To put it simply, if EFL learn ing is brought into the Indonesian context, the status of English as the world lingua franca and the multicu ltural nature of Indonesian people should become the bases of consideration since the way Eng lish is acquired depends upon those conditions. To deal with this comple x phenomenon, many scientific works in the fie ld of foreign language education promote the applicat ion of interculturallanguagelearning (herea fter, ILL) approach, which has some alternative terms . To na me a few, they are the works of Biebricher, East, Howa rd, and Tolosa (2019); Curtis, Robertson, and Mahony (2018); Hajisoteriou and Angelides (2016); Liddicoat and Scarino (2013); Popescu and Iordachescu (2015); Porto (2018); and Rauschert and Byram (2017). In the application of ILL in EFL learning, students are trained to communicate using English within the dimension of a third culture, na me ly the encounter between the first and second speakers’ cultures. Such cultural encounter is what takes place when English is used as a lingua franca.
As has been argued by others (Byram et al. 2002), processes of decentering are inherent in this mediation. The intercultural mediator needs to be able to develop interpretations both from inside and from outside the languages and cultures at play in a particular situation. The mediation is not an explanation of a particular cultural understanding but rather an act of translation between cul tural frameworks in which the values and assumptions of each framework are attended to. Mediating cultures for others also involves being able to integrate the perspective of the recipient of the mediation in the representation of the other culture (note especially Example 5). This behavior is fundamentally an intercul tural one that is not simply the possession of knowledge about another culture as this is manifested in pragmatic differences but rather the ability to use reflection of pragmatic difference to formulate positions between cultures as a mechanism to develop and express understandings of another culture. In this way intercul tural mediation involves awareness of one’s own cultural practices and expecta tions in relation to the aspect of language use being mediated as well knowledge of the target culture behavior. Central to this process is the ability to decenter from one’s own cultural frame and to begin to perceive linguistic behaviors from alternative perspectives. AbdallahPretceille (2003) has argued that the ability to decenter is not an innate one, but rather one that needs to be fostered through education. From the examples presented here, it can be argued that reflection on observed differences in language use can provide a pathway through which such learning can be developed and that pragmatics can thus play a significant role in developing intercultural competence.
In bringing all three pronouns together, he interprets them as resources for claiming (or rejecting) particular identities. He comes to understand that watashi, used by a male with male peers, marks the user as in some way deviating from norms of masculine enactment and for a particular communicative or interpersonal effect (to be a bit weird); that is, using watashi in this context in not breaking a rule, it is creating an effect through the communicative potential that lies within language choices. The pronouns provide meaningful choices that are interpreted in particular ways in their contexts of use to achieve social outcomes. He also constructs a masculine identity for himself from among the possibilities as he currently understands them. Neither watashi nor ore enables him to project the identity that he wishes to claim as a speaker of Japanese, at least in interactions with peers, as both place him outside his current sense of self. His understanding of the use of pronouns therefore gives him agency in designing his own language use by creating language forms as meaningful social categorisations.
As theory and research in interculturallanguagelearning advance, debate continues about how to measure the interculturallanguagelearning model. Learners can be stated they have good speaking skills if they can perform their speaking in good fluency, pronunciation, and accuracy . However, the relevant studies investigating learners’ speaking development and assessment are limited . In addition, teachers are inquired to find a way and instrument to assess speaking skills reflecting the intercultural competences. In Indonesian higher education, teaching the four language skills is taught in the discrete instruction. The four language skills are allotted in a different semester in the English language department both in state universities and private universities in Indonesia. Consequently, lecturers should meet an appropriate way to assess the four skills. Therefore, the instrument of evaluating those must be designed and developed in line with the teaching and learning purposes. In addition, the model of language proficiency has been influential in language testing in terms of the four language skills , . It is in line with what Isbell, Winke, and Gass  state language tests are useful for many purposes, including monitoring language instructional progress. In doing so, ACTFL OPIc (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Language Oral Proficiency Interview Computer) is applied. The interview of the assisted computer is used to find out the speaking proficiency.
Abstract—Teaching English as a foreign language has been focused on cultural aspects. Teachers studied English from their cultures and then they compare those with the target cultures. This was aimed to facilitate English students to communicate orally and in written, linguistically accurate and culturally appropriate. Therefore, this research study was aimed at developing English materials based on interculturallanguagelearning for writing classes. To reach the maximal materials, the researchers applied need analysis to identify cultural materials based learning model that feeds students’ needs and expectation. Based on the result of research study, students like cultural topics for their level, such as wedding ceremonies, historical buildings, and traditional music. These topics showed that the set of interculture-based instructional materials was appropriate to be utilized in the teaching of writing skills for English department students.
Language, culture and learning are interrelated (Duff & Uchida, 1997; Fantini, 1997; Genc & Bada, 2005; Liddicoat, Papademetre, Scarino, & Kohler, 2003). Paige, Jorstad, Siaya, Klein and Colby (1999) define culture learning as “the process of acquiring the culture-specific and culture-general knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for effective communication and interaction with individuals from other cultures” (p. 50). Based on this definition, Liddicoat et al. (2003) make a link with language education and say, “Interculturallanguagelearning involves developing with learners an understanding of their own language(s) and culture(s) in relation to an additional language and culture” (p. 46). This implies that foreign language learners need to gain an understanding of both their own culture and target culture. In this respect, Liaw (2006) also asserts that the learning of culture is "not merely learning the target culture, but gaining insights into how the culture of the target language interacts with one’s own cultural experience" (p. 50).
As already mentioned, Hymes (1988), introducing the concept of communicative competence, argues that we need to use our language appropriately with regard to the communicative context. Hymes also affirmed that a person "acquires competence as to when to speak, when not, and as to what to talk about with whom, when, where, in what manner". Savignon (1972) considered competence "in terms of the expression, interpretation, and negotiation of meaning", taking into account also the socio-cultural and linguistic context. Different aspects need to be considered when speaking about the communicative competence because, as we have already affirmed, it is not sufficient to know the language but it is rather more important to know how to use the language as an action tool in different contexts. The concept that Hymes proposed can be integrated with various other competences: linguistic, paralinguistic, kinesics, proxemics, pragmatic and socio-cultural, that is the capacity to verify whether and to what extent a specific linguistic statement is appropriate in relation to the socio-cultural context of reference. In other words, it is about showing our own linguistic competence off in a variety of communicative situations considering the socio-cultural context at first. Therefore, the communicative competence becomes, "the ability to function in a truly communicative setting – that is, in a dynamic exchange in which linguistic competence must adapt itself to the total informational input, both linguistic and paralinguistic, of one or more interlocutors" (Savignon, 1972).
However, before this phase and in an effort to assess the reliability of this scale in the initial piloting phases, 17 males and 33 females (N = 50) Iranian EFL teachers between the age of 21 and 53 similar to the target group also took part in this research project. The sampling design for these participants was non-probability availability sampling too. Moreover, as mentioned above, the design adopted for this study was ‘sequential exploratory strategy’ (Creswell, 2009) in which, firstly, a small-scale exploratory qualitative study was conducted. As the purpose of the interviews conducted in this qualitative phase was getting a deeper understanding of the components of ‘CCA’ construct and obtaining some specific themes and statements to be used in developing the ‘CCA’ scale, efforts were made to select “information-rich cases” (Patton, 2002). To meet this objective, 11 Iranian EFL teachers (6 were female and 5 were male) with more than ten years of English language teaching experience as well as 5 well-known experts (1 was female and 4 were male) from the most prestigious universities of Iran and with the most number of articles published in prestigious journals on the topic of this study were purposefully selected. One of the main reasons for choosing this number of participants in the sample rather than a larger or smaller sample was theoretical saturation (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). It means that sampling continued until theoretical saturation took place, that is, the researchers could not find any new instances or themes that could contribute to the theory that had been mostly established by the comprehensive literature review and was also emerging from the data. Professional motivation and comfort interacting in English, the medium of the interviews, were two other criteria for selecting the participants.
nursing internships in high altitude communities, and they didn’t want Milagros to go through the same experience. Even though they had moved to a rural community where Quechua was spoken by adults and older generations, no change had occurred in their family communication patterns. A couple of months later, Milagros mentioned her parents had begun speaking Quechua at home. The change, she described, was sudden and surprising, “estoy sentada así y de un momento al otro empiezan a hablar en quechua, ¿qué les ha pasado?” (‘I am sitting down, and then, suddenly, they begin to speak in Quechua, what has happened to them?’) (I, 2016.11.10). After her parents noticed she was doing poorly in the high school Quechua course, they began talking amongst themselves in Quechua as well as addressing their daughter in Quechua at home, which Milagros described took place about four times a week. Reflecting on this new change, she admitted she liked it but wished it had occurred before, “más o menos me está ayudando, pero no mucho porque hubiera sido mejor que lo hubieran hecho cuando era más pequeña” (‘it’s helping me a bit, but not much, because it would have been better if they had done it when I was younger’). While for Milagros, changes in her family’s socialization patterns brought about more meaningful Quechua learning opportunities than those she experienced outside her home, she was skeptical these would be sufficient to expand her repertoire in order to communicate successfully as a doctor, sharing some regret for learning Quechua too late as also expressed by other youth in this group.
Intercultural dialogue as a critical component of modern society should contribute to the self- identification of a person in the cultural space. This research aims to demonstrate the importance of multiculturalism— learning a second language in the Russian system of higher education. To accomplish the research objectives, 78 students were recruited at Tula State University, 158 students at Kuban State University and 152 technical students at Moscow Aviation Institute. Analysing and comparing experiments on learning a second language, the findings determine the effective methods and forms of teaching. In doing so, the research foregrounds some forms of effective teaching and indicates the ways to achieve them. In other words, the findings made it possible to identify the effective strategies for teaching a foreign language both in local and global level.
The students researched the conflict and talked to each other both synchronously and diachronically using the Internet, with a strong focus on developing an interactive and respectful understanding of the event and the need for co-operative conflict resolution. Among other things they created powerpoints about the war, interviewed Argentinean and British war veterans, and created collaboratively an advertisement to show the potential for contact and reconciliation. All of these things could be done and were done in a foreign language classroom. However what is important is that they also took action in the world -- bringing into the foreign language classroom the principles of citizenship education (Byram, 2008) -- by creating blogs and Facebook pages and noting and responding to reactions to these. They also produced leaflets presenting the notion of reconciliation which they then distributed in the centre of their city. The Argentinean students also went on to teach a special class on the topic in an English-language school and, in cooperation with an NGO, in a class in a poor neighbourhood of their city. This is ongoing (see appendix). Other projects in the network are at earlier stages of development but all are trying to follow the basic principles of combining foreign-language education with citizenship education.
You are how you sound. An example of audible cues is the way we speak language(s), in particular, accent and fluency. There have been some interesting and fruitful studies linking perception of dialectal accent and identification of ethnicity. Linguistic profiling studies by John Baugh and other scholars (Baugh, 1999, Purnell, William & Baugh, 1999) are such an example. In these studies, the researcher called the same landlord for an appointment but used three different varieties of English: Standard English, AAVE (African American Vernacular English) and Chicano English. The results were that in areas where the population was predominantly white, a much higher percentage of the requests made with the Standard English were successful, while those with non-standard varieties achieved a lower success rate. Other studies (e.g. Anisfeld, Bogo & Lambert, 1962; Fayer & Krasinski, 1987) have shown that, similar to dialectal variations, ‘foreign’ accents or accents of second language users were often judged to be less educated, less intelligent or poorer.
The first three stages are ethnocentric, meaning that one’s own culture is experienced as central to reality in some way, while the second three stages are ethno-relative, meaning that one’s own culture is experienced in the context of other cultures. Developing cultural sensitivity and competence requires moving from ethnocentrism to ethnorelativism and starts when we begin looking for differences rather than similarities in aspects of culture as diverse as language, physical distance and touch, gesture etc. This move is best achieved through direct exposure to another culture combined with the will to change how we view ourselves and the world. Bennett’s (1986) developmental model of intercultural sensitivity can be used to help students’ views of culture move from a ethnocentric perspective to a ethno relative perspective. Also teaching can be organized in a way that helps student move from one stage to the next (see Paige, 2004). Authors theorizing about social categorization believe that all human interaction occurs within a cultural context, all people are cultural and multicultural beings and all of our life experiences are perceived and shaped from within our own cultural perspectives (Brewer & Brown, 1998; Fiske et al., 1998; Markus & Kitayama, 1991). Social categorization predisposes individuals to certain biases and assumptions about themselves and others and means that we tend to include
English Language has been around in the world for over 14 centuries now. It has adapted itself accordingly with the demands of every civilization that it passed through and gradually became the most spoken language across the globe. Ability to speak English will undoubtedly help an individual reach and connect with more people. However, despite it being the most prevailed language in the history of humankind, English unknowingly formed a cloud around itself that somehow started intimidating people with English as their Second Language or Foreign Language (ESFL). Many strategies have been devised so far to ameliorate those hurdles for ESFL speakers, most of which reaped little to no success. Language, like stated above, was invented to have a greater sense of understanding between people who communicate with each other. This understanding happens only when the language is associated with an emotion i.e. Emotional Language. Emotional Language, when effectively used, leads to Emotional bonding and connect. (Challa, 2017) Emotional Language Teaching is the need of the hour. And English, in all its glory, is something that must be acquired rather than learnt to be one’s Emotional Language. This short communication is a humble attempt to reach out to all the teachers who are willing to go an extra mile to educate their rural students in the most unique and interactive way possible, for their betterment and for providing them with edutainment oriented acquisition useful for holistic development.
All this contributes an unfavourable environment for communication, which in turn contributes to the implementation of conflict situations of communication,— ''the negative speech environment of the existence of communicants'' (Vernadsky, 2004: insert page number). The information environment can be considered as a synonym for the noosphere. (Vernadsky, 2004), and the “semiosphere” (Yu.M. Lotman, 2000). According to Yu.M. Lotman, the ''semiosphere'' forms the communicative-semantic structure of the noosphere ‒ the biosphere organised by rational human thought ‒ considered as a system of symbolic support of consciousness (Lotman, 2000). The intercultural information environment can be considered as the biosphere (noosphere) in which both the psychosphere is combined ‒ the environment where the psychological, intellectual and spiritual life takes place (Zvegintsev, 1996: 159-160) and the sign sphere ‒ the semiosphere because the psychosphere is expressed in language as a repository of public consciousness (Zvegintsev, 1996: 163; Evstratova et al., 2016; Akhmetshin et al., 2018). The research aims to identify the essence of this type of competence and describe its structure. The results of the research can find application in intercultural communication, in linguodidactics and the practice of teaching in foreign languages.
By preparing the learner for the various communicative acts that are appearing while using different media at work, the sustainability aspect comes in. The sustainability factor refers here to the individual who has to cope with the requirements of the workplace in the subject as well as communication matters. That means that everything which supports the development of inter-professional competences also improves sustainability of learning and lifelong learning. Sustainability is not only included in the discussion of objectives, course content and didactic-methodical principles but also in learning strategies, e.g. to acquire big amounts of vocabulary. Acquiring big amounts of vocabulary is crucial for employees because information at work is mostly conveyed via texts in various types and transferred via various media (face-to-face communication, telephone, Email, letter, datasheet, manual, etc.). Therefore, the following paragraph will discuss the central components of profession- oriented teaching, as vocabulary, grammar and interculturallearning.
Reducing reliance on cultural ‘characteristics’ as a guide to intercultural behaviour needs to be balanced by a heightened attention to the process of interaction and a willingness to form impressions of collaborators based on individual behaviour rather than group generalisations (Hunfeld 1997; Ylänne 2008; Gibson and Grubb 2005; Spencer-Oatey and Franklin, forthcoming 2009). This is supported by the emphasis, in the literature on intercultural competence, on the development of self-knowledge, flexibility and an open, responsive attitude to interaction (Reid et al. 2009). These attributes are sometimes grouped together under the heading “awareness”, both awareness of self and of others. Awareness is important in order to counter the inescapable tendency to view the world through a lens coloured by the assumption that our own culture has ‘got it right’ and that its norms, behaviours and values are globally applicable (Rehbein 2001). Each person needs to recognise that linguistic choices, expectations and interpretations are informed by culture (Meier, 2005). Consequently, a well-informed degree of awareness of one’s own cultural influences as well as of one’s own idiosyncratic tendencies is necessary for objective self-assessment (Barham 1991; Fantini 2000; Bennett 1993; Chen & Starosta 2005). A high degree of awareness of cultural differences and of the global diversity of norms and values is equally important for establishing a well-founded basis for intercultural interaction effectiveness (Fantini 2000).
Based on these observations, a number of appropriate strategies could be suggested. Firstly, pre-departure preparation course including intercultural communication teaching could help students to be more aware of cultural and educational system differences, gain effective language and cultural learning strategies, set realistic goals for stays abroad, and prepare for the challenges of adjusting to another culture (Chou, Roberts, & Ching, 2012; Jackson, 2011; Yu & Shen, 2012). Secondly, during the stay abroad, intercultural communication courses designed within the curriculum could enable sojourners to better develop their cultural self-awareness and identity, critically reflect on cultural differences, change perception, and improve both verbal and non-verbal communicative skills (Root & Ngampornchai, 2012; Rust & Morris, 2012). Thirdly, In terms of guided reflection, it has the potential to enable education abroad participants to develop deeper levels of intercultural competence. Students can record their experience, reflect on it, and discuss what they are learning in a meaningful way. This can take place prior to the departure, during the term abroad, and after the re-entry (Marx & Moss, 2011; Pedersen, 2010). The form of reflection could be a cultural learning journal or a blog documenting their stays abroad (Kruse & Brubaker, 2007; Lee, 2012; Stebleton, Soria, & Cherney, 2013). Moreover, supportive faculty and staff can be of importance to help international students with cross-cultural transition by reducing their pressure and easing their anxiety. Instructors could modify their teaching styles and course assessments to accommodate students’ language levels (Andrade, 2006). Finally, close interaction with native speakers and ethnographic interviews with native informants can be beneficial for gaining students’ both intercultural knowledge and language skills in the study abroad context (Adams, 2006; Kruse & Brubaker, 2007; Lee, 2012; Martinsen, 2011). Hence, instructors and institutions need to create more opportunities for students to meaningfully interact with native speakers in and outside of classroom. Other activities also include engaging in local communicative practices, learninglanguage through observation, participation, and reflection (Kinginger, 2011; Zhu, 2014, p. 76).
One of the problems dealing with language in intercultural communication (face-to- face communication between people from different cultural backgrounds) is the understanding of vocabulary used in a certain language. Each language has its own specific vocabulary which is much influenced by its cultural context; therefore, it is impossible to translate on word-for-word basis from one language to another language. If words are translated in this way, there would be misinterpretation so that communication breaks down. For examples if an advertising slogan is translated into a foreign language, sometimes the translation would make a completely different meaning. The advertising slogan “Come alive with Pepsi” was translated incorrectly into Thai language as “Bring your ancestor back from the dead” (Bovèe and Thill, 2000, p. 71). The intended meaning of the slogan is that ‘Pepsi makes you lively’; however, the word ‘alive’ is interpreted as the opposite of ‘dead’ so that the translation is far from what is intended. As a result, the Thai might not want to buy Pepsi at all since they might fear that if they drink it, they would cause the dead spirit to come to earth. In this case, to avoid miscommunication in translating, we have to look at the meaning as a whole, and not to translate word by word. This is true especially when we want to translate slang or idioms. Even when the vocabulary used is not a problem for both the speaker and the listener, miscommunication might still happen because sometimes words would give different meanings or impression when they are used in different cultural contexts. For example, when an American invites an Indonesian for dinner before they have a business transaction, and the American offers some more helpings to the Indonesian, the Indonesian might answer ‘thank you’. However, the Indonesian might get confused when the host passes the food to him. He might put the food back on the table without taking any because in Indonesian culture, the word ‘thank you’ can be used to reject something, whereas in American culture, ‘thank you’ means ‘yes’. This misunderstanding might influence their business transaction since each has a wrong idea on the other.
In the present context, ICU included close acquaintance, empathy and appreciation between people of different culture. ICU includes three broad concepts: Intercultural Awareness, Intercultural Competence and Intercultural Communication (Meier, 2007). ICU identifies knowledge, skills, behaviours and dispositions that assist students in developing and acting with ICU at school and in their lives beyond school (Kalantzis and Cope 2005). Inter-(cross-)cultural awareness is a prerequisite for the achievement of ICU that begins when a person realizes that he or she has a particular CI that is one among many (Bennet, 2003). The ability to differentiate enables people to compare and therefore evaluate their culture in relation to that of others, which means that they take a decisive step away from the ethnocentric position (Cushner&Brislin in Sen Gupta, 2003).