The participants of the study included 111 non-native Iranian EFL teachers. Except for 24, the remaining 87 teachers were undergraduates and graduates of the English- related branches of study, including teaching English as a Foreign Language, English literature, and translation, and were teachers working part-time or full-time at English language institutes in Tehran. English language institutes in the Iranian context are owned and run privately, but under the supervision of Ministry of Education. As displayed in Table 2, the teachers differed in teaching experience, level of education, and level of instruction. Besides, 12 teachers who were all MA students/holders and graduates attended the interview sessions, as it was assumed that MA students/holders could be more representative of the sample population for their more academic involvement and training in EFL (Table 3 shows the demographic information of the EFL teacher interviewees). It is important to note that the participants were classified on their level of instruction based on their self-reported level of instruction; however, in the context of the study, institute adult teachers are not assigned to similar-level classes. This means the teachers were free to move between these levels of instruction; thus, a teacher running an elementary-level class in the morning might be running an advanced-level class at noon. For the interview session, the participants who had left their contact details in the questionnaire were sent an invitation text/letter. The invitation text/letter explained the purpose of the study and invited teachers to participate. Out of 29, 12 teachers agreed to attend the interview session.
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The instructors in this study believed that culture is an essential component of language learning and that the development of intercultural communicative competence benefits their learners. This is a distinctly different view from earlier studies, in which instructors were reported to consider culture both unimportant and irrelevant for the successful acquisition of a second language (Byram, 1997; Kramsch, Cain, & Murphy-Lejeune, 1996, cited in Young et al., 2009). Differences between our findings and those of other studies may be attributed to the fact that most of the research on instructors’ beliefs and practices to date have focused on pre- service or novice instructors (Byram & Feng, 2004; Young et al., 2009) who showed a lack of consciousness about cultural factors. Young et al. (2009) posited that more experienced instructors would approach culture teaching and learning more explicitly in the English language classroom, and this is supported by our findings from participants with a mean of 12 years of full-time teaching experience. The experienced instructors surveyed in both this and Young and Sachdev’s (2011) study reported that intercultural communicative competence was an important aim and that culture contributed positively to successful second language communication. While Young and Sachdev (2011) found that instructors in their study (from the US, UK, and France) saw the value in intercultural communicative competence, they were not teaching it explicitly. In contrast, the majority of participants in our Canadian study reported that they provided explicit intercultural communicative competence instruction, although not systematically.
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In the current context of globalisation, English as an international language, lingua franca, and a global language (e.g., Tavakoli, Shirinbakhsh, & Rezazadeh, 2012) is used as a means of communication in multicultural contexts. Additionally, in order to inter- act with people of different cultural backgrounds effectively and appropriately, one needs to be intercullturally communicative competent. Accordingly, the issue of devel- oping intercultural communicative competence (ICC) to ESL/EFL learners has been identified as one of the ultimate goals in the field of English language education (e.g., Byram, 1997; Deardoff, 2009; Fantini, 2000; Lázár et al., 2007) in an attempt to present learners with cultural differences which help learners to be interculturally aware of their own culture and the presence of otherness as well as to appreciate and respect them. Moreover, English language education should equip learners with the knowledge of intercultural communication and the ability to use it effectively in order to bridge cultural differences and achieve more harmonious, productive relations (Samovar, Porter, & McDaniel, 2012).
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Wiseman (2002) defined intercultural communicative competence as” the knowledge, motivation and skills which are needed to interact effectively and appropriately with members of different cultures” (p. 208). It has become a currently and highly important kind of competence after the dominant linguistic competence and communicative competence. Penbek, Yurdakul and Cerit (2009) found in their research that the students who were given the educational support by intercultural materials and international exchange language programs/courses would be more equipped with sufficient intercultural sensitivity to develop acculturation and respect with people from the other language culture. By contrary, Cetinavci, (2012) had the opinion that in case language learners were in the contexts like a non-English speaking country with sociocultural and educational situations such as little access to English, restricted communication needs, nonnative teachers, a different culture and very dominant examination systems, it should be hard for them to improve their intercultural communicative competence. Fitzgerald (2003) also asserted that English language curriculum needs to take account and promote the cultural awareness and values underlying target languages in order to cultivate ESL learners to be active observers and researchers of language and culture. He further encouraged ESL teachers to provide learners with a natural and authentic culture community of English language to immerse and study for their progress of intercultural communicative competence.
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Although it may not seem essential, in general terms, backchannelling plays an important part in discussions, as verbal and non-verbal utterances (e.g., mhm, uh huh, yea, right), head nods and smiles are ways through which listeners may signal they are paying attention to what is being said, and they want the speaker to continue to talk. This is in addition to it being used as well as a sign of ensuring the efficiency of the communication. Instead of simply relying on correct language use for understanding and receiving messages, backchannels are also vital to “indicate that a piece of talk by the speaker has been registered by the recipient of that talk” (Gardner 2001, 13) as well as to “help the current speaker along while manifesting the listener’s attention” (stenström 1994, 81). In line with the above, the negotiation of meaning is also a fundamental part in any interaction, as can be exemplified by both interlocutors in the excerpt, who resort to the negotiation of meaning between lines 23 and 30, where it is visible that s2 seems to have forgotten to make it clear to s1 what the topic of the question is. Through repetition, signalling non-comprehension and paraphrasing (l. 24 “I didn’t participate actively,” l. 30 “that you didn’t participate”) the intended message is clarified in the end, making it evident that the question is about whether someone had been disappointed with s1 not participating.
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Different roles depend on different teaching strategies and different attitudes or outlooks on the teachers’ part. In other words, Teachers have to be versatile, able to elicit or present cultural information, model or coach cultural behaviors, conduct or guide cultural analysis and research. Teachers have to be able to come into the students’ worlds by listening, sharing or experiencing their experiences as culture learners in order to help them get out of their worlds into the target language and the target culture. What’s more, teachers have to be the life learners of the language including the native culture and the target culture as well. As a result, teachers’ role may vary from one stage to another or from one activity to another within the classroom in some degree. When playing these multi-roles, our effectiveness as language-and-culture educators will be highly enhanced if the teacher could keep a good balance among them and make rapid changes according to the specific situation.
It is apparent that internationally trained professionals are not always utilized productively in the receiving societies. The literature has identified numerous barriers to their employment, including language and communication difficulties (Adams & Kennedy, 2006). Language is a major barrier to employment, especially in non-English speaking destination countries. In recent years, many non-English speaking European countries (e.g., Finland, Germany, and the Netherlands) have assumed an increasingly active role in the global competition to attract highly educated people from abroad. (Li & Pitkänen, 2018.) In practice, however, the mobility of highly skilled workers and tertiary- level students from Asia and other continents mainly focuses on the USA, Australia, Canada and other English-speaking countries. In Europe the UK has attracted the lion’s share, while the non-English speaking of Europe faces serious challenges in their recruitment processes (Fargues et al., 2009). In some cases, such as decentralized units of multinational companies, the official working language is English, which makes it easier for English- speaking employees to join a local or virtual work community.
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• for other activities that are not actually part of the teaching: checking attendance, telling learners where to sit, explaining how an activity works, controlling the class, etc. In such activities, teachers make use of ‘organizing’ language consisting of simple commands and instructions, which are repeated in each lesson: ‘Open/close your books!’, ‘Come here, please.’, ‘Be quiet!’, ‘Who would like to clean the blackboard?’, ‘Who is absent today?’). If the teacher says them continually in English, learners – even elementary ones- will quickly learn what they mean. Furthermore, the situations that occur in the classroom (a learner arriving late, someone forgetting a book) and chatting in English to the class about topics of interest (things learners have done, feast days and holidays, a school performance, a television program, birthdays, etc.) at the beginning of the lesson (instead of going straight to the textbook) create an opportunity for real language practice and create an English language atmosphere in the classroom, giving the learners the feeling that English is e real language used for communication and not just a school subject.
and did not understand that implementing CLT required considerable effort to devise strategies to help learners. TEFL teachers using CLT methods must accept the responsibility for developing interactive activities which connect to what the learners already know in terms of their language skills, personal lives, and real world situations. Learner-centred methods imply ironically that the teacher has more control and needs to work harder than when teacher- centred methods are applied. To use CLT properly, teachers must have a scholastic knowledge of linguistics to attend to discourse, lexis, syntax, prosody, and pronunciation and understand how cognitive, linguistic, and emotional development impacts on L2 learning. The implementation of CLT requires teachers not only to be highly competent in the L2, but also to have the time, ability and enthusiasm to develop appropriate communicative teaching strategies. As pointed out by Kanoksilapatham (2007) it may be difficult in practice to find such a combination of knowledge, skills, and motivation in every language teacher, particularly in developing countries.
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A) To find out the weaker areas in speaking English skill of the students of Std.V. B) To classify the weaker areas in speaking English skill of the students of Std.V C) To find out common weaker area of the class in speaking English skill. D) To find out the overall performance of the class in speaking English skill. Operational Definition –
Abstract: the article deals with the issues based on developing communicative competence of students in foreign language teaching process. Author describes effective methods and techniques which can be helpful during the classes. As well as, as the communicative methodology is undoubtedly the most effective way to learn English we teachers of foreign language should develop our teaching process on the requirements of current day. We analyzed researches of several scientists on this area and reflected them in this article.
The preceding areas have focused upon the generation of a single message unit such as a sentence or phrase. Another consideration is the organization of multiple message units or thoughts. The difference is analogous to studying a sentence as opposed to a paragraph. The competent communicator must be concerned with the proper construction of her/his messages at both the micro (unitary message unit) and macro (multiple message units) levels. The articulation dimension consists of: correct pronunciation, fluent speech, proper grammatical construction of sentences, appropriate word choices, and clear organization of ideas. Articulation contributes to the communicative adaptability construct by increasing fidelity of message exchange. A speaker who is dysfluent, unorganized, or uses inappropriate words serves to distract attention from the content of his/her messages. Primarily, articulation increases the accuracy of the other's perceptions of the content of messages.
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Quantitatively testing their four (4) macro skills, this study made use of a standardized scale by Danao (1986) perusing their level of linguistic competence. Specifically, it evaluated their level of competence along knowledge in mechanical rules of the language; knowledge of the meaning system of the language; and appropriacy in terms of settings and relationships. The respondents were foreign students in the field of Medicine wherein English is considered a foreign language and the medium of instruction. Findings revealed that most of the participants excelled in substests with provision of choices. However, discretionary attention if not ample attention must be given in their listening and writing skills as reflected in the result of their dictation test, cloze test and business correspondence. The need to address their actual writing skills specifically on the technical aspects of writing, grammar structure, diction and basic and optional parts and how to write effective business correspondence must also be taken into account.
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In this research, the instrument used to be collect the data was a speaking comprehension test. The researcher has designed the difference instruments for both of pre-test and post-test. The instrument is in the form speaking test which were taken in some resources. Speaking test has used to evaluate the students‟ speaking ability in the form of performing simple monologue descriptive text. While, observation sheets used to observed the students‟ activity during teaching learning process.
communicate with other people in the language. Speaking is not always their top priority, and, for many learners, reading and writing may be of more importance. However, even academics and businessmen whose main interest in English is for reading and writing reports, may need, on occasion, to explain their ideas and thoughts, or simply to make polite conversation, in English. Approaches to language teaching today seek to capture the rich view of language and language learning assumed by a communicative view of language. Jacobs and Farrell (2003) see the shift toward CLT as marking a paradigm shift in our thinking about teachers, learning, and teaching. Harmer (2003) suggests that ‘the problem with communicative language teaching (CLT) is that the term has always meant a multitude of different things to different people.’ Spada (2007) expresses a similar view in her review of CLT: ‘What is communicative language teaching, where he posited that the answer to this question seems to depend on whom you ask. In the Philippines, not many studies have been done in this context. However, practical wisdom suggests that speaking competence is therefore an important, but elusive, objective for many foreign language learners. It has been the focus of foreign language teaching methods so far. The debate on the importance of accuracy in communicative language teaching era has been reflected in many studies in speaking and has been a key element in the definition of communicative competence. In Naval School of Fisheries, the students have a lot of problems at their secondary level. They want to speak, but when they go to class, they do not feel to learn a thing. They are not able to convert their thoughts through speaking, Article History:
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On the other hand, five of the teachers (T2, T5, T6, T7 and T8) responded that teaching vocabulary via the CLT is difficult activity to practice. They rationalized that teaching vocabulary means solely teaching the meaning of words by using translation of foreign language into mother tongue and it is not possible to practice CLT in vocabulary lesson. In FGD, almost all teachers of the school reported that vocabulary taught through CLT is not known in their teaching experience and it is untried trend. From the responses of the teachers, it is possible to wrap up that the majority of teachers thought that the teaching of vocabulary via the communicative language teaching approach is easier said than done and new teaching approach to practice in the classroom context and they have misunderstanding about the concept of vocabulary teaching through the communicative language teaching approach. In item 2, teachers were asked whether or not they think that the teaching of vocabulary promotes effective communication. In response to SSI, two (T6 and T7) teachers replied that vocabulary teaching promotes effective communication in the target language. But they asked how it important and their justification was not that much plenty. This means that they replied vocabulary teaching promotes effective communication simply by saying yes and there was not any justification. In FGD three teachers reported that vocabulary teaching promotes effective communication. On the other hand, the majority of teachers (6) replied that the teaching of vocabulary does not promote effective communication in the target language. The teachers rationalized that the teaching of vocabulary means knowing literal meaning of words. From the above data, it is possible to deduce that the majority of the teachers wrongly perceived the importance of teaching vocabulary for communication. As a result, they don’t clearly know the role of vocabulary teaching to promote effective communication.
This study explored polytechnic English language lecturer’s perceptions in terms of attitudes and problems related to the teaching of Communicative English (CE) courses. The findings of the study reflect the reality of teaching the new syllabus at the Malaysian polytechnic context. Generally, it was found that these lecturers hold a favourable attitude towards CE teaching. At the same time, the need to review the content of the syllabus has been highlighted considering the communicative needs of students from various fields and for the lack of emphasis given to other language skills such as reading, writing and listening. In terms of problems faced in teaching CE courses, issues related to the students, non-academic tasks, institutional requirements and professionalism were reported. Exploring polytechnic English language lecturers’ beliefs and addressing their professional needs would result in positive changes towards the teaching of CE courses. Special attention should be given in terms of teacher training that provides in-service lecturers the opportunity to develop their skills related to the teaching of CE courses. Considering the limitation of the study in terms of sample size and data collection method, future study could be carried with larger sample using various data collection methods. Future studies may include students’ views as well in order to gain a more holistic understanding. In addition, it would be interesting to explore the link between English language lecturers teaching attitudes and actual classroom practices related to the teaching of CE courses.
The main goal is to teach a foreign language as a means of communication. When embarking on the development of var ious kinds of integrated courses, it is necessary to have a clear idea of the structure of the proposed educational activity, educational trajectory; determine the general system of interdisciplinary concepts, develop the main stages of activity. This process involves the construction of a holistic model and strategy of the educational process, as well as a systematic analysis of activities. Among the educational tasks, it is worth highlighting the selection of material, specific sections and topics, the establishment of interdisciplinary ties that represent the possibility of implementing the principles of integration in training.
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In present approach, the teacher sets up a situation that students are likely to encounter in real life. Communicative language teaching based on the communicative competence which is introduced by H.D. Hymns. One of the goals of CLT is to develop fluency in language.
There is general agreement in academic literature that the length of study abroad programme is significantly connected with the gains of sojourners’ intercultural development. Empirical studies have demonstrated that students who participated in study abroad programmes for approximately one semester have achieved the greatest improvement. Nevertheless, with proper interventions, short-term programmes could also effectively develop participants’ intercultural communicative competence. These interventions normally include specially-designed pre-sojourn, sojourn, and re-entry programmes, such as pre-departure preparation course, guided reflection, and supports from staff and classmates, etc. Regarding the outcomes of language proficiency in study abroad context, students’ oral proficiency, listening skills, and reading comprehension have been significantly improved through both long- and short-term study abroad programmes. However, it appears that students need to take at least one-semester study abroad programme to substantially enhance their writing performance. Moreover, being abroad alone is not enough and participants have to be actively engaged in the target language. Institutions should also create more opportunities for students to closely interact with native speakers in a meaningful way.
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