As there are multiple agencies involved in plan formulation and implementation, and that numerous complex interactions take place between them, it is important to approach the issue in a systematic way (Liu 1995). The approach should be concerned with the resolution of this complex system into a number of simpler components and the identification of important linkages between them. Within the context of tourism management, four main types of influences can be identified which may affect inter-organisationalrelations and the formulation and implementation of local tourism development plans. These are the environmental context, the administrative structures, the geographical scales of the administrative structures, and the nature of the inter-organisational interaction and co-ordination (Figure 2). This proposed framework is based on the premise that inter-organisational relationships should not be conceptualised along one dimension alone. The linkages are multiple, and arise in particular from the possession by each organisation of certain resources and powers. These resources and powers may be, for instance, constitutional, legal, financial, professional, informational and administrative (Figure 2) (Jones, 1980; Rhodes, 1981).
However, it is worth highlighting that at that time it was indicated that the specificity of relational appearances of IORs differentiates them from hierarchical relations, which are typical of company structures, and from competitive relations which are normal for market structures. The most common method of notional systematisation was to indicate the characteristics distinguishing IORs from non‐ economic networks, and from other non‐network forms of economic activity. A useful example for the categorisation of an IOR is to distinguish it’s characteristics from other economic institutions, markets or firms, and considered characteristics including: distribution of property rights over resources, resource flows among actors, mutual expectations among actors with regard to relationship, information flows among actors and main coordination mechanisms. The ideal characterisation for an IOR is presented in Table 2.
planning model in the world, the development plan will have little chance of success unless it is carefully tuned with existing policies and institutional arrangements for tourism, which may change over time. It is also necessary to understand the structural dimensions of the environment and the complex web of interrelations among various parties involved in the plan, as well as to manage the interdependencies between various sectors and their policies and plans (Ackoff 1974), and to envisage the dynamics involved in the implementation process (Hall 2000). In other words, to bring success in any planning initiative, the programmes and activities must be in keeping with the wider values, missions, principles, goals and objectives of the managing organisation. In addition, any development programme must be monitored and evaluated in terms relevant to the wider values, vision, mission, goals and objectives; and all relevant variables must be considered in its design (Hall and McArthur 1998). Successful implementation is thus closely tied to whether different central and local organisations involved in the development initiative interact and co ordinate their fragmented activities effectively so that all decisions and activities are consistent and coherent and not at cross-purposes (Hall 1994). Building, maintaining and managing harmonious interorganisational relations, between central/local public and private organisations will depend heavily on the degree of equilibrium present among these organisations.
As Harry Braverman pointed, the real-existing socialism changed the structure of ownership but the labour process was essentially the same as that of capitalism (Braverman, 1974: 10-14). Along with the unique attributes of socialism such as state ownership and central planning, one of the critical causes for dictatorships in socialist countries lay in the non-socialist aspects of the relations of production and social division of labour (Poulantzas, 1978: 24). 26 Indeed, the examination of the production process in real-existing socialism is key to understanding the relationship between production relations and the socialist state. The socialist equivalent of Fordism, Soviet Fordism, was set up by Lenin when he enforced the scientific management over the movement of workers’ control of production in the early 1920s (Lenin, 1965b: 259). The Soviet Union came into existence in a hostile world and had to defend itself from the very beginning. To survive, it had to modernize its economy in a manner rapid enough to match its enemies. Integral to this course was the subordination of workers to new production, in which managers who were appointed by and answerable to the state bureaucrats controlled the production process (Cliff, 1974: 11-93). On the one hand, bureaucracy, the virtual agency of the new social forces’ collective self, transformed the nature of the state and led Stalin to come to power. On the other hand, over-bureaucratization, bred by Soviet Fordism, resulted in national crises of effectiveness and caused political leaders to rely on administrative strategies in the production process such as the Stakhanovite movement (Beissinger, 1988). 27
Finally, there are challenges not just to method and technique in research, but also to the governance, conduct, and ‘moral stance’ of researchers that are pointed up by a tendency towards action and towards committed or partisan research. As with the wider field of management inquiry (Hodgkinson 2001; Van de Ven and Johnson 2006; Cummings 2007), there have been a number of calls for more applied, or engaged, research. Huxham and Beech noted the ‘clear possibility for research on the management of power in practice, preferably within an action research methodology so that attention to practice can be directly incorporated’. Schruijer, too, argued for action research so that real-life problems can be worked with. Both she and Gray concluded that experimental research—whether laboratory or natural—is unlikely to provide a basis for IOR research. Reluctantly, Provan and Sydow agree, though they press for non-randomized quasi-experimental designs as the best alternative to randomized experiments for conducting evaluation research. Gray argues not for one specific design or another, but in the context of discussion intervention approaches for IORs, suggests that ... future researchers might carefully scrutinize each form of intervention to discern its major strengths and weaknesses and the conditions most conducive to it producing its desired ends. Research should also articulate the requisite competencies for individuals attempting such interventions and which interventions are most appropriate for different types of Inter-organizational partnerships. With this additional knowledge, skilful interveners (those
Korean War -- virtually no one would be raising the serious questions about the Korean War’s merits. Nonetheless, that controversial legacy remains a policy issue.
The U.S.-ROK security relationship clearly was transformed by the Korean War. The post-armistice U.S.-ROK Mutual Security Treaty (July 27, 1953) put the ROK loosely in the same cluster as Japan and other Cold War era U.S. allies worldwide. It also solidified the adversarial nature of U.S.-DPRK relations. The United States’ relations with the two Ko- reas -- one ally, one adversary -- equally clearly was influenced by how the Cold War evolved. When the United States experienced setbacks due to dire events in ending the Vietnam War with South Vietnam’s loss in 1975 and when the United States incrementally normalized its relations with the PRC throughout the 1970s -- fully meeting that goal in 1979 -- the tone of the Cold War changed in ways that sent signals to both the ROK and the DPRK about how geopolitical circumstances can evolve in ways to which both Korean governments must pay close attention. Far more salient for both Korean states was the way events of the 1970s and 1980s caused the Cold War to erode from the USSR’s perspective leading to a G. H. W. Bush-Gorbachev meeting on Malta in December 1989 where they de- clared an end to the Cold War, which was followed in a couple of years by the Soviet Un- ion’s collapse and the reappearance of the Russian state the world has been adjusting to over time. 4
Tables 4 and 5 shows the results for our 12-class tempo- ral relation identification and classification task over all in- stances from that dataset and over only the inter-sentence annotated instances, respectively. Since this work deals with augmenting the corpus with additional links, the over- all classifier performance (in Table 4) is affected by the inter-sentence classification performance (in Table 5). As mentioned earlier, we show experiment results on both ver- sions of the i2b2 corpus i.e. before and after augmenting the corpus with additional inter-sentence temporal relation annotations. The results in row (1) show classifier per- formance on the original i2b2 corpus. And the results in row (2) are from applying the classifier on the expanded version of the i2b2 corpus. In order to explain the results that rows (i) and (ii) represent, we first need to clarify the concept of data skew which we do next.
Tensions will be appraised by coding reactions according to three potential types of outcomes. The reluctance to engage in joint solutions, boycott official meetings with high representatives, lack of contacts and verbal demonstrations of a low interest to improve cooperation following a verdict, will be indicators of tensions. On the other hand, verbal declarations of the willingness to address pending issues and ad hoc official meetings for their resolution will be considered as devoid of negative repercussions on political dynamics only when concluded with the signature of an agreement. In absence of a written statement, joint declaration or treaty, the nature of relations in the aftermath of a verdict will be judged as maintaining a status quo. Specifically, the maintenance of a stalemate means that although there is a stable level of commitment, the steps undertaken are not enough to be considered as relevant progress. Therefore, although tensions are present, there is a certain level of cooperation. Consequently, mixed situations where steps further in relation to one bilateral problem are concomitant with tangible setbacks in another will fall into this category, regardless of the conclusion of an agreement.
identified. The gap refers to the need for a mediating actor that will take up the role of providing existing players with an infrastructure and associated services to realise the full benefits of interactive advertisements in the digital TV environment. Therefore, a new role has been introduced in the proposed to-be model: the Interactive Media (iMedia) Service Provider. A detailed analysis of the structure, responsibilities and functions of the new role is discussed in Pramataris et al [Pramataris et al, 2001]. This role needs to be combined with the known new role of the network provider that will undertake the provision of the required backbone infrastructure of digital broadcasting and will sell its services to the TV Channels. This analysis has resulted in placing the new role within the as-is business model, thus constructing the proposed to-be business model illustrated in Figure 8. It must be noted that the new roles do not necessarily imply that additional organisational entities will be established. For example, it may well be that the services of the network provider and the TV Channel might be provided by the same organisation in some cases. Similarly, the iMedia Service Provider responsibilities may be internalised by the Advertising Companies and/or the TV Channels. However, the to-be model also implies that there seem to be business opportunities for the emergence of new business roles within the industry.
The analysed US stock indices are the S&P Dow Jones, NYSE Global and Russell indices groups of indices in the period of 20002015. The causal relations change among sub-periods, revealing the importance of the US and EU crises to the interrelations. The most important evidence of strongest interrelations is found during the Lehman Brothers crisis sub-period, which is consistent with Boubaker et al.(2016). Another important result is that the causal interrelations have changed during the crisis and in the post-crisis sub-periods. These results are consistent with those of Alexakis and Siriopoulos (1999), and Sander and Kleimeir (2003) for the Asian crisis in 1997. Similar results are obtained from our cointegration analysis in that the most signicant cointegrated relationships are detected during crises sub-periods, and particularly in the Lehman Brothers crisis sub-period. These cointegration results are in line with Sander and Kleimeir (2003), and Ramlall (2009). The asymmetric behavior of the interrelations is evident in nancial markets (Vortelinos, 2016). Potential asymmetric response indicates that negative news of one index has a negative eect on the other index; while, positive news does not have any eect. This behavioural aspect of interrelations is evident in our results and is more intense during crisis sub-periods, especially in the Lehman Brothers crisis sub-period. This result is better explained by the literature of behavioural nance. When investors are fearful because of a turbulent environment, they search for negative events because their impact is expected to be more signicant. As they react only and more intensively to negative events, they feed the turbulent environment that made them
based on the lens of organisational economics and organisation theory. Their meta-analysis in brief states that the organisational economics perspective assumes that when it is difficult and complex for a firm to handle an activity by itself or through markets, it forms IORs with partners to efficiently conduct the activities (Parmigiano and Rivera-Santos, 2011). In other words, IORs are the best governance form when specific investments, complementary assets or incentive alignment are needed and can be obtained through relationships rather than markets or internally (Mahoney, 2005). The most commonly used theories found in the literature under this perspective are transaction cost economics and resource-based views (Parmigiano and Rivera-Santos, 2011). On the other hand, from an organisation theory perspective firms form IORs to conduct tasks and enhance and boost inter- organisational and interpersonal relationships, in order to improve their reputation and legitimacy, gain access to knowledge expertise and social capital, and benefit from powerful allies (Parmigiano and Rivera-Santos, 2011). The theories from this perspective stress the social structure embeddedness of individuals and firms (Uzzi, 1996). Parmigiano and Rivera-Santos indicate that resource dependence, stakeholder theory, institutional theory and social networks are the most used theories for this perspective. Also, they mention that there are different types of ties and networks, which can range from strong to weak ties, and goal-oriented or accidental forms of networks. Social structure and relationships are the most important from an organisation theory perspective. Thus, IORs can be explained from both economic and sociological perspectives (Parmigiano and Rivera-Santos, 2011).
Page | 65 3.3.1 Procurement and Institutional Framework
The behaviour of individuals during projects is influenced by rules of contracting and procurement systems that define actions and expectations over time (McDermott et al., 2004). McDermott et al. (2004) further argued that procurement and institutional frameworks that are less fragmented, allow for greater information flows, focus on relationships rather than contractual or financial elements, promote longer-term relationships and reduce the level of uncertainty with respect to final payments would engender higher levels of trust. Eriksson and Laan (2007) also revealed from their survey of 87 Swedish construction clients that procurement procedures that focused on price through output control and authority through process control were detrimental to trust development. They suggested that partnering may be a suitable way to facilitate trust through informal social control. Lau and Rowlinson (2009) found from their investigation of 10 partnering and non-partnering projects using validated trust scales that partnering arrangements yielded more inter-organisational trust than interpersonal trust, the non- partnering projects yielded higher interpersonal trust.
This paper has examined conflict management in the inter-governmental relations in Nigeria. It argued that conflict is necessary inter-governmental relations but that the managers of government at all level could only address the problem through conflict management; and that Nigeria presently lacks this needed good management. It also revealed that in Nigeria, conflict is common in areas of tax regime and revenue allocation- and that the controversial nature of revenue allocation had led to frequent establishment and abolition of revenue allocation commissions. Conflicts were seen to manifest in so many ways including; inter- executive conflict, inter-level conflicts among others.
Furthermore, there is no gainsaying that in earlier times of human existence, closeness to nature, the experience of life in dreadfully hazardous situations, the need for security and improved performance in means of livelihood are some of the key forces that band together to intensify the natural impulse for conviviality and sense of communality among different African peoples (Ejizu). Now that most of these factors have been made redundant by new dynamics of social relationships, how much relevance would the values arising thereof be for the contemporary African? An appraisal of this nature therefore, is aimed not to disparage the cultural values of our people that have rich and beautiful meaning-contents, and have fostered peace and unity among specific groups from time long past, but to elicit a renewed dialogue about their significance to inter-communal conflicts, religious and ethnic bigotry, nepotism, bribery/corruption and a host of other social malaise that bedevil contemporary Nigeria, and indeed, modern Africa as a whole.
The Lyttleton Constitution of 1954 further strengthened intergovernmental relations. There was the division of powers between the Federal and Regional governments. The powers of government were grouped under three headings which were: the Enumerated list or Exclusively Federal list, the Concurrent list and the Residual (Ojo, 1973) The Enumerated list contained such subjects like foreign relations, currency, defence, immigration, citizenship and census, aviation,, banks and so on upon which the Federal government had the sole authority to legislate on. The Concurrent List includes such matters like higher Education and Industrial Development, Insurance, Water Power, Scientific Research and so on upon which both the Federal and Regional governments could legislate. In the case of conflict between a Regional and a Federal law on the same concurrent subject, the Federal law prevailed. This arrangement removed the anomalous position of the 1951 where the regional law superseded a central law on the same subject matter if the Regional law was enacted later. Other subjects not included neither in the Enumerated nor Concurrent lists were Regional affairs. With this arrangement, Regional governments were not interfered by the Federal government. Besides the Central Regional relations at the time, there were also central-local relations.
The findings in this study indicate that the weaker organisations have limited funding capabilities and so there is a need for their representatives to build business relationships rather quickly. The more established or stronger members generally had better access to funding and tighter personal links that extended beyond the network structure. When examined from the perspective of individual member organisations, it seems funding issues affected the level of participation and the amount of influence organisations were able to exercise in group decisions. Many organisations in this study found that their access to funding on a regular basis was very restricted, and therefore they had to rely on external funding bodies or find innovative means to supplement their incomes. Jones’ (2000) research on UK opera companies shows some similarities with the findings in this study as both studies find that organisations can be bound by their total revenues, even though they have incomes independent of each other. Funding is not necessarily a dominant theme in most of the general inter-organisational relationships or coopetition literature. However, in the public sector or for certain industry types, funding is an important form of network resource. With NN specifically, funding was a significant issue and thus access to funding expertise and knowledge seems particularly pertinent to arts-based organisations, whose existence often depends on their ability to secure external funding.
Figure 5 Path coefficients for the proposed relationships in the model
Source: self-elaboration using the plspm package in Rstudio
At this point, it is pertinent to note that the bootstrapping analysis validated the significance level of the relationships raised in Figure 5. According to Table 7, this analysis and the associated confidence interval indicate the degree of stability in the statistic of the sample as an estimation of the population parameter (Sanchez 2013). In this sense, if the confidence interval between perc.025 to perc.975 does not contain the 0 value, the relationship in question is significant. Based on that, it is possible to accept four of the six hypotheses proposed in this article, given the absence of the 0 value of their respective intervals. That is, inter-organisational relationships and complementarity are unlikely to be encouraged if considering the environment (Env), management (Mng) or operations (Ops) separately. This finding implies that to promote complementarity, it is necessary to rethink the interactions among the operative units and their management and control mechanisms to make them able to interact in the same plane and thus jointly face changes in the context in which they operate.