This paper has, hopefully, emphasized that South Africa's electricity and water supply problems should not be treated independently although both are severe and demand urgent attention. The severity of the electricity crisis that started in Cape Town in 2006 has demanded immediate investment decisions and Eskom, not entirely unreasonably, has been demanding assurances of high retail prices in order to finance this investment. Since the electricity industry in South Africa has not been prepared for wholesale competition, further ad hoc management of the incumbent monopoly is the only immediate way forward. It should be noted that, as an sweetener for its proposed tariff increases, Eskom has argued that higher tariffs would create incentives for independent producers. This is, no doubt, true but the same argument would support arbitrarily high prices. Admirable legislation adopted in SA for integrated management of water resources have not seen a great practical adoption (Jonker, 2007). The distribution of water to consumers in certain urban areas has become more efficient since municipal functions have been outsourced to private operators but this efficiency has come at the price of stricter enforcement of free water limits and a more aggressive income recovery policy (McDonald & G. Ruiters, 2005) but the retail aspect of water provision has not been a main theme of this paper.
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Abstract. With the increasing trend of water-related disasters such as floods and droughts resulting from climate change, the integrated management of water resources is gaining importance recently. Korea has worked towards preventing disasters caused by floods and droughts, managing water resources efficiently through the coordinated operation of river facilities such as dams, weirs, and agricultural reservoirs. This has been pursued to enable everyone to enjoy the benefits inherent to the utilization of water resources, by preserving functional rivers, improving their utility and reducing the degradation of water quality caused by floods and droughts. At the same time, coordinated activities are being conducted in multi-purpose dams, hydro-power dams, weirs, agricultural reservoirs and water use facilities (featuring a daily water intake of over 100 000 m 3 day −1 ) with the purpose of monitoring the management of such facilities. This is being done to ensure the protection of public interest without acting as an obstacle to sound water management practices. During Flood Season, each facilities contain flood control capacity by limited operating level which determined by the Regulation Council in advance. Dam flood discharge decisions are approved through the flood forecasting and management of Flood Control Office due to minimize flood damage for both upstream and downstream. The operational plan is implemented through the council’s predetermination while dry season for adequate quantity and distribution of water.
Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) n vew of envronmental sustanablty aspects s geared toward readers of decson-makers level takng an ntroductory to peer the profound problems on water resources and envronment. Integrated management means that all the dfferent uses of water resources are consdered together. The bass of IWRM s that dfferent uses of water are nterdependent. Water allocatons and management decsons consder the effects of each use on the others. They are able to take account of overall socal and economc goals, ncludng the achevement of sustanable development. The book’s materal s also applcable for readers enrolled n upper level scence, technology and engneerng related to water resources and envronment. The readers should already understand such water supply, wastewater, rrgaton, water and food producton, water and natural dsaster, ndustral water consumpton, coolng water, hydropower energy, and rver transportaton as well as envronmental sustanablty.
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25.62m 3 /s, while the average flow is 27.65m 3 /s. Figure 49(c) presents the median monthly flow rates at Ingersoll. The median flow rate for the period of simulation is 8.35m 3 /s, while the average flow is 10.75m 3 /s. Finally, Figure 50 (c) shows the same results at St.Marys where the median flow rate is 3.02m 3 /s, and the average is 3.61m 3 /s. Figures 51(c), 52(c) and 53(c) show the seasonal variations of ground water recharge rates and total water demand for three counties, Middlesex, Oxford and Perth, in the basin for dry climate scenario. The results at county spatial scale illustrate only occasional imbalance between natural recharge and demand rates. This suggests that in long-terms groundwater aquifers in these three counties are not in danger of overexploitation even in dry climate conditions. Similarly to the historic climate condition, the situation is significantly different at the sub-basin level spatial scales. Figure 54(c) and Figure 56(c) compare the monthly rates of groundwater recharge to monthly total water demand for described socio-economic conditions for dry climate scenario for two sub-basins, Middle Thames and North Mitchell. These figures show only the seasonally higher water demand than the groundwater recharge. Figures 55(c) and 57(c) present the cumulative water balance accounted for both sub-basins (Middle Thames and North Mitchell respectively) and, in long terms, do not show signs of overexploitation. The observed trends suggest that, in the case of drier climate conditions, the two sub-basins should be able to support future economic growth. On the other hand, compared to the previous climate scenarios, the situation at River Bend sub-basin is alarming. Figure 58(c) shows monthly variation in groundwater demand and groundwater recharge rates, and reveals more significant seasonal pressures on the local water resources. Long-term cumulative water balance, presented in Figure 59(c), demonstrates that the local groundwater recharge rates, if inappropriately managed, can be inadequate to sustainably replenish groundwater aquifers.
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On the one hand, participation takes very different functions in European water and flood risk management. The WFD and its guidance documents conceive of participation as a tool to improve policy effectiveness: “public participation is not an end in itself but a tool to achieve the environmental objectives of the Water Framework Directive” (European Commission 2003, pvi). Three mechanisms can be distinguished: first, participation is supposed to enhance the knowledge base of decision makers. Involvement procedures serve to “[c]ollect da ta, information and views of a range of stakeholders”, the inputs of which help to “determine the pressures and impacts on water bodies” and to “set up a trend scenario which predicts the socio -economic trends for the future” (ibid., p28). Second, particip ation helps bring in previously neglected political viewpoints (ibid., p26). Third, participation increases acceptance rates with public decisions: “RBMPs are likely to be more successful through achievement of ‘buy - in’ to their objectives and delivery by promoting ‘ownership’, acceptability and the cooperation of relevant stakeholders” (ibid., p26). The FD, in contrast, does not promote a material policy goal; participatory flood risk planning is the goal, no matter whether the measures taken actually support adaptation to flood risk. To be clear, the instrumental approach is justifiable under reference to the demanding and legally binding 2015 WFD water quality goals. However, it comes with a caveat: it is exactly the distinction between ‘being instrumental for a goal’ and ‘being a goal’ that marks the distinction between closed, stream - lined, weak forms of involvement and open, open-ended, strong participation. It shapes non-state actor involvement throughout the life cycle of a decision-making process, from process mandate to participant selection, process design, communication, decision-making modes and many others.
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Abstract: The increased demand for water and land in South Africa, in particular the Western Cape Province as a consequence of population growth, climate change and economic development has reportedly been accelerated from year to year. The province has been adhering to the Intergrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) which was developed in the Water Indaba of 2009 in order to respond to the joint National and Provincial action towards managing the water resources in the Western Cape Province. At the same time, there is growing empirical evidence that challenges the scientiﬁc consensus and the practical implications of implementing IWRM provincially and nationally, although the nature of the implementation challenges may differ in different contexts. Against this background, this paper investigates the nature of the practical challenges to implementing water resource management in the Western Cape region. The study reviewed existing literature on the various issues of IWRM in South Africa; the various basins in the country; the existing measures that the authorities have in place to deal with water resources management issues; the challenges that hinder the progress of their achievements and some suggestions that if considered can improve the current water resources management situations in South Africa. The availability of water and a broader range of water-related issues are identified. The recommended actions for improving the future IWRM are suggested. Challenges to improve the capacity buildings of IWRM related to enabling environment, institutional frameworks and management instruments are verified to contribute to the future directions for efficient problem- solving ability.
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Yakima River Watershed Council formed in 1994, following a drought in an irrigation-dependent basin considered critical to the restoration of the Columbia River Basin fishery, with the intention of developing and implementing a consensus-based watershed management plan (Genskow 2001). The council was inclusive, consensus-driven, and served as a forum for raising and debating substantive issues in watershed management among a broad and diverse group of interests. Yakima River Watershed Council raised more than $600,000 in private contributions, supported a four-person staff, engaged more than 100 people on committees that met frequently for three years, and made significant advances in generating consensus on recommended actions for basin water management. As part of this process, the Yakima River Watershed Council catalyzed formation of the Tri-County Water Resource Agency as an entity to coordinate the
Watershed Management is an essential measure for the overall bio-physical and socio-economic development. To combat over exploitation of natural resources, the use of advance technologies is indispensable. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are an effective tool for storing, managing, and displaying spatial data often encountered in water resources management. Geographical Information System is mainly a system of computer hardware and software that organizes and stores geographical data for counting, analysis and individual planning. In other words, it is an information technology which analyzes spatial and non-spatial data after its collection. The present study is to produce the land use/land cover map of Bassi block by remote sensing technology in order to assess the change in the area occupied by build-up, agriculture, water resources, wasteland and forest.
Towards the end of 1998, Benin began to place a high priority on environmental matters, particularly water-related issues. This is reflected in recent environmental policies, legislation, action plans and programs introduced by the Government. In all these programs, environmental monitoring activities, especially water quality aspects, are given strong consideration. With the creation of the General Directorate of Water (DG-Eau) as the central coordinating body for all water matters within the country, Benin has developed a mechanism that will monitor water quality adequately and will keep a record of all relevant environmental variables. New concept Integrated Water Resources Management adopted by the Government of Benin will improve all aspects of water use and conservation within the country if the political will and financial resources for its implementation to be sustained. Finally, the review shows that the risk of water pollution exists and it is necessary to take measures of water treatment and sanitation to prevent the further degradation of water resources in Benin.
There is a growing recognition that the world faces water crisis that, left unchecked, will derail progress to- wards the Millennium Development Goals and hold back human development. Water for life in the house- hold and water for livelihoods through production are two of the foundations for human development. This paper argues that the roots of the crisis in water can be traced to poverty, inequality and unequal power rela- tionships, as well as flawed water management policies that exacerbate scarcity. Structured discussion on the basis of the key elements of integrated water resource management reveals that despite of more or less equivalent economic structure of both Bangladesh and Cameroon, both countries do not necessarily have the same policies in water management. This paper therefore broadly recommends inter-country experience sharing of good practices in to be able to cope with water problems in these millennia.
The topics included; Resource Management, Integrated Watershed Management Tools, Monitoring and Evaluation and Governance. Integrated management of the watershed enables a holistic approach to be used, taking into account the management of human, soil, water, energy resources as well as biodiversity. IWM relies on relevant tools and instruments for registration, presentation, monitoring and evaluation of the natural processes. Indeed regular monitoring and evaluation of environmental variables is vital for proper planning of IWM. Issue of
Intended beneficiaries are significant because they can decide to continue or stop the use of the services the project is delivering. Thus genuine stakeholders’ participants are critical in promoting project sustainability (Australian Agency for International Development, 2000; Bigdon & Korf, 2000; FAO, nd; Lyons et al, 2001; Oakley, 1991a). Two World Bank studies on participatory projects (Narayan, 1995; Sara & Kartz, 1997) and a study on 17 water supply schemes in the Malawi Rural Piped Scheme Program (Kleemier, 2000) have shown that projects with participatory approaches are more sustainable than projects with little or no participation. Women have a vital role in environmental management and development. According to Principle 20, Rio Declaration, full participation of women is essential to achieve sustainable development. There is also a dual rationale for promoting gender equality for women. The perceptions, interests, needs and priorities of women must be taken into consideration not only as a matter of social justice but because they are necessary to enrich development processes (Osagi, 2001). Women are also affected by the implications of environmental degradation and the negative effects of climate change (Dankelman, 2010).
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As one of the most essential natural resources, water is greatly threatened by human activities (Oki and Kanae, 2006; Postel et al., 1996; V¨or¨osmarty et al., 2000, 2010). There are still more than 800 million people lacking a safe supply of freshwater (Ban Ki-moon, 2012) and 2 billion people lacking basic water sanitation (Falconer et al., 2012). Water scarcity has been increasing in more and more countries all over the world (Yang et al., 2003). Especially in arid and semi-arid regions, nearly all river basins have serious water problems, such as rivers drying up, pollution or groundwater table de- cline (Jos´e et al., 2010; V¨or¨osmarty et al., 2010). It is nec- essary to find new approaches and tools for integrated wa- ter resources management (Adeel, 2004) to help maintain a balance between human resource use and ecosystem protec- tion (Dudgeon et al., 2006; V¨or¨osmarty et al., 2010). New paradigms and approaches, e.g. water footprint (WF) and green and blue water, have been emerging in scientific com- munities to promote efficient, equitable and sustainable water uses, and these paradigms are believed to break new ground for water resources planning and management (Falkenmark, 2003; Falkenmark and Rockstr¨om, 2006; Hoekstra and Cha- pagain, 2007; Liu and Savenije, 2008).
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3) The third level had 15 sub-criteria, which were related to the major criteria and data analysis in the Pranburi watershed. Previous research  investigated the soil and water quality in agricultural, and farmer’s practices in utilization of agricultural resources in the Pranburi watershed. The results indicated that the diverse pattern of land use and agricultural practices across the watershed had an impact on natural resources management, which were many and varied. Soil problems in the Pranburi watershed were related to low levels of soil organic matter, because most farmers’ lack of awareness of the importance of soil. Furthermore, soil erosion was a key problem faced by farmers in the upper part of the watershed, affecting water turbidity and conductivity inflow to the Pranburi River. Therefore, the community should plant Vetiver grass for soil and water conservation. In terms of the problem of water usage, the finding also revealed that the most farmers used water from natural water resources, which was inadequate for agricultural activities. Therefore, the farmer should dig small water retention dams in the area. However, the findings also revealed that many farmers still lack knowledge in terms of integrated natural resources for watershed management. Therefore, farmers require training on irrigation, soil and water conservation, methods of soil improvement, and self-soil quality testing. In addition, the guideline of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy (SEP) for integrated natural resource management in the Pranburi watershed. These data analysis classify input to sub-criteria for the hierarchy model in the Pranburi watershed.
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T his paper summarizes the progress of the Corps of Engineers’ Advanced Degree Program in Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and the results of a survey that was conducted in the summer of 2006 to solicit feedback on training needs related to IWRM. The survey, which was jointly sponsored by the Universities Council on Water Resources (UCOWR) and the American Water Resources Association (AWRA), was conducted to capture the views of water resource specialists related to the emerging field of IWRM. Over 600 people responded to the survey, representing a fairly balanced blend of academicians, government officials and consultants. The results suggest that there are often opposing views of what comprises IWRM and the means by which it should be implemented in the U.S.
The key operation regulations for TGR are the regulation rules recently developed (CWRC 2009) which have been updated regularly. According to the regulation rules, the reservoirs shall keep the water level low at 145 m during the flooding season (10 June−15 September) to secure storage for flood management purposes; from 15 September the reservoir starts to impound water, and reaches the normal pool level of 175 m by the end of October; then the water level is maintained at a high level until the end of December, subject to the condition that discharge from the reservoir should maintain the navigation depth in the downstream area (indicated by a water level of 39.0 m at Miaozui station) as well as environmental flows (normally not less than 6000 m 3 /s). The regulation rule is illustrated in Fig. 4.
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According to the climate forecast models climate change is expected to have significant impacts on the water resources of Georgia in terms of increased temperatures, reduced rainfall and reduced river flow in the coming few decades. In addition, climate change is expected to cause more intense and frequent extreme weather events including flooding/flashfloods, heat waves and droughts. To respond to these challenges, it is recommended to develop flood risk maps and flood hazard maps and develop flood management plans on their basis as it is outlined in the EU Directive on Assessment and Management of Flood Risks. It is also essential to develop early warning systems and conduct sufficient public awareness-raising to increase public’s preparedness for emergency situations.
• Explicit connections between draft outcomes and sectoral and other cross- sectoral initiatives (e.g. Good Food Nation and agroecology) to ensure integrated management of land, water and living resources in light of the ecosystem approach;
In 1964 IS had completed its NWC, which pumps an an- nual water amount of 440 MCM for domestic use; another 100 MCM are pumped every year for agriculture purposes (Courcier et al., 2005). In March, May, and August 1965 the Israeli army attacked the diversion works in Syria, which was one among other causes for 1967 war (Cooley, 1984). After the 1967 war IS controlled half of the length of the Yarmouk River (80 km), compared to 10 km before the war (Murakami, 1995). Moreover, in the 1967 war the Israeli army destroyed more than 140 Palestinian wells (Humphries, 2006), which again indicates that water was the most im- portant factor leading to the war (Brooks, 1994). Further- more, the Israeli occupation of Golan Heights and the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon have given IS a full control of the Jordan River flow and have increased their fresh water supplies by almost 50%, especially when they included Hasbani and Wazzani rivers in their security zone (Hewedy, 1989). IS also aimed, during the 1982 invasion, at capturing the Litani water and directing it into the occupied lands (Cooley, 1984).
The term “ecosystem approach” served as a corollary for the integrated approach. Using this critical lens, the watershed was seen as an integrated ecological system in which human impacts were but one component of the functioning of ecosystems. The geographer, Mitchell (1991), recognised that the challenge of this integrated approach was its interpretation. He maintained that its advocates had for too long interpreted the ecosystem approach as synonymous with a comprehensive approach, in which attention is given to all components and linkages in a system. When a comprehensive approach is taken, there is a high probability that the period of time required to complete an analysis will be very long, thus resulting in a final plan that is no more than an obsolete historical document.