Moreover, some mechanisms for operating inter-domainQoSrouting are proposed in . In this case, Figure 4 illustrates the main functions and the procedures for setting up paths across domains. Signaling entity (SE) is a signaling agent of a MPLS site, while routing entity (RE) is a routing agent of a MPLS site running inter-domainQoSrouting protocols. SE’s functions include outgoing and incoming parts. The outgoing part collects QoS requests from interior routers and determine to initiate path setup requests; The incoming part processes path setup requests from other SEs. SE queries its local RE for external routes, and RE replies SE with next hops or whole routes. Note that the path setup request message usually contains the specifications of the flow and the requirements for QoS.
The QoS support (including traffic classifiers, the traffic conditioning (TC) components, and the queuing components) in the Linux kernel provides the framework for the implementation of differentiated services [RFC-2475]. Looking at the state-of-the art capture in routing software implementations for the Linux (section 2.4.4, I2.1), several elements contribute to the applicability of a Linux-based NE to the MESCAL-system. First of all the number of supported networking technologies is quite big. Linux not only provide low-level functionality, some functionality is also provided at the higher layers: support for SNMP, several routing solutions, RSVP-signalling support and MPLS. Due to the availability of source code, combined with a large community for supporting and debugging it, the Linux-based NE’s are quite suitable to be a valuable tool within the development of the MESCAL-system. In addition, some of the MESCAL functional entities require the features that may not be available in commercial routers. These features can be developed and tested in Linux- based routers that provide a flexible environment. Linux give us great flexibility on how to implement these features according to the special requirements of the MESCAL functional model.
In principle, depending on the position of the multicast listeners, it is possible to compute the optimum distribution tree that minimizes the cost of routing in terms of occupied links in the whole network. For the high degree of dynamicity of multicast groups, this may entail an unacceptable computational complexity. Moreover, calculating each time a new tree, it means to change the routing scheme thus causing transitory loops, data losses and jitter increases. Therefore, a sub-optimal resolution to construct a spanning tree is often considered and implemented in multicast protocols. The simplest sub-optimal approach is to build the spanning tree adding a single node at the time using, for example, the shortest path or the minimum cost path. This approach is used by the most widespread protocol for an intra-domain environment: the Protocol Independent Multicast – Sparse Mode (PIM-SM ).
This dissertation is organized as follows. In chapter 2, we present a set of results from performance measurements on distributed inter–domainrouting algorithms designed for the PCE architecture. Without loss of generality, we will limit the scope of our work on multi–domain networks to a simpli- fied architecture consisting of two hierarchy levels: the Autonomous System level and the node level. That is, our network model consists of Autonomous Systems interconnected through their boundary nodes to form an arbitrary topology, and each autonomous system consists of nodes, also arbitrar- ily interconnected. The hierarchical route computation process consists of two parts: first, find an AS path, which is a sequence of ASs where the first AS contains the source node of the connection and the last AS contains the sink node; second, refine the AS path into an end–to–end sequence of specific nodes. Note that the routing procedure used in the Internet employs a similar two–level structure: the lower layer is served by OSPF, the upper layer by BGP. We have implemented several al- gorithms for both parts in a simulator and compared their performance. We note that our results can be extended to networks with more than just two hierarchy levels. Introducing more routing levels extends the applicability of the routing approach presented herein to larger networks. For example, in networks consisting of a very large number of ASs, it might be desirable to group ASs into AS fed- erations and introduce a new routing protocol that finds paths on the federation level. This would efficiently reduce the computational load on the AS level, as the routing protocol therein would only have to refine a path of federations into a path of ASs. As we do not consider routing federations in this work, AS–level routing has to find an AS path in the global network. The chapter is divided into two parts: section 2.1.1 deals with the performance of a number of node–by–node path computation algorithms. Sections 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5 present details on the computation of the AS paths itself, while using some of the better–performing node–by–node path computation algorithms.
As the amount and the variety of end-user appli- cations, relying on connections with guarantied quality parameters, are steadily growing, a so- lution based on existing technologies is needed. The aspired solution was designed keeping in mind that border routers in the Internet are trou- bled by very large routing tables and, in general, are being expected to implement every conceiv- able inter-domain extension and enhancement. Hence, network operators’ tolerance for exten- sions for whatever benefit is limited by the ad- ditional requirements imposed on their border routers.
Third, the overheads incurred by changing PIDs should be kept as small as possible. This includes not only the overhead in negotiating PIDs by neighboring domains, but also the overhead for a domain to distribute the updated PIDs to routers in the domain, and that for transmitting content request messages resent by content consumers. To address this challenge, the PID prefix assigned to an inter-domain path is unique among the PID prefixes assigned by the two domains connected by the inter-domain path.
In this paper, we tend to show a network will allow its peers to verify variety of nontrivial properties of its interdomainrouting selections while not revealing any further information. If all the properties hold, the peers learn nothing beyond what the interdomainrouting protocol already reveals; if a property doesn‘t hold, a minimum of one peer will notice this and prove the violation. We tend to gift SPIDeR, a sensible system that applies this approach to the Border entree Protocol, and we report results from AN experimental analysis to demonstrate that SPIDeR encompasses a cheap overhead. Some aspects could also be unconcealed to neighbours, enclosed in a very route written record, or exposed indirectly via glass services, however we tend to cannot expect network operators to conform to use any system that reveals even a lot of their private info. Existing work has shown that it‘s attainable to make deductions concerning that autonomous systems area unit connected, and even concerning some aspects of policy however these inferences have restricted accuracy and require extended effort to hold out, creating them unsuitable for substantiate routing selections.
This paper evaluates the performance of an energy efficient Qos assurance routing for WMSNs, where cluster hierarchy is adopted on account of the good ﬂexibility and high communication efficiency. The obvious advantages of hierarchical architecture in WMSNs are as follows. First, for a real WMSN contains hundreds or thousands of multimedia sensor nodes, hierarchical architecture is efficient to divide and manage the application of distributed computation and communication. Second, the sensory data are in high relativity in one cluster because the sensor nodes are unavoidable to be distributed in redundancy. The unnecessary data transmission can be reduced by data fusion process of cluster head. Third, most of sensor nodes can turn off radio model to reduce energy consumption and avoid the communication conﬂicts in a quite long period which can signiﬁcantly prolong the lifetime and improve the Qos of the whole network. For these reasons, the cluster hierarchy is suitable for WMSNs, specially in a large scaled deployment network. Moreover, for the sake of reducing the node burden and improving the whole performance of network, some agent nodes are introduced into network acting as cluster head to manage and collect the data sent from the nodes in their clusters. To optimize the network performance, we introduce a social network analysis similar to wireless multimedia sensor network. In this analysis, social structures are formed, where the nodes are usually represented by individuals or organizations and the links are represented by the relationships that exist between these entities.
ABSTRACT: Heterogeneous mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) has received less attention in the research community although its communication potentials are highly enduring in fifth generation networking system. The serious challenges in this case is to ensure an effective inter-domainrouting and a robust gateway system that can perform the conversion of the control message from one to another domain of heterogeneous mobile ad-hoc network, which is the problem of interoperability. This paper presents a framework called as Interoperable Gateway Protocol (IGP) that performs conversion and processing of the control data among different forms of routing protocols in different domains. With support of algorithm and elaborated analytical methodology, the proposed work presents a routing mechanism along with message conversion technique. The outcome of this study is found to have better interoperable features in comparison to existing techniques.
This paper gives survey of existing Quality of service QoS oriented routing algorithms for hybrid wireless networks. HWN are integrated networks that provide seamless services over several networks. HWN integrate infrastructure networks and Mobile adhoc networks. So HWN are the next generation 4G networks. The emerging multimedia applications like online movie, online video conferencing, etc. require high support of QoS networks. Hence the stringent end to end network quality is on demand research. QoSrouting is an important research issue in MANET, especially for mission-critical monitoring and surveillance systems which requires timely and reliable data delivery. As wireless communication gains popularity, significant research has been concerned to supporting real-time communication with stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for wireless applications. At the same time, the wireless hybrid networks that accommodates a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) and a wireless infrastructure network has been proven to be a better alternative for the next generation wireless networks. By directly taking resource reservation-based QoSrouting for MANETs, hybrids networks derive invalid reservation and race condition problems in MANETs. The QoS-Oriented Distributed routing protocol (QOD) to enhance the QoS support capability of hybrid networks. QOD alter the packet routing problem to a resource scheduling problem.
Rumor routing is a variation of directed diffusion and is mainly intended for applications where geographic routing is not feasible. In general, directed diffusion uses flooding to inject the query to the entire network when there is no geographic criterion to diffuse tasks. However, in some cases there is only a little amount of data requested from the nodes and thus the use of flooding is unnecessary. An alternative approach is to flood the events if the number of events is small and the number of queries is large . The key idea is to route the queries to the nodes that have observed a particular event rather than flooding the entire network to retrieve information about the occurring events. In order to flood events through the network, the rumor routing algorithm employs long-lived packets, called agents. When a node detects an event, it adds such event to its local table, called events table, and generates an agent. Agents travel the network in order to propagate information about local events to distant nodes. When a node generates a query for an event, the nodes that know the route, may respond to the query by inspecting its event table. Hence, there is no need to flood the whole network, which reduces the communication cost. On the other hand, rumor routing maintains only one path between source and destination as opposed to directed diffusion where data can be routed through multiple paths at low rates. Simulation results showed that rumor routing can achieve significant energy savings when compared to event flooding and can also handle node's failure. However, rumor routing performs well only when the number of events is small. For a large number of events, the cost of maintaining agents and event-tables in each node becomes infeasible if there is not enough interest in these events from the BS. Moreover, the overhead associated with rumor routing is controlled by different parameters used in the algorithm such as time-to-live (TTL) pertaining to queries and agents. Since the nodes become aware of events through the event agents, the heuristic for defining the route of an event agent highly affects the performance of next hop selection in rumor routing.
The black hole attack  position a node in range of the sink and attracts the entire traffic to be routed through it by advertising itself as the shortest route. The attacker drops packets coming from specific sources in the network. This attack can isolate certain nodes from the base station and creates a discontinuity in network connectivity. This attack is easier to detect than sink hole attack. This attack generally targets the flooding based protocols. Another interesting type of attack is homing. In a homing attack, the attacker looks at network traffic to deduce the geographic location of critical nodes, such as cluster heads or neighbors of the base station. The attacker can then physically disable these nodes. This leads to another type of black hole attack. This attack aims to block the traffic to the sink and to provide a better ground for launching other attacks like data integrity or sniffing. This attack can be prevented if we can restrict malicious node to join the network. Network setup phase should be carried out in a secure way. This attack is possible at physical layer. This attack is possible on flat based routing protocols, hierarchical protocols, location based routing protocols and Network flow and Qos aware routing protocols.
Maximum of the traditional routing protocols are developed either to reduce the data traffic in the network or to reduce the average hops for delivering a packet. Even some protocols designed without explicitly considering QoS such as Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) , Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)  and On-demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) . When QoS is considered, some protocols may be inadequate or unfeasible due to the lack of resources and the extreme computation overhead. QoSrouting commonly encompasses two farm duties: Collecting and maintaining up-to-date state information about the network and discovery available paths for a connection founded on its QoS necessities. To maintenance QoS, a service can be characterized by a set of measurable pre-specified service needs such as minimum bandwidth, delay, delay variance, packet loss rate and many other metrics are also used to quantify QoS.
QoS is usually defined as a set of service requirements that needs to be met by the network while transporting a packet stream from a source to its destination. The network is expected to guarantee a set of measurable pre-specified service attributes to the users in terms of end-to-end performance, such as time, bandwidth requirement, probability of packet loss, the variation in latency (jitter), Route acquisition Delay, Communication Overhead, Scalability etc . Quality of services for a network is measured in terms of guaranteed amount of data which a network transfers from one place to another in a given time slot. The size of the ad-hoc network is directly related to the quality of service of the network. If the size of the mobile ad-hoc network is large, it might make the problem of network control extremely difficult. Not all routes are capable of providing the same level of quality of service that can meet the requirements of mobile users. Quality of service (QoS) is the performance level of a service offered by the network to the user. The goal of QoS provisioning is to achieve a more deterministic network behavior, so that information carried by the network can be better delivered and network resources can be better utilized.
Through the Query Interface, user gives both functional and non-functional parameters namely domain of the required service, main and sub concepts to be matched with the OWL files related to the domain, input, output, pre-condition and effect of the service and Quality of Service factor along with its value. All the input values are passed on to every step along with the output carried over from the previous step.
We have presented a new scheduling scheme called Efficient Schedule Time scheduling. In this paper Virtual private networks consisting of VPN endpoints with their K-optimal path have been implemented in NS2. The Active VPN Endpoints reconfigure the delays of packet routed dynamically in their shortest path thus minimizing the packet loss and delay compared to the existing static algorithm. In future there are still a number of issues relating to VPN routing. For example: (1) The problem of fitting failure of lowest cost path and restoration mechanisms (2) Stipulation for the Asymmetric VPN nodes in VPN Environment.
We considered MCMR-WMN with partially overlapping channels assigned to the interfaces, based on the graph edge colouring method mentioned in our previous work . The adjacent channel and self-interference is observed more when the partially overlapping channel is assigned to a radio. The shortest path may not be the interference free path, and it leads to a collision domain, so we propose a hybrid PSO-GA algorithm which finds a less interferenced path efficiently and also satisfies the bandwidth, delay and jitter request specified by the user.
ABSTRACT: Wireless is a more modern alternative to traditional wired networking that relies on cables to connect networkable devices together. Wireless technologies are widely used in both home and business computer networks. Wireless networks have been developed with various wireless applications, which have been used in areas of commerce, emergency, services, military, education and entertainment. The rapid improvement of Wi-Fi capable mobile devices including laptops and handheld devices, for example the purpose of wireless internet users of smart phone in last three years. The usage of people watching video, playing games and making long distance video or audio conferencing through wireless mobile devices and video streaming applications on infrastructure wireless networks which connects directly to mobile users for video playing and interaction in real time are increased. The evolution and the anticipate future of real time mobile multimedia streaming services are extensively expanded, so the networks are in need of high Quality of Service(QoS) to support wireless and mobile networking environment. In fact, there is an increasing attention from the industry and the research community on such issue. As a result, some hybrid wireless network architectures have emerged combining multi-hop radio relaying and infrastructure support, aiming to provide high capacity wireless networks. Also, an emerging challenge, in this context, lies in introducing the computation grid concept in such hybrid wireless networks environment. One promising trend is to harvest the widespread resources of wireless mobile devices, such as PDAs and laptops, to be beneficially useful within one or more mobile grid clusters. On the other hand, mobile nodes could benefit from the large resources in the fixed grid clusters.
Chen and Nahrstedt  propose a “ticket-based probing” algorithm. A ticket is a permission to search for a path. When a source wants to find a QoS path to a certain destination, it issues a number of tickets based on the available state information. More tickets are issued for connections with tighter requirements. Probes (routing messages) are sent from the source towards the destination to search for a low-cost path, which satisfies the QoS requirement. At intermediate nodes, a probe that carries more than one ticket can split into multiple ones, each searching a different sub-path. Based on its local state information, the intermediate node decides how and where the received probe should be split and forwarded. A probe can only continue traveling along the path if the QoS condition along the path does not violate the QoS requirement, and it carries at least one ticket. When the destination host receives a probe message, a feasible path is found. In the procedure of path searching, a probe also accumulates the cost of the path it traverses. If there are multiple probes arriving at the destination, the path with the least cost is selected as the primary path; the others are kept as secondary paths, and will be used if the primary path is broken due to the nodes movement. As a probe can only search a path with a valid ticket, the routing overhead is bounded by the tickets issued.
Abstract: With the recognition of ad-hoc networks, several routing protocols are designed for route discovery and also the route maintenance. Because mobile ad-hoc networks differs from the traditional wired networks. They have certain unique characteristics which can cause difficulties for providing QoS in such networks. The unique characteristics are dynamically varying network topology, lack of precise state information, shared radio channel, limited resources accessibility, hidden terminal problem and insecure medium. Design of efficient routing protocol that satisfies the one QoS metric is difficult. Generally used QoS metrics are end to end delay, throughput, packet delivery ratio, and jitter. Designing of multi constrained QoSrouting protocol is still difficult. Because routing protocol has to satisfies the many QoS metrics at a time. Existing genetic algorithms based routing protocols can give solution for multi constrained problem. But it is not giving efficient results. This paper proposes a modified genetic algorithm based routing protocol, and performance is compared with the existing algorithm. Simulations are performed in Network Simulator (NS-2).Simulation results shows that modified and proposed algorithm is giving optimized results than existing one for the specified scenario. While doing the simulation TCP,CBR and video sources are connected seperatly and the performance of two algorithms are compared with delay, throughput and packet delivery ration metrics TCP, UDP and video sources and connected separately and simulation is performed. Simulation results show that modified and proposed genetic algorithm is giving efficient results than existing genetic algorithm based routing algorithm.