by in-depth epidemiological and biomedical researches). In this situation, an important activity requiring constant support is development of modern laboratory centers (based at the National Research University of the Federal Service), focused on exploration and development of innovative chemical analysis, cellular, cytogenetic, proteomics , metabolomics, and other high-tech methods of fine diagnosis of the state of health, incase of human exposure to hazardous environmental factors. It should be noted that in recent years the mechanisms of toxic chemical impact in many cases have been identified with genic-effects and relevant metabolites. In many cases, controlled cellular and subcellular studies may be expensive, but the arbitrage value of the data is extremely high. In this regard, risk assessment procedures allow for a significantly reduction in the search for both for impact factors and possible violations of health of the population under the risk; besides it can save both time and money to collect evidence on health hazards. Approaches used in risk assessment can also identify specific sources and causes of environmental pollution and determine the pollution rates for various pollutants and hazards. In general, the current risk assessment methodology (which develops new methods of hygienic diagnostics) can support health services both with tools and actual data for proving the existence of a “environment – health” connection; it is available for pre-trial and judicial protections of favorable habitat rights of the citizens.
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Assessment of the Energy Impact of Using Building Integrated Photovoltaic and Electrochromic Glazing in Office Building in UAE

Assessment of the Energy Impact of Using Building Integrated Photovoltaic and Electrochromic Glazing in Office Building in UAE

Most building’s occupants favor daylight as their primary light source. Although most developers understand the higher premium value that normally comes with a space with more windows, the effects of “extensive daylighting on organizational efficiency” is not as well considered [3]. In the building sector, an increase in demand for sustainable energy and strategies for management of nat- ural light indoors and its relationship with artificial lighting requirements has led to exploration of alternative façade designs. One of the most active areas in building design is advancements of technologies related to win- dows and specifically the glass. The driving forces be- hind such breakthroughs are issues related to interior day-lighting enhancement, maximizing occupants view and comfort, and reducing operational costs. Conse- quently these also have an environmental impact which makes the focus on glass worthwhile. In addition, other factors such as cultural mentality, health regulation, and occupant expectations have added to the momentum to- wards “healthy buildings” through use of unconventional façade designs [4].
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Assessment journey : a programme to provide a seamless and improved assessment experience for staff and students

Assessment journey : a programme to provide a seamless and improved assessment experience for staff and students

IRWIN, Brian, CHILDS, Jonathon and HEPPLESTONE, Stuart (2016). Assessment journey : a programme to provide a seamless and improved assessment experience for staff and students. In: Blackboard Teaching and Learning Conference 2016, Groningen, Netherlands, 6-8 April 2016.

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Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment with Human Error Analysis Method in Automotive Industry

Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment with Human Error Analysis Method in Automotive Industry

The performance of Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) study integrated with ergonomics system was studied by Azadeh A. et al (2008). HSE at the operational level will strive to eliminate injuries, adverse health effects and damage to the environment. Effective application of ergonomics in work system design can achieve a balance between worker characteristics and task demands. This can enhance worker productivity, provide improved worker safety (physical and mental) and job satisfaction. Several studies have shown positive effects of applying ergonomic principles to the workplace including machine, job and environmental design. Studies in ergonomics have also produced data and guidelines for industrial applications. The main concern of work system design in context of ergonomics is improvement of machines and tools. Lack of utilization of the ergonomic principles could bring inefficiency to the workplace. Moreover, an ergonomically deficient workplace can cause physical and emotional stress, low productivity and poor quality of work conditions. It is believed that ergonomic deficiencies in industry are root cause of workplace health hazards, low levels of safety and reduced workers productivity. By considering health, safety, environment and ergonomics (HSEE), an organization manages its operations in a manner that places safety and health first. It encourages employees to adopt a healthy and safe life-style.
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Indicators and tools for assessing sustainability impacts of the forest bioeconomy

Indicators and tools for assessing sustainability impacts of the forest bioeconomy

Abstract: The sustainable use of renewable resources has become an important issue worldwide in the move towards a less fossil-fuel-intensive future. Mainstream method for fulfilling this aim is to increase the share of renewable energy and materials to substitute fossil fuels and to become fully independent from fossil fuels over the long-term. However, the environmental sustainability of this endeavor has been questioned. In addition, economic and social sustainability issues are also much debated topics in this particular context. Forest resources are often thought to contribute partially to achieving a so-called “ carbon-neutral society ” . In this review, we discuss sustainability issues of using forest biomass. We present several sustainability indicators for ecological, economic and social dimensions and discuss the issues in applying them in sustainability impact assessments (SIAs). We also present a number of tools and methods previously used in conducting SIAs. We approach our study from the perspective of the Finnish forestry; in addition, various aspects regarding the application of SIAs in a broader context are also presented. One of the key conclusions of the study is that although sufficient data are available to measure many indicators accurately, the impacts may be very difficult to assess (e.g. impact of greenhouse gases on biodiversity) for conducting a holistic SIA. Furthermore, some indicators, such as “ biodiversity ” , are difficult to quantify in the first place. Therefore, a mix of different methods, such as Multi-criteria Assessment, Life-cycle Assessment or Cost-Benefit Analysis, as well as different approaches (e.g. thresholds and strong/weak sustainability) are needed in aggregating the results of the impacts. SIAs are important in supporting and improving the acceptability of decision-making, but a certain degree of uncertainty will always have to be tolerated.
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An integrated assessment of wild vegetable resources in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China

An integrated assessment of wild vegetable resources in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, China

Background: This paper was based on ethnobotanical investigations conducted from 2004-2006 in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of northern China. Today, due to their nutritious and relatively pollution-free characteristics, wild vegetables are playing an increasingly important role in peoples’ health and well-being. This paper aims to provide scientific clues for the selection of special and high quality wild vegetables species. Methods: An ethnobotanical study, consisting of a literature survey, open-ended and semi-structured interviews, and collection and identification of voucher specimens was carried out to gather information on wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia. Next, an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables was performed using the linearity weighted integrative mathematical analysis method.
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Cuts in funding for 18 and 19 year olds

Cuts in funding for 18 and 19 year olds

In order to realise the required savings for 2015-16, it is necessary to make a start in 2014/15. Ministers have decided to make the savings required in 2014/15 by reducing the participation requirements for full-time 18-year-olds, as defined by their age at the start of the academic year. Most 18-year-olds will already have benefited from 2 years of post-16 education and will not therefore need as much non-qualification provision within their study programmes as 16- and 17-year-olds. Fewer than one in five of 16- to 18- year-olds funded by the EFA are aged 18 at the start of the academic year, although clearly this will vary by institution. From 2014/15, we will return to the previous definition of full-time for these students as was applied in 2012/13 and fund them in funding band 4 (see annex 1) as a maximum. This means the funding rate for full-time 18-year-old students in 2014/15 will be 17.5% below the rate for full-time 16- and 17- year-olds. This will apply to all elements of the formula except the flat rates for disadvantaged students without GCSE grade C or above in English or mathematics, recognising the importance of English and mathematics for disadvantaged 18-year- olds. Students with a learning difficulty assessment or a statement of special educational needs will not be affected by this change.
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From privacy impact assessment to Social Impact Assessment

From privacy impact assessment to Social Impact Assessment

Although this lack of opportunity to provide meaningful consent in IoT environments has different consequences in the EU and the US, it is likely to reduce trust in both. In the EU, it may mean a shift to non-consent grounds for validation of data collection/processing in the IoT, notably, the ground that such processing is in the “legitimate interests” of the data collector and does not significantly impact on the rights of the data subject (Article 7(f), DPD). (Interestingly, this ground is well known to marketing companies but apparently little known to computer science researchers whose focus tends to be wholly on consent, though their concern may be more ethics than law.) “Legitimate interests” is a legal ground lacking transparency to the public and is easily abused in the absence of effective enforcement. In the US privacy protection for collection of location, especially in public places, is minimal and dependent not on consumer rights but on Fourth Amendment protections against search without warrant which are difficult to import to the IoT context [13]. It can be seen that in both legal systems consumer trust is likely to fray.
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Land Use Change and Traffic Impact Analysis in Planned Urban Areas in Tanzania: The Case of Dar es Salaam City

Land Use Change and Traffic Impact Analysis in Planned Urban Areas in Tanzania: The Case of Dar es Salaam City

This paper is based on the review of the statutory requirements for land use change development projects in Urban Planned areas. In spite of Environ- mental and Social Economic Impact Analysis reports considered as basic re- quirements for the approval of development plans in Tanzania, the depth of traffic impact measurements and Traffic Impact Analysis (TIA) has not been adequately considered in urban plans. More concern is on approval process of development proposals that makes a case for the preparation of TIA as a separate and distinct study for proposed projects. We argue in this paper that while TIA is more germane in areas where land use change proposals are tak- ing place very rapidly, most projects still do not asses or analyse the traffic impacts from the proposed developments on the existing transport networks. Thus, in Tanzania, TIA is the most concealed component in urban planning laws and regulations and its approach, level of execution and functional stan- dards are neither exposed nor put into urban planning operations. The paper observes that, traffic impact analysis is an important component to be sub- sumed as potential study among generalized studies during land use change practices in urban planned areas. Furthermore, TIA is overviewed for big in- vestments in urban developments, but current studies have revealed the need of TIA in small and spot developments which collectively has shown a great traffic impacts in cities with rapid land use change practices. The paper rec- ommends the inclusion of traffic impact analysis report as a statutory docu- ment in the portfolios which are basically required to be submitted for ap- proval of urban development proposals. The paper advocates the need for the urgent enactment of necessary legislation to make this requirement an obliga- tion in land use change process.
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Development and Assessment of an Impact Apparatus and High-Speed Camera Motion Tracking System to Quantify the Effect of Static Muscle Loads on Fracture Threshold Measures in the Distal Radius

Development and Assessment of an Impact Apparatus and High-Speed Camera Motion Tracking System to Quantify the Effect of Static Muscle Loads on Fracture Threshold Measures in the Distal Radius

The overall operation of the new apparatus is similar to that of the original, whereby pressurized air is released through a solenoid valve to move an impact ram of known mass that travels down the acceleration tube and strikes an impact plate following exit from the tube (Figure 2.2a). The velocity of the ram is calculated through the use of two LED sensors (HOA0149; Honeywell International Inc. Morristown, NJ) placed in series at the exit of the acceleration tube (Figure 2.2b) that trigger a square voltage pulse. Measuring the pulse duration, and knowing the distance between the sensors permits velocity calculation. To secure specimens in the impact apparatus, soft tissues are removed proximally, and the exposed bones cemented (Denstone Golden, Heraeus Dental; South Bend, IN) in short lengths (e.g., 8 – 10 cm) of PVC tubing (diameter = 10 cm). The PVC mates with a cylindrical guide that is hung in the apparatus’ potting mount (Figure 2.2b).
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Impact Assessment Framework: SME Finance

Impact Assessment Framework: SME Finance

if the policy was intended to increase employment of SME workers, then a natural indicator to evaluate is the number of jobs. Evaluators should identify which indicators they plan to use, keeping in mind the data available to perform the evaluation. During the evaluation design stage, the team must review if the indicators to monitor can be retrieved from data already available or if new data collection is needed. Since collecting data is the most expensive part of an impact evaluation, an effective way to maintain a tight budget is by using preexisting data whenever possible. Based on the intervention’s characteristics and the type of data to be used, evaluators must decide on the most suitable impact evaluation approach (mainly, identify which subjects will constitute the treated and control groups). In the next section, we provide some guidelines on how to select the appropriate method.
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