Heritage interpretation is an educational activity designed to develop visitors’ deep appreciation and enjoyment of heritage resources through first-hand experiences. Previous research has established that heritage interpretation delivered appropriately, can contribute to conservation objectives and meaningful recreation experiences for visitors to protected areas. While the merits of heritage interpretation in mono-cultural contexts are well documented, the extent to which such benefits are evident in cross-cultural settings is less clear. Due to possible cultural difficulties in international tourism settings, heritage interpretation in protected areas is often delivered by commercial tour guides who communicate between the resource management agency and cross-cultural visitors. Considering heritage interpretation both as a message-delivery process and as a meaning-making process, the current research aims to critically analyse cross-culturalcommunication between cross-cultural visitors, the resource management agency and tour guides in heritage interpretation settings, with an emphasis on the role of tour guides. This thesis outlines a case study of heritage interpretation for Japanese visitors to Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park and presents the results and discussion about heritage interpretation for cross-cultural visitors. Data from the fieldwork, undertaken in May 2011, is presented, and the results of 17 semi-structured interviews, conducted with managers and staff of the national park and guiding companies, are discussed. Ultimately, this project will provide insights into how heritage interpretation can best be delivered to cross-cultural visitors so that it achieves the interpretation goals of resource managers and tourism operators in protected areas.
There is limited literature that provided the link between cooperative communication and interaction goals in collectivistic culture. In previous studies, cooperative communication generally focused on workgroup research as a communication technique which considers cultural sensitivities, values and practices . Cooperative communication is also considered as the key objective of international business negotiations as it leads to positive negotiation outcome to the negotiators. The cooperative communication is defined as individuals become more cooperative in reaching work-related goals with other group members by exchanging more information, sharing ideas and resources, showing concern and interest in what others want to achieve and give assistance, tend to be more responsive, supportive, and open to each other’s needs, and consult and discuss issues to reach mutually fulfilling agreements . Tjosvold explained cooperative as collaborators who are open to being influenced by one another, use their power to facilitate each other’s goal accomplishment, accurately, perceive each other’s needs, view the relationship as being characterized by trust and mutual helpfulness and like each other . Therefore, this is also the aim of the international business negotiators to enhance cooperative communication as it can probably increase the frequency of communication and collaboration.
Domestication is TL-culture-oriented translation strategy, in which linguistic and cultural foreignness and strangeness of the original language are eliminated to adapt the conventions and culture of TL and reduce barriers in communication. Among many scholars who favor domesticating, American Bible Translator, Eugene Nida is generally considered the most influential representative who emphases the communicative function of translation. He states that “translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalence of SL message” . Foreignization is SL-culture-oriented translation strategy which is opposite to domestication. Lawrence Venuti is commonly regarded as a representative of foreignization. Foreignization strategy keeps the value and foreignness of the source culture in TT to promote culturalcommunication, so that the TL readers can feel alien experience in reading. On the other hand, to Venuti, foreignization is not only a strategy for reducing linguistic and cultural differences, but also one endowed with political connotation. He argues that “Foreignizing translation in English can be a form of resistance against ethnocentrism and racism, cultural narcissism and imperialism, in the interests of democratic geopolitical relations” .
Culture has often been described as a nation-wide phenomena. This view of culture is outdated in today’s environment. The study of a group of people in an isolated space ignores migration patterns and the impact of technology and international trade. While the Indonesian government encourages national unity and identity, from an academic perspective we gain a better understanding of Indonesian people if we first recognise that this country, with its more than 200 million people, also comprises more than 300 ethnic groups. To say that Chinese Indonesians, Balinese and Acehnese are a homogeneous group overlooks the historical influences that have helped make them who and what they are. We avoid gross over- generalisations and contribute much more to the understanding of cultural behaviour if we acknowledge nations are “hybridised societies” (Weiss, 1993, 203). This paper, however, explores cross-culturalcommunication from a broad national perspective, for as Hofstede (1993) notes, while there are distinct differences within nations, at a global level it is still possible to identify national cultural characteristics.
Consequently, cross-culturalcommunication occurs when a person from one culture sends a message to a person from another culture( Gudykunst,2003). However, conflict occurs when the person from the second culture does not receive the sender's intended message. In this vein, the differences between the sender's and the receiver's cultures determines the chance for cross- cultural miscommunication. Moreover, cross-culturalcommunication continually shows the depths of understanding and misunderstanding caused by perception, interpretation, and evaluation of the sender of a message that comes from one culture and the receiver from another culture (Hilton, 2003). According to Gudykunst and Kim (2003) meanings cannot be transmitted in normal communication between individuals, primarily because of the ambiguity in the language spoken. It is the ambiguity that often leads to misunderstandings and misinterpretations (Quappe & Cantatore, 2007). As a result, the language we speak, verbal or nonverbal, varies depending upon cultural factors described as languages of context, time and space (Hall‟s Cultural Factors, 2009).
n today’s global environment, knowledge of other cultures and the ability to communicate is imperative. Universities have been at the forefront of addressing needs in these areas. Altbach (2002) discussed the need for American universities to develop programs and activities aimed at providing international and cross-cultural perspectives. Indeed, Shetty and Rudell (2004) felt furthering global understanding and communication was a critical element in MBA education. Juban, Baraya and Budden (2006) and Budden, Baraya and Juban (2005) discussed the advantages of study-abroad programs in developing a global perspective and avoidance of an ethnocentric outlook. Finally, Escobar, Baraya and Budden (2008) discuss the importance of enhancing the English language skills of Hispanics residing in the US.
Cultural factors have long been known to influence the communication and success potential of competition. Cultural awareness shapes how business firms behave in cross-culturally reflected international markets. It is broadly recognized that cultural factors act as invisible barriers in international business communications. Understanding cultural differences is one of the most significant skills for firms to develop in order to have a competitive advantage in international business.This paper probes some key elements of cross-cultural issues in international business communication and provides a framework for creating competitive advantage for firms engaged in international business.Cross-culturalcommunication is imperative for companies that have a diverse workforce and participate in the global economy. It is important for employees to understand the factors that are part of an effective, diverse workforce.
Culture defines the way people make sense of the world and influences how individuals view the illness experience and approach decision-making. Despite the importance of culture in healthcare, traditional medical training is deficient in cross-culturalcommunication education Strategies’ to improve skills and knowledge in cultural competence and better communication relevant to the care is required (27). For example, cross-culturalcommunication includes strategies that acknowledge individual cultural traditions; avoid generalizing a patient’s beliefs or values based on cultural norms ; and take into account one’s own beliefs, values and experiences (28). Clinician culture is multifaceted and largely shaped by the biomedical influences which include knowledge and experience that accompanies becoming a physician as well as the influence of a given healthcare system in which one practices (10). A recent qualitative study of US and UK academic medical centers examined the influence of institutional culture on do-not-resuscitate decision-making at end of life (29). The way physicians in training approached decision-making was directly influenced by whether the hospital policies prioritized patient autonomy versus best interest. For instance, physicians training in a hospital that prioritized autonomy would be more likely to neutrally offer resuscitation regardless of whether they believed resuscitation to be clinically appropriate.
At first glance, these results seemed to suggest that men are the more courteous gender. However, if the language and intent of the scenarios are taken into consideration, it became apparent that gender binaries continue to exist in CMC, where males dominate the public arena (Mills, 2002; Oliveira, 2003). In the findings, male responses showed a tendency for short answers, fewer apologies, and deliberate employment of clichés, and expressed less doubts about meaning of messages and used humour and irony more often. Female participants on the other hand, used elaborate expressions in their answers, responded with more apologies, openly expressed their confusion about the messages and expressed more gratitude as well as asserted disapproval. Females also temporarily increased written dexterity, poise and linguistic frankness to counteract transgression. Women’s language behaviour in this study confirmed the findings of the literature, which emphasised that females employ co-operative strategies such as care, concern and sympathy in communication (Coates, 1996). They are also more likely to reveal personal details in CMC, exposing themselves as easy targets for cyber predators (Herring, 2000). Evidently, both genders favour a polite and conflict free interactional environment. However, women safeguard their interaction in CMC, and react with greater caution and assert their position if necessary.
A necessity and subject to natural law when a multinational corporation builds its factory in a country, it must follow the culture of the country or local territory to find support and a conducive atmosphere. The organization and companies need culture as a part of life, so that the member requires interaction and relationship that is based on culture (Rozalena, 2014). Thus intercultural business communication is the communication used in the business world both verbal and nonverbal communication with attention to cultural factors in a region, region, or country that is very closely with the creation of organizational culture. Strengthening that view, the UNS economic expert, Joko Purwanto said that simply cross business communication is a communication used in the business world both communication verbal and nonverbal by taking into account the cultural factors in a region or country (Purwanto, 2011).
In the 21 st century, globalization looms large and appears to threaten everything we have so far taken for granted. It has wiped out boundary lines and linguistic differences yet globalization has been unable to surmount cultural divides. For this we may need to develop a greater international focus; cross-culturalcommunication. To be aware of issues in cross- culturalcommunication is becoming increasingly important. Any of us may travel or meet travellers. We may work with members of other cultural groups. We may learn a foreign language. Such situations inevitably bring us into contact with other ways of speaking, other modes of behaviour and other views of life. In this article, we examine the significance of crossculturalcommunication in Foreign Language classrooms and the interrelationship between CrossCulturalCommunication. More particularly, it takes into consideration the importance of incorporating culture in teaching, major means of developing cultural awareness. Finally, we draw some conclusions about the importance of cross-cultural situations and of the need to raise awareness and understanding of other cultures.
…Aboriginal people, because it‟s a whole – holistically whenever we are dealing with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people you‟ve got to look at it holistically so if you have a housing like Xxxxx spoke about before, a housing issue, that may just be it‟s not an isolated thing because then it comes back it includes their family they are dealing with, it includes maybe they don‟t have housing because they just lost their job so it‟s all interconnected and their social, their emotional side and their physical health will actually show that that side of it. It will actually manifest itself in a physical way. So they may come in for depression or go to Xxxx‟x men‟s group and have all this anxiety happening, but if Xxx gets in and starts yarning to them he will find out in two weeks‟ they‟re going to be evicted from their house and so there‟s all this stuff. Instead of if they went to a doctor who had no understanding of what the cultural holistic side of it would be, he would just go and prescribe them with something that would deal with their depression, whereas Xxx would sit with them and have a yarn and then once they start opening up and forming trust with Xxx and knowing, „Oh, yeah‟ they start sharing some of the stuff. „In two weeks we are going to be evicted from our house‟ he‟s going through this anxiety and stress and so Xxx then can connect with him and say „Look we can help you here.‟ So I think that holistic side, there are physical symptoms that come out when you deal with Aboriginal people. Koala: Par. 2
Our results indicated that cultural differences in communication styles do carry over to electronic communication. As expected, low-context communicators wrote e-mails that were relatively longer, clearer, and less polite (as perceived by low-context raters), compared to the e-mails generated by communicators from the two high-context cultures studied. The results for high-context communicators uncovered interesting differences that call for further research. Participants from the two high-context cultures studied, Japanese and Jordanian, used different communication strategies. Future research might benefit from more refined models of culturally- determined communication patterns and preferences.
(3) The study of cross-culturalcommunication in taboo language is the focus of the taboos study in this period. There are 240 papers, reaching 62.02% of the total number of papers, which is related to the new era of global integration and the characteristics of Chinese international promotion Demand is inextricably linked. Intercultural communication is not only a young discipline, but also a comprehensive discipline.  It is the result of the comprehensive study of contemporary social science. The subject background mainly deals with cultural linguistics, sociolinguistics and verbal communication. So the researchers will naturally study the perspective of this aspect tilt.
With the continuous integration of the world economy and regional economy, many companies have become more and more aware of the potential of a multinational market – they can start or move branch offices or other parts of the organization across the globe, partly to seek new markets, and also to find cheaper workforce. This will create great opportunities for the expansion of the organization, and bring about a substantial increase of organizations, which will widen their geographical vista in future. However, there are many serious conflicts which may arise owing to the fact that there may be entirely different ways to run the companies and different opinions on how the employees should handle their work, especially the barriers between internal staff, hence cross-culturalcommunication conflicts. Therefore, it is pertinent to find solutions to the cross-culturalcommunication conflicts encountered by multinational corporations globally. This paper converse the major factors that can affect cross-culturalcommunication, cross-culturalcommunication conflicts in multinational corporations and cross-cultural management as a solution to cross- culturalcommunication conflicts. The methodology of this paper is predominantly based on information derived from secondary sources. This paper recommended that multinational corporations should provide opportunities for their executives to move overseas to engage in cross-culturalcommunication so that they will obtain the essential knowledge, skills and directions for managing the cultural divergence.
This study generated important evidences to the facts demonstrating the importance of CCT either in the pre-departure or in the post-arrival stage critical to enhance the effectiveness of expatriate managers. First, the challenges of cross-cultural interaction perceived by participants in this study all had to do with the issue of cultural disparities. Second, although all participants received information-briefing orientation, pre-departure job training and a language learning program before departure, they all suffered cultural shock at the initial stage of their first relocations. Third, despite all participants were not given rigorous cross-cultural training before departure, all were considered culturally intelligent and proved to be so. Finally, attending post-arrival CCT was found to either alleviate the stress of cultural differences or to facilitate the development of cultural awareness and interpersonal communication skills to deal with challenges resulting from cultural differences. Based upon these evidences, this study suggests that expatriate managers may shorten cross-cultural adjustment or alleviate cultural shock if rigorous pre-departure CCT was given. In addition, the findings imply that cross-cultural competence can be learned and acquired which, in turn, indicates that CCT is worth the investment by the MNCs. Furthermore, the results of this study prove that CCT is imperative and effective to increase the effectiveness of expatriate assignments. Consequently, these all demonstrate that MNCs should provide CCT in order to maximize the effectiveness of their expatriate managers.
Now, more and more foreigners are being exposed to this traditional culture of China. Some of them may get to know it in Chinese restaurant, others may came across it on the Internet. As a consequent, there are many books about Chinese Zodiac have been published because of its increased exposure. If we searched for these books online, we can find there are several kinds of books about this topic. Some of them are introductive books without illustration. Some are focus on the astrology and fortune–telling part. Some books are written by foreigner that sharing a different cultural background with Chinese people. In most of the reader’s review of these books, people want more professional, interesting, and easy-understanding information. What’s more, they are calling for some well-designed and write books for this topic.
Symbols. Symbols are categorised of processes and objects that include of a meaning that is varied to a particular group of people (Geertz, 1973). Symbols are displayed differently in different cultures, and their meaning is interpreted accordingly. Sometimes, language may include a set of symbols in the form of gestures, postures, pictures or may be in the form of objects. Finally, a consumer in order to define the social self, allow themselves to consume the product which describes the symbolic meaning or expresses cultural values (Durgee, 1986). Values. (Rokeach, 1973) Stated value as “an enduring belief that one mode of conduct or end– state of existence is preferable to an opposing mode of conduct or end–state of existence”. On one hand, India is known for its cultural values, but on other hand the values are too changing comparing to outer world. Viewing to Rokeach Values, terminal values differentiate between preferred end states of being whereas instrumental values define the preferred modes of behaviour of means to achieve end states. Both Terminal and Instrumental values are described in Table 1, shown below.
who first created it. The mutual awareness features of artifacts and of activity are shown in Figure 1, a screenshot taken from I3P1 (I stands for American-Chinese inter- cultural session, 3 stands for the number of experimental session in this condition, P1 stands for Participant 1). In Figure 1, the I3P1‘s screen name of ―Teri‖ (screen name selected by participant) appears on the title bar of the application window and on knowledge-map nodes and message created by I3P1. Similarly, I3P2‘s screen name of ―Sue‖ appears on artifacts created by her. Artifacts marked with a solid red triangle in the top-right corner are from I3P2 and are yet to be opened by I3P1. The yellow circle on the threaded discussion message of I3P1 in the lower-left region of Figure 1 indicates artifacts created by ―Teri‖ (I3P1) but not yet read by the study partner, ―Sue‖ (I3P2). Thus each participant is potentially aware of the new artifacts from the study partner as well as the artifacts not yet read by their study partner.
Sherley to the cousin of the King of Persia, 23 in most cases the practice was frowned upon as taboo. 24 In the two celebrated cases cited, the taboo of inter- racial marriage was seemingly overcome by stressing that the marriage facilitated the performance of virtuous (proﬁtable) acts on behalf of the commonwealth, and the promise of converting more exotic (female) foreigners to Christianity. In 1614, John Rolfe wrote to Sir Thomas Dale, the governor of the Virginia colony, to ask for permission to marry Pocahontas, admitting that although he was aware ‘of the heauie displeasure which almightie God conceiued against the sonnes of Leuie and Israel for marrying strange wives’, he could not in good conscience refuse to ‘performe the duetie of a good Christian’ to ‘indeuour to make her a Christian’. 25 The same sense of commitment is apparently absent in Lorenzo’s treatment of Jessica. At best his love for her is cool – his friends even comment that he is late for his own elopement – at worst, he is no better than a thief who, like the rest of his fellow Venetians, tolerated the Jewish aliens only as long as their money was plentiful and in supply. After he and Jessica have eloped and married, Lorenzo – as well as the other Christians – no longer refers to her as ‘fair’, presumably either because her ‘fairness’ is now self-evident or, more plausibly, that the words have already served their purpose. For Lorenzo, women are ‘fair’ as long as they offer ﬁnancial beneﬁt: Portia and Nerissa are ‘fair ladies’ (V.1.294) when they deliver the deed of gift to him and Jessica. 26