It has been argued that the limited implementation of the DB deliverysystem in Indonesia road infrastructure project can be attributed to the lack of regulation and framework (Soemardi and Pribadi 2010). Even though the integratedprojectdeliverysystem such as DB is an acceptable deliverysystem in accordance to Law of Government No.18 and Indonesian Government Regulation No. 29, there is no detailed explanation for and guidance on implementing DB projectdeliverysystem, particularly in road infrastructure. Lack of enlightenment and instruction often lead to problems with misinterpretation and inappropriate attitude. Moreover, the fundamental issue of implementing DB projectdeliverysystem is the absence of specific rules and criteria to regulate DB projectdeliverysystem. For example, there is not clarification of the entity of the design builder, and what the criteria used to decide which project is appropriate to adopt DB projectdeliverysystem (Ministry of Public Works 2008). Lack of regulation and framework leads to difficulty in demystifying and accommodating DB projectdeliverysystem.
Research problem. Shared risk and reward is one of the most important characteristics of IPD and is used to motivate collaboration as a compensation method. Allocation of risk/reward to project performance aligns the participants to the project goals and elicits their interest in optimizing the whole project, not just a single system or element. The participants share the risk/reward of the project outcomes to obtain compensation through a cooperative and non-controversial contracting relationship while creating incentives for the participants to achieve project success (Ashcraft, 2009). The risk/reward compensation scheme that needs to satisfy all those involved should consider the respective contributions of the participants to the project, and not simply base compensation on a percentage of costs (AIA, 2007b). Thus, numerous integrated contractual agreements are emerging to allocate risks and rewards for compensation. AIA (2007b) introduced three general forms of multi-party agreements, namely, project alliances, single purpose entities, and relational contracts, and discussed their respective compensation structures. (Thomsen et al., 2009) determined three common approaches to sharing risks for IPD projects: sharing risk of cost overruns and benefit of cost savings, placing profit pooling in risk for cost overruns, and sharing any amount remaining of contingency after project completion. These approaches are consistent with the three general multi-party agreements. Although sharing risk/reward for compensation in IPD projects has received extensive attention in existing literature, the present study only demonstrates the compensation structure instead of exploring how to share risk and reward to compensate each participant in an equitable manner. (Love et
New ways of projectdelivery have been adopted internationally to facilitate this traditional approach, amongst all these delivery systems; IntegratedProjectDelivery (IPD) was developed in the 90’s and trademarked in 2000 (IPDC, 2013). This projectdeliverysystem seeks to foster challenging collaborative methods with the following key features such as:
The biggest risk facing design and construction teams today is that the completed design will not meet the performance expectations specified by the project owner and therefore will not be adequate based on the demands of the end users. When you consider the increasing levels of complexity and performance being required by project owners today and their demands for tighter cost controls, shorter schedules, and higher quality you can begin to understand the burden placed on Program Managers. The burden to not only select the design team and the builder but to establish clear performance criteria, “objectives” based on the owner’s needs and manage the project to it’s successful completion in meeting those objectives. Leading up to this successful completion are a series of complicated interconnected decisions that need to be made. For program managers, navigating the inherent uncertainty associated with bringing multiple projects all the way from initial feasibility studies to fruition can be quite time consuming and extremely challenging. So how can we ensure that the initial concept (the initial value) the owner envisioned years ago is what they actually receive when the doors open and the lights go on? How can we make sure that the decisions we make actually guide us in achieving the initial concepts and value determined by the owner’s needs? In order to understand the answers to these questions and others, we need to start with getting a better understanding of decision making itself and how we “the human cognitive system,” (the decision maker) tend to solve problems on a basic level and how we perceive decision-making. By better understanding what limitations are associated with our current decision making paradigm we will be able to conduct meaningful research and present new solutions to decision making problems. As stated earlier, in order to deliver the value a client is asking for, a series of complex decisions must be made. Therefore, one could say that the A/E/C industry has potential to benefit from an evolution in decision-making that is capable of dealing with increased levels of complexity. Given that the right framework for this evolution to be developed in, is established, easily accessible, and produces superior results when compared to the current paradigm.
In general, the PDS selection problem is one key task for owners, and the MCDM problem is a hotspot in academic filed because of uncertainty in practical. The Pythagorean fuzzy set has aroused more and more attention. Meanwhile, similarity measure, which describes the relatedness between PFSs, is an important tool to measure similarity degree between two objects. Integrated their advantage, this paper established the selection model of PDS and applied it to a case study about selection of projectdeliverysystem. It has great theoretical and realistic significance for owners to select appropriate PDS. In the later study research, interval Pythagorean fuzzy environment and others application areas could be considered for the proposed method.
This is more like a Project Module to record all history, movement, status of project, payment timelines, payment date, expected completion date and so forth of the grants/contribution given to the industry/individual/company/IHL. This module is supposed to be linked to the Treasury/Cash Module & GL. The vendor should propose the best way on how to link/view/record all the data.
UWBA has also begun to look at how we might bring our experience with grantees and partners to bear at a systemic level to bring about social change in these areas. While known for our grant making, we will more strategically engage all our “muscles”—grant making, project management, partnerships, and policy—in the effort to make financial stability an attainable goal for many of the disenfranchised residents of our area. We will continue to work with a variety of partners to bring earnings back to people through the United Way of the Bay Area project Earn it! Keep it! Save it!, which helps workers file for the Earned Income Tax Credit, and each SparkPoint Center will serve as a year round VITA site to provide free tax filing assistance. We are forging new partner- ships across sectors to bring more holistic solutions to these complex problems. And, for the first time, we have devoted staff to policy engagement and look forward to finding like-minded part- ners with whom to collaborate to bring about policy change that can serve all families.
procurement system selection model that integrates the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Parker's judging alternative technique of value engineering into a multi-criteria multi-screening system. Cheung et al.  developed an objective-subjective procurement selection approach considering the subjective nature of PDS selection problem. In this research, the decision makers were allowed to assign weights against a set of selection criteria. The objectivity and reliability of these subjective elements were enhanced through the use of AHP. Mahdi and Alreshaid  also used AHP method in selecting an appropriate projectdelivery sys- tem. Oyetunji and Anderson  proposed a method with generating quantitative relative eectiveness val- ues and applying these values to the Simple Multi At- tribute Rating Technique (SMART) method to select an appropriate projectdeliverysystem. Mafakheri et al.  presented a multi-criteria multi-level decision aid model by integrating interval AHP and rough approximation to address uncertainties inherited in PDS problem. Mostafavi and Karamouz  developed a Fuzzy Multi Attribute Decision Making (FMADM) model in which projectdeliverysystem alternatives were ranked using fuzzy Technique for Order Prefer- ence by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method. The risk attitude of the decision maker was also considered in the model. Chen et al.  proposed an ANN based model to select the most suitable PDS for the Chinese construction projects. The model uses a large database of Chinese projects and selects similar projects to the target one considering the main indicators and predicts the suitable PDS for the target project.
This research work presents a concept for how to close this gap between the Telecommunication industry and de- velopers by conceptualizing an end-to-end platform from Telecommunication core networks and the Internet to end user clients. Requirements of all platform stakeholders are identified and through the combination of SOA platform concepts with Telecommunication SDP architecture con- cepts and application store application distribution concepts (e.g. Apple AppStore, Google Market) fulfilled. The final re- sult is a concept and logical reference architecture for Appli- cation Delivery Platforms (ADP) that extend the concepts of SDPs by broadening the focus from re-usable SOA services over Web-Telecom-Converged Application architecture and service/application life cycle management to end user appli- cations on a wide variety of client platforms and devices.
that sending unwanted mailings could harm the relationship with a customer as it can lead to irritation towards the company. Findings from this study indicate that if American Aerogel identifies the weaknesses for their target market CROS then it is more likely to receive positive feedback rather than an irritation behavior towards the company. This project found that for RQ1, one of the negative variables "rarely" from the multiple-choice list had the highest percentage of responses. However, it is remarkable that the difference between rarely and the second highest percent for RQ1, which was "sometimes," with 2.23 percentage variation between them. This type of target market is difficult to approach since they are continually receiving information from different companies about packaging technologies. Thus, having 32.84 percent of the respondents that are actively reviewing email marketing campaigns is a proper margin for American Aerogel to penetrate the target. It is noted from the results that still an open gap for email campaigns strategy.
Practitioners such as project managers and others with sustainability responsibilities are crucial in the sense that their early and high level of involvement will enable them to understand clients’ needs as well as the projects’ requirements, to translate them into practice during the construction stage of the projects. However, it was surprising to observe that practitioners who have sustainability specifically assigned to their roles and responsibilities were the least involved at the planning and preparation activities during the early stages of the projects. Their low levels of involvement could also be due to the fact that the priorities and interests of most clients and construction organisations were/are driven by considerations other than the sustainability aspects of their projects. A prevailing situation identified with practitioners’ during the interviews was that training/CSR managers were not very often involved in the planning and preparation activities of the projects. They were only brought in when their clients decided to bring in trainees. This point was made clear by one of the training/CSR managers who indicated that she was only brought in when their clients wanted trainees on the projects and in most cases, trainees were handed to her during the construction stages of the projects, to manage them.
Wiley et al. (1998) emphasise the proper information and control system for coordinating all the project activities as the main responsibility and duty of the programme manager, where the decisions made when the programme is established dictate how the programme will be managed throughout its lifetime. Therefore, a clear tracking system for all projects helps the decision maker to form a clear picture of all the projects that are running simultaneously. This gives the programme managers a better position to effectively develop, control and manage the multi projects. There are usually some changes in the specification of the projects life, this change will be less acute if it is tackled at the conception stage, but it would be more severe if it is tackled at the design stage and even more sensitive if we tackle the change at the production or implementation stages. Thus, pre-empting these effects on programme costs and duration, due to funding and other resource constraints, before a programme has been established is essential.
The QFX5100-24Q-AA can run virtualized network applications natively, allowing network applications and functions to be integrated holistically into the data center infrastructure. Routing, firewall, performance monitoring, network analytics, and other network functions can be virtualized and run directly on virtual machines natively available on the switch. Hadoop Map Reduce and Docker Platforms are examples of applications that can be hosted in this environment. The QFX-PFA-4Q is an optional add-on module that contains a 320 Gbps full-duplex FPGA. The FPGAs can be programmed with custom logic and are ideal for compute-intensive, deterministic, latency-sensitive, and business- critical application environments. Firms can offload processing of real-time, deterministic applications such as market data feeds, exchange gateway functions, and risk analytics to the FPGA for accelerated processing, which reduces latency transaction times and significantly improves performance. Additionally, the QFX-PFA-4Q module enables financial firms to comply with evolving regulatory technical standards such as Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) II, which requires every transaction to be time-stamped.
Look Ahead Plan A short interval plan, usually based on the pull/phase plan, that identifies all the activities to be performed in the next 6 weeks. The 6W Lookahead Schedule (LAS) is updated each week – always identifying new activities coming 6 weeks out so that the project management team can make appropriate arrangements to assure that the work will be ready to be performed in the week indicated. When an activity cannot be advanced, the reason “why” is identified and listed as a constraint. The 6W LAS typically has been prepared as an Excel spreadsheet, but may also be captured using one of the scheduling software packages.
Since 1981, transdermal drug delivery systems have been used as safe and effective drug delivery devices. Their potential role in controlled release is being globally exploited by the scientists with high rate of attainment. If a drug has right mix of physical chemistry and pharmacology, transdermal delivery is a remarkable effective route of administration. Due to large advantages of the TDDS, many new researches are going on in the present day to incorporate newer drugs via the system. A transdermal patch has several basic components like drug reservoirs, liners, adherents, permeation enhancers, backing laminates, plasticizers and solvents, which play a vital role in the release of drug via skin. Transdermal patches can be divided into various types like matrix, reservoir, membrane matrix hybrid, micro reservoir type and drug in adhesive type transdermal patches and different methods are used to prepare these patches by using basic components of TDDS. After preparation of transdermal patches, they are evaluated for physicochemical studies, in vitro permeation studies, skin irritation studies, animal studies, human studies and stability studies. But all prepared and evaluated transdermal patches must receive approval from FDA before sale. Future developments of TDDSs will likely focus on the increased control of therapeutic regimens and the continuing expansion of drugs available for use. Transdermal dosage forms may provide clinicians an opportunity to offer more therapeutic options to their patients to optimize their care .
From Fig. 1, it can be seen that this project can be completed in six hours. The network critical path is constituted by the tasks ‘Start-A-D-Finish’. Students will have learned from CLO5 that an activity along the critical path has no slack and if it is delayed, it would result in a delay to the whole project. The second step is to generate a Gantt chart for the project, assuming that each task is done as soon as possible. This can be done conveniently in Excel and students would have already acquired this skill in CLO5. Fig. 2 shows the resulting Gantt chart in this case. This chart goes beyond the standard by including the worker demand in each time period for each task. The grey stripes represent slack on the corresponding activity. The carpets (A), and walls (D), have no slack since they are critical tasks. The bottom row in Fig. 2 shows the aggregate resource demand for each time period.
ABSTRACT: In recent year, considerable attention has been focused on the formulation and development of new drug for orally targeted drug delivery systems. The oral route is most popular route of drug administration. Conventional dosage forms are unable to control either the rate or site of action. When a drug is delivered as a conventional dosage form they show very short gastric retention time. As such the drug which act locally in the stomach or get degraded by the colonic bacteria or/ and alkaline pH of the small intestine cannot be formulate as conventional dosage form. In conventional dosage forms, fluctuating drug level may lead to some side effect and dosing interval is short, this leads to poor patient compliance. The floating drug delivery systems are useful approach to avoid this variability with increase the retention time of the drug-delivery systems for more than 12 hours. Effervescent and non-effervescent are two class of floating drug deliverysystem and can formulate either in single unit dosage form or in multiple unit dosage form. Floating drug deliverysystem provides local delivery to specific region like stomach and proximal small intestine and it’s also shows better bioavailability and improved therapeutic activity and substantial benefits to patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the concept of floating drug delivery systems with the recent literature and current technology used in the development of floating drug deliverysystem as well as summarizes evaluation method and applications of various floating dosage forms.