Intermittent Water Supply

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Microbiological Quality Of Riyadh Water Supplies And Effect Of Intermittent Water Supply On The Bacterial Quality In The Water Distribution Network

Microbiological Quality Of Riyadh Water Supplies And Effect Of Intermittent Water Supply On The Bacterial Quality In The Water Distribution Network

Due to the high demand of water in Riyadh, its distribution to the different parts of the city follows a certain schedule. Pumping of water is stopped for as long as four days in different part of the city by rotation. During this period when there is no flow of water, there is a likelihood of increased bacterial activity in the network. For that and due to the fact that parts of the city do not have sewer connections in addition to the existence of high water table rise, it would be then expected that the bacterial quality in the distribution network may deteriorate especially in areas with network leakage. Therefore, to investigate the effect of scheduling on water bacterial quality, one location was selected and samples were collected at 0, 2, 6, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, and 120 min after the start of water pumping (Figure 2). Results show that no flow conditions in the distribution network due to water scheduling affects the bacterial quality of water but not to a degree that would warrant corrective actions at least in the location studied.
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Study on Implemented 24x7 Water Supply Schemes

Study on Implemented 24x7 Water Supply Schemes

This water could be polluted by wastewater seeping from toilets, septic tanks, domestic drains, and road drains. Intermittent water supply thus not only leads to the water provider delivering polluted water, it also leads to increased pumping costs& reduced lives of pipes due to wide changes in pressure, and an inability to know how the network is operating as meters fails to operate effectively. In addition to this, the major drawback of intermittent water supply system is, it is ineffective for supply and demand management of water.
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Bacterial Contamination of Drinking Water in Guadalajara, Mexico

Bacterial Contamination of Drinking Water in Guadalajara, Mexico

The effect of the region’s intermittent water supply may have an impact on health because of the household storage of water in rooftop tanks. Half of the tanks tested positive for total coliform bacteria. Although the tanks tested negative for E. coli, Colilert™ does not test for all pathogenic serotypes of E. coli. The World Health Organization describes coliform bacteria as a good test for assessment of disinfection practices but not necessarily an indicator of health risk [25]. E. coli is considered the best indicator of fecal contamination. However, both of these bacterial tests are limited in their ability to reveal the presence of other microbes such as viruses and protozoa. Our study indicated that water storage systems, and thus the intermittent water supply that causes these devices to be necessary, may be a contributing factor to exposure to microbial contaminants. More comprehensive bacterial testing, including speciation of coliform bacteria, would shed light on the extent of microbial contamination in rooftop tanks in the ZMG. Furthermore, the survey showed that the public had low confidence in the quality of water supplied by SIAPA. The lack of perceived access to clean drinking water may have serious health implications if the lack of perceived access to clean water encourages the consumption of sugary drinks [26]. Such behaviors are associated with serious adverse health outcomes such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and tooth decay [27,28].
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Applications of Re-Engineered Productivity Award Model in the Measurement of Water Supply System Performance in Nigeria

Applications of Re-Engineered Productivity Award Model in the Measurement of Water Supply System Performance in Nigeria

well- trained productivity assessors, industrial engineers working in conjunction with agencies’ staff. The award framework is designed as a decision support system for management and requires managers to use the model for personal assessment at regular periods. However, as any change agent barriers to the use of the model may be inevitable. A poorly organized department may fear the outcome of the measurement process and may try to block the use of the model. Even the management of the model may be discouraged because of funds to support the modeling. The major barrier in implementing the model and measuring system may be in the requirement of detailed cost data. Modeling system is simplification of reality. The more detailed the model the closer the results will stimulate reality. Realization of the primary objective of the study is commendable and to know the agency’s productivity status as well as areas of improvement. With continuing advances for optimal supply and even distribution of water at minimum cost and quest for increased productivity, the Award framework would become better and be able to meet these needs. It is therefore, expected that the use of the model will become popular as the government confer this prestigious award of excellence to deserving organizations in Nigeria.
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FACTORS AFFECTING WATER QUALITY IN A WATER SUPPLY NETWORK

FACTORS AFFECTING WATER QUALITY IN A WATER SUPPLY NETWORK

One of the factors causing the deterioration of water supplied to customers is corrosion process- es in outdoor and indoor water pipes. Corrosion is enhanced by the presence of aggressive car- bon dioxide in water that deteriorates the passive films (oxide coatings). Corrosion rate is affected not only by water pipeline materials but also by physicochemical composition of water. The effect of corrosion is the deterioration of water supply network materials and enrichment of water deliv- ered to customers with dissolved forms of met- als. Therefore, the quality of water delivered to consumers depends primarily on processes that occur in the water distribution system. The water corrosivity index plays an important role in these processes [Januszewska et al. 2011].
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Water Myths: The Illusion of Canada’s Endless Water Supply

Water Myths: The Illusion of Canada’s Endless Water Supply

Now that we have a more accurate picture of the water capital in Canada, we shall examine how Canada deploys its hydrological resources. Data from 2006 shows that Canadians withdrew approximately 5700 million cubic meters of water and consumed 1300 of it [7]. The rest was “returned back to the system internally, displaced externally to another watershed or polluted and returned”. Municipalities use in total an average of 638 liters per day per capita [6]. According to these figures, “Cana- dians consume more water per capita than do people of any other country, other than the United States” [8]. This leads to significant water shortages, especially in the southern part of the country, which has limited water re- sources. Canadians’ over consumption of water resulted, for example, that in 1999 a quarter of municipalities reported having water distribution problems [8]. This datum is shocking in itself if we realize that 10% - 50% of potable water in municipalities is lost to leaks in the distribution system [9]. The consumption on the muni- cipal level is only part of the problem as the chart below illustrates.
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The Use of Building Services to Enhance the Quality of Life

The Use of Building Services to Enhance the Quality of Life

Therefore services can be termed as the spine of building in terms of functionality. Services can make a house a home and therefore has a major role to play in the built environment. Services constitute basic needs of people in developing countries. Research has shown that over half of the third world population has inadequate or no access to these services and this is adversely affecting the general socio-economic development of their countries. [1]. In Ghana majority of houses are built without services. Services come into these buildings after the completion of the buildings. Therefore service lines such as electricity, water and telephone are just laid haphazardly within the built environment. This situation affects the functionality and aesthetics of the buildings. This further affects the productivity of occupants resulting in low standard of living. In Ghana many buildings especially apartment buildings are constructed without much in depth into services incorporated within the buildings, forgetting that services form the spine of the buildings. Functionality is mostly taken into consideration but how easy these services lines can be maintained is the major problems. This is also buttressed by the haphazard nature of the service lines therefore degrading the aesthetic value of the structures. Easy maintenance means low cost of maintenance and therefore even though initial cost might be a little higher, money used for maintenance will be saved. This is essential because services takes about
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Fresh water resources and water supply - unit 3

Fresh water resources and water supply - unit 3

 Reservoirs are above ground and insulated  Quality drinking water is generally available.. Sanitation of Water[r]

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The Energy Efficiency of District Cooling for Space Conditioning

The Energy Efficiency of District Cooling for Space Conditioning

The decision, whether to use absorption chillers or compressor chillers basically depends on the investment and operational costs. The invest- ment costs for absorption chillers can be a little higher, depending on the type of the absorption chiller and the heat source in use. One of the criteria for the decision could be also the ecological aspect. Ab- sorption chillers are almost noiseless during opera- tion. They also use the refrigerants, such as amonia (NH 3 - H 2 O) and water (LiBr - H 2 O), which have a

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Urban water demand management in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Urban water demand management in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Next, I estimated price elasticity using observed data (see Section 7.3.1 – current water consumption of metered and non-metered apartment households calculated each year from my samples) from 2010 and 2011 with the real water price for metered apartment and non-metered apartment users. These are uniform tariff for metered apartment users increased by 35% (a cubic meter of water was 2.08₮ in 2010 and 2.81 ₮ in 2011) and flat tariff for non-metered apartment users increased by 22.5% (the tariff was 2375.1 ₮ per person per month in 2010 and 2910.54 ₮ per person per month in 2011). The price elasticities using observed data were -0.634 for metered apartment water demand and -0.547 for non-metered apartment water demand. Importantly, the estimates are in the range for the price elasticities generated by the RPM (between -0.927 and -0.313 for 2011 samples of metered households). Although the ‘actual’ elasticity estimates are not true estimates (the simple calculation does not hold other factors constant), it is interesting to note that the hypothetical scenarios presented in my questionnaires are statistically indistinguishable from the actual responses observed in the price change. Moreover, the price elasticity estimates appear to be similar to estimates from other developing countries, which typically range from -0.3 to -0.6 (Nauges and Whittington, 2010). For example, Nauges and Strans (2007) study of private and public wells and taps, trucks, and river water for residents in three cities of El Salvador (-0.7 to -0.4), Basani et al’s (2008) study of seven provincial towns in Cambodia (-0.5 to -0.4), Cheesman and Bennett’s (2008) study in Buon Ma Thuot city and Nauges and Berg’s (2009) study of Sri Lanka (-0.37 to -0.15). The CBM may not be precise but it is, at least, capable of generating plausible price elasticity estimates for non-market goods and services.
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Evaluation of the Sand Abstraction Systems for Rural Water Supply: the case of Lupane District, Zimbabwe.

Evaluation of the Sand Abstraction Systems for Rural Water Supply: the case of Lupane District, Zimbabwe.

People in rural areas of Zimbabwe traditionally obtained water from unprotected sources such as from sand wells in rivers for generations before the introduction of alternative sources like hand pumped boreholes and dams (Hussey, 1999). Soil erosion in many cases leads to large quantities of sand deposits into waterways and rivers. These unconsolidated sediments in rivers retain water in the pore spaces. In long stretches of a river where the sand builds up to two metres or more, large volumes of water are retained. This water retained within sand riverbeds has traditionally been utilized by arid-land dwellers and has been an established and accepted practice, probably throughout history. Temporary sand wells are dug in the riverbeds and are regularly deepened as the water level drops. This water abstraction method is low cost, practical and easily constructed which makes it popular with resource-poor communities. However the sand wells last only for one season and also causes environmental degradation. This occurs when branches, leaves, seeds and other organic matter from bush wood fences used to protect the sand wells were buried in the sand during rains. The seeds would germinate forming islands of vegetation on river beds in the process, thereby threatening the river lifespan. The community members had to continuously shift the position of the sand wells on a yearly basis looking for a river section holding water. The present technology of sand-abstraction is the result of a progression from the traditional open sand well to the installation of sub-surface abstraction equipment that effectively separate water from sand (Nyoni, 2009).
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PREVALENCE OF WATER-BORNE DISEASE IN FARMGATE SLUM OF DHAKA CITY: A CASE  STUDY OF DISEASE PROPAGATION IN BANGLADESH

PREVALENCE OF WATER-BORNE DISEASE IN FARMGATE SLUM OF DHAKA CITY: A CASE STUDY OF DISEASE PROPAGATION IN BANGLADESH

and poor personal hygiene (wash related diseases like diarrhea, dysentery as well as typhoid). [8] Clean drinking water is important for overall health and plays a vital role in infant and child health and their survival. [9] Some organizations are trying to improve the condition of water supply and sanitation facilities for urban poor people in different cities with different approaches. But the crisis of water supply and sanitation facilities is a common feature in daily life of urban slum. [10] This survey is aimed to link between the environmental conditions and consequent public health implications in the context of slum water pollution and sanitation as revealed after a comprehensive survey conducted during April, 2018 on Farmgate slum, Dhaka city, Bangladesh where approximately 3000 thousand people live in the slum.
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An Integrated Framework for Assessment of Hybrid Water Supply Systems

An Integrated Framework for Assessment of Hybrid Water Supply Systems

In most cities around the world, water services systems are mainly centralized. This is partly due to historical reasons, and in part due to the maturity of the technology and the opportunities for economics of scale. However, the lifespan and the planning horizon of central water infrastructures can be up to 100 years making the prediction of climate change, water availability, population growth as well as shrinkage and land use changes uncertain [1]. For instance, in some cities there are concerns about over-reliance on centralized systems in terms of their future sustainability for meeting a range of social, economic and environmental goals as well as for meeting the water demand because of the increasing growth and concentration of population in urban centers [2–4]. In some cities with shrinking populations as in Eastern Germany [5,6] and Japan [7] there are concerns about low flows in sewer pipe causing reduced critical traction forces causing sewer blockages [8] and ageing of water supply systems [1]. Centralized systems can also be vulnerable to occurrences of periodic droughts and the projected impacts of climate change [9]. Therefore, the case has been frequently made to augment the existing supply systems by integration of traditional and non-traditional supply sources [10]. This type of integration helps both in cases of increasing and decreasing population by making centralized organized water infrastructure more flexible and adaptable [1]. In the last 20 years, many alternative (non-traditional) water supply options like rainwater, stormwater and recycled water have emerged. The combination of such decentralized water supply options with centralized system which is defined as hybrid water supply systems by Sapkota, et al. [4], have displayed potential to meet the increasing water demand [11,12]. It is argued that this type of hybrid approach can thus offer flexible solutions, wherever certain thresholds of population density are exceeded [13,14
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Collateral Formation After Repeated Transient Dearterialization of the Rat Liver

Collateral Formation After Repeated Transient Dearterialization of the Rat Liver

The rationale behind repeated intermittent dearterializations is to reduce the arterial blood supply to liver tumour without giving rise to a collateral circulation and to decrease the d[r]

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Sustainable Management of Water Supply in Bahawalpur City, Pakistan

Sustainable Management of Water Supply in Bahawalpur City, Pakistan

Bazar by the provincial government are inadequate to meet the potable water demand (Zafar 2012). Bahawalpur is a city leading towards a situation of acute water shortage in future (Anwar and Bureste 2011). Because drinking water supply situation of Bahawalpur is much below as compared to all other cities i.e. the service coverage is about 3% of population (The Urban Unit 2011). The situation of water supply and quality is not satisfactory indicated acute shortage and deteriorating quality of water causing fatal diseases in Bahawalpur city as it is noticed in a study that in Islamic colony about 36%, Satellite town 18.1% and Shahdrah 22.1% residents have been facing serious waterborne diseases (Mohsin et al. 2013). In developed countries, governments start to adopt many strategies to overcome the expected water related problems in future. But unfortunately, in poor countries where situation is worst, this problem is not attaining that concern which it deserves. In order to provide safe water to the inhabitants the immediate steps needs to be taken by federal government. In this way by the adaptation of water resources development (by constructing new dams etc.) and sustainable use of water and water management practices additional 20 million acre feet (MAF) water can be store for increasing agricultural and drinking needs in Pakistan (Pakissan 2013). From environmental point of view, sustainable management of water supply system includes the water supply, water intake, water use and implementation of policies for water conservation is of vital importance.
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WATER MANAGEMENT SERVICES REGULATION IN LATVIA: PRINCIPLES AND DEVELOPMENT TRENDS

WATER MANAGEMENT SERVICES REGULATION IN LATVIA: PRINCIPLES AND DEVELOPMENT TRENDS

2. The Author concludes that the problem related to the economical standing of many states is finding the mid way and the best solution to meet the needs of all parties, for water management companies to obey environmental protection requirements (since these are remarkable costs), paying capacity of people (it is low in Latvia), guarantee investments and development for the service provider (these costs will be included in the tariff) and the cost for the services (tariff).

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Characterizing drought in California: new drought indices and scenario-testing in support of resource management

Characterizing drought in California: new drought indices and scenario-testing in support of resource management

Characterizing and understanding different kinds of droughts, their associated impacts, and how they are considered to have ended serves to provide information for managers to develop adaptation strategies, forecast short- and long-term management needs, and inform the public. To assist local resource managers to prepare for drought, in 2015, we developed a suite of extreme drought scenarios in conjunction with stakeholder interaction for a variety of sectors in the basin, includ- ing water management, fisheries, health and safety, con- servation and biodiversity, and forest management. It was concluded that the most useful examples would be to append historical droughts to the ongoing drought to evaluate the impacts of extended and extreme droughts on the infrastructure. The rationale for this approach was to represent potential future extreme conditions by incorporating a range of past conditions that people had lived through and dealt with and add these to current conditions of landscape and water supply stress to see how management strategies could cope with exacer- bated conditions they had not dealt with before. We chose to use the acute 2-year drought of 1976/1977 that drained the reservoir at Lake Mendocino and prompted serious drought planning, as well as the drought of the 1930s, a drought that, although less acute in terms of reduced precipitation, was warmer and extended for multiple years from approximately 1928 through 1936. Including post-drought recovery years, the devised ex- treme drought scenarios extended from October 2011– June 2015 + July 1976–December 1985 for case 1 and October 2011–June 2015 + July 1928–December 1937 for case 2. The historical drought periods were cor- rected to have the mean air temperature coincide with the mean air temperature of water years 2012–2015.
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Monitoring performance of a combined water recycling system

Monitoring performance of a combined water recycling system

A pulsed output water meter is installed on the main incoming water supply into the building to monitor the total mains cold water consumed within the building (WM). This directly supplies a potable cold water storage tank, from which a boosted water supply feeds the appliances (excluding WCs and urinals) within the building, the hot water boilers, and the water recycling post-treatment storage tank that feeds all WCs and urinals. This provides a top-up supply in the event of flushing demand exceeding recycled grey and rainwater supply. The recycling system reuses the waste water from the wash basins and showers in the central core area, and the rainwater collected from the bottom of the light well. A total of 68 wash hand basins, 11 showers and a cleaners’ sink supply the system. These connect into two main discharge pipes that join together along with the rainwater collected from the atrium collection space before supplying the 4 m 3 grey water pretreatment tank. An additional 30 wash hand basins, eight showers and eight cleaner sinks are not connected to the system, peripherally located in the building or situated on the ground floor. Both grey water system tanks are located in the water tank plant room. From the pretreatment tank, grey water is drawn into a multimedia filter, where the major impurities and debris are removed. The filter/backwash pump set then transfers the water into the main 8 m 3 storage tank. An integrated back- wash function periodically uses recycled grey water from the main storage tank to clean the filter, which is discharged to the drain. The main tank has a central divider to ensure the water supply to the building is uninterrupted while maintenance tasks are carried out. From the grey water storage tank, a booster set
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Monitoring Performance of a combined water recycling system

Monitoring Performance of a combined water recycling system

A pulsed output water meter is installed on the main incoming water supply into the building to monitor the total mains cold water consumed within the building (WM). This directly supplies a potable cold water storage tank, from which a boosted water supply feeds the appliances (excluding WCs and urinals) within the building, the hot water boilers, and the water recycling post-treatment storage tank that feeds all WCs and urinals. This provides a top-up supply in the event of flushing demand exceeding recycled grey and rainwater supply. The recycling system reuses the waste water from the wash basins and showers in the central core area, and the rainwater collected from the bottom of the light well. A total of 68 wash hand basins, 11 showers and a cleaners’ sink supply the system. These connect into two main discharge pipes that join together along with the rainwater collected from the atrium collection space before supplying the 4 m 3 grey water pretreatment tank. An additional 30 wash hand basins, eight showers and eight cleaner sinks are not connected to the system, peripherally located in the building or situated on the ground floor. Both grey water system tanks are located in the water tank plant room. From the pretreatment tank, grey water is drawn into a multimedia filter, where the major impurities and debris are removed. The filter/backwash pump set then transfers the water into the main 8 m 3 storage tank. An integrated back- wash function periodically uses recycled grey water from the main storage tank to clean the filter, which is discharged to the drain. The main tank has a central divider to ensure the water supply to the building is uninterrupted while maintenance tasks are carried out. From the grey water storage tank, a booster set
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Evaluating the Node Importance in Lifeline Systems Based on Variable Fuzzy Clustering

Evaluating the Node Importance in Lifeline Systems Based on Variable Fuzzy Clustering

EPANET 2.0 is a water distribution system modeling software package developed by the Water Supply and Water Resources Division of the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA). It performs extended-period simulation of hydraulic and water-quality behavior within pressurized pipe networks and is designed to be “a research tool that improves our understanding of the movement and fate of drinking-water constituents within distribution systems”. In view of EPANET 2.0’s powerful and convenient hydraulic analysis capability, it is adopted.
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