Efficient and effective movement of goods is very critical in today’s competi- tive environment especially for developing countries suffering from crippling logistics costs which limit their competitive ability in the global economy. Putting in place an optimal logistics network design offers great potential for logistics cost reduction and service quality improvement . Therefore, this paper presents a model for effective integration of inland intermodal terminal into logistics network. The model simultaneously determines the number and location of inland terminals in network that minimize the total cost of freight flow to hinterland. The model uses Abidjan port in Cote d’Ivoire as the case study for solving numeric examples. The problem will be formulated in the case of a rail-road network where post-routing is done by road and rail link between terminal. We present a linear optimization model which is imple- mented using LINGO Mathematical Modeling Language.
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The paper developed the intermodal terminal network framework for the case study of the intermodal transport through the Togolese corridor. The present framework consisted of determining the optimal intermodal terminal location using the mathematical linear programming model computed in the LINGO software. This involved the modelling of the transport network, while taking into account the demand forecast of year 2023 of the 3 LLCs. This demand forecast was required to determine the viability of such a project. This research adds val- ue to the transport sector in Togo and is unique in the sense that it’s the first of its type to identify an optimal intermodal terminal location on the Togolese cor- ridor through the use of an optimization method of mathematical linear pro- gramming. The present research identified the city of Mango as the optimal lo- cation for the intermodal terminal. The Mango city is located 550 km north of Lomé (Capital city of Togo). The optimization results reveal the optimal inter- modal terminal location in terms of total transport cost minimization for con- tainers cargo in direction to 3 LLCs of Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. In line with the findings and in regard to the increasing trade volume due to the ever grow- ing demand for transport cargo to and from the landlocked countries of Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger, this case study highlights the merits of the intermodal transport for the Togolese transport industry and, advises policy makers to take into consideration its results.
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The role of logistics process in calling the world as global village is a lot. Logistics as a growing structure is directly proportional to the consumption. World trade volume increased to 16 trillion dollar and logistics volume reached to 6.4 trillion dollar. So 40 percent of the trade volume consists of logistic activities. Turkey has a location within 600 billion worth of goods movement. Surrounded on three sides by the sea, connecting Asia and Europe and by its important role in Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, Turkey is in a situation to be a centre for logistics activities. In 2023 Turkey has set a target goal to make Istanbul a center of logistics. In order to undertake this mission Turkey must strengthen the intermodal transport network and intermodal terminals. This article is a survey on intermodal transportation and their modes; a detailed investigation on worldwide transportation corridors in intermodal network. At the same time this article is an investigation about intermodal terminals which are highly used as main ports and statistics information are comparing with each other. Turkey’s and World’s logistics information are studied in detail. According to this research, In Turkey especially in Istanbul there is a need for intermodal terminal which is offered in this article. Finally, the location of this intermodal terminal was determined and it is explained why this location was selected.
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The paper studied 5 transport corridors in West Africa, from the ports of Abidjan, Cotonou, Lagos, Lomé, and Tema, to the landlocked countries (LLCs) of Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger. The study found 15 transport routes available from these ports to the LLCs. It used two modes of transport with their respective transport costs as variables influencing shippers in their choice of corridor route. In regards to the modes of transport, the study chose the unimodal road transport and the intermodal transport as the combination of the rail and road transport, with a projection of the cargo volume demand in 2023 from the LLCs. In addition, a survey conducted on the Togolese cor- ridor with the aim to find from users’ perspective the adequate intermodal terminal location, identified the city of Mango as an ideal host. As for the transport cost analysis attached to each of the modes of transport, the results of this study revealed that in the case of the unimodal road transport, ship- pers from Burkina Faso would rather choose Tema port in Ghana as optimal route, while shippers from Mali would rather choose Abidjan port in Ivory Coast, and shippers from Niger would choose Cotonou in Benin as the op- timal route. Consequently, the study also found that the added parameter of the intermodal terminal of Mango on the Togolese corridor would change the routing habit of the LLCs shippers. In fact, with this parameter in line, the Togolese corridor would be optimal in terms of transport cost minimization for the Niger and Burkina Faso shippers. Based on these findings the study highlights the benefits of the intermodality which it presents to the policy- makers.
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Trends and experiences clearly show the need, importance, objectives, directions, measures and solutions of development of logistics and intermodal transport. In developed countries, logistics and intermodal transport have long been the main factors of economic development, spatial connectivity and market integration. Inclusion of Serbia into the European transport and logistics system, international goods and transport flows is not possible without the use of intermodal technologies. Project and development of intermodal terminal in Belgrade is very important initiator of the development of the entire economic system in Serbia. In this regard, it is necessary to take a series of measures and recommendations that support the further development of logistics and intermodal transport technologies.
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The objective of the two models proposed are cost minimization of transferring the hinterland flow, service level required by demand segments and a full asset (mainly train fleet) utilization. The two models are both constrained by Consolidation on railway arcs and adaptation of train capacities to demand segments. As stated before, a set of feasible paths are considered at tactical level and each path has as attributes: Origin, destination in addition to intermodal terminal fixed cost (indexed by the service class for the first model) and railway arc capacity in term of train frequency. For the linear model (Model 1), on each path, a set of three differentiated services are considered. A service is characterized by transfer time, booking procedure, and price incentive…. (Express, ordinary, highly consolidated….). For example, at least three types of service could be considered, a priori, on each path:
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Location problems draw attention of numerous researchers in different fields. This paper focused on providing a methodology for determining the optimal lo- cations for intermodal freight transportation terminals in consolidation net- work. The primary purpose of this study is to describe a method that helps iden- tify the best potential locations. Our goal is to minimize total costs in order to increase the efficiency of the transportation system. This paper also has allowed us to have an overview of the methods and models that exist for solving the problem of intermodal, terminal locating. Despite the rich and diverse literature, location problems face theoretical and practical challenges, because every loca- tion problem requires a research approach, appropriate model and methods suitable for solving. This paper is an attempt to provide insight and inspiration for solving practical problems by presenting several basic methods for solving terminal location problems. Each of these models added some insights to the general problem of intermodal terminal location in the literature and applica- tions.
Transhipment points enable mode changes of the freight being carried in a transportation unit. Various types of containers can be used as transportation units, but to qualify as intermodal transportation, they must be handled as a single unit of equip- ment throughout the trip. Compared to bulk transportation, containers offer several benefits, including less product pack- aging, higher efficiency and less damage en route. Container dimensions have been standardized over the years, and sea transport primarily utilizes containers on ships . However, there is no standardized container type designed specifically for humanitarian logistics. Nevertheless, a prom- ising intermodal transportation unit (ITU) design was funded under EU 7 th Framework Programme (Tellibox ) for com- mercial setting combined transportation (i.e. road, rail, and sea). For smaller ITUs that are suitable for all transportation modes, AKE prefixed loading units  determined by International Air Transport Association (IATA) can be used.
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Survey data were collected by one of the authors from November 2013 to March 2014. The target group in scope for intermodality was a broad range of Greek community people: air and rail travellers, and most importantly potential travellers who were at the time unaware of intermodal solutions. In particular, the survey was conducted with questionnaires filled up by Greek (both incoming and outgoing) passengers either online and/or in points of access such as Athens International Airport. A total of 469 questionnaires were answered, 256 from internet and 213 with the interviewer’s (i.e. one of the authors) onsite assistance. From them only 431 were taken into consideration and the rest were excluded from the analysis as invalid. The process that was used to conduct the survey is called simple random sampling (Kothari, 2004). Each individual was chosen randomly and entirely by chance (Dattalo, 2010). The statistical package SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences; Version: IBM SPSS Statistics 20) was used to derive descriptive statistics. Chi-square tests and non- parametric Monte Carlo test with 95% confidence level or a 0.05 significance level were used to examine the statistical relationship between the different variables. Furthermore, the ratio Cramer’s V was used to examine the intensity of interdependence among the variables.
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terminals, warehouses, distributions Centre, customs, finance institutions that can facilitate the distribution of freight to the hinterland and landlocked coun- tries. A gateway is mostly the primary point through which goods go into or out of a country or a region. The evolution of intermodal transport has re-enforced the functions of gateway ports as they provide transhipment services thereby improving on the efficiency of the shipment of freight from their point of origin to their destination points . Most gateway points are located along major transportation corridors, and they sometimes function as hubs in the case of port terminals. However, the difference between a gateway and a hub is that gateways connect different transport modes, but a hub is a central location con- necting inflows and outflows of freight using the same transport mode. Proper coordination of the gateway ports and the transport corridors requires all the actors to be willing to invest and carry out strategic planning to make it work .
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One of the possible policy measures to increase freight flows using intermodal transport is the opening of new container terminals on inland waterways or along rail connections. Such a terminal must be well located in order to reach this goal, which means that it will be chosen following a set of criteria as the geographic distribution of freight flows and their costs for transhipment. To achieve this work, an algorithm using these parameters has been implemented in NODUS. It locates new terminals taking the existing ones into account and considering the terminals as hubs. It is the p-Hub Median problem (p-HMP) first formulated by O’Kelly . In the standard multiple-hub network problem (see ) for the different problem classes), three constraints are traditionally identified: it is assumed that all the hubs are connected directly to each other, that there is no direct connection between non-hub nodes, and that the non-hub nodes are each connected to a single hub. The inter-hub links consolidate the total flow coming from the origin hub (or any of its spoke nodes) to the destination hub (or any of its spoke nodes). The location of the hubs must be chosen from the set of nodes, N, considered as potential locations. Economies of scale can be associated with the transportation system between the hubs. The objective is to minimise the total transportation cost. Other problem formulations are available, but this one has been chosen because it enables to take explicitly into account the costs for pre- and post-haulage by road in addition to the cost of the main haul, which is an advantage when locating terminals in an intermodal context. The formulation used for the p-HMP is the one by Ernst and Krishnamoorthy  that considerably reduces the required computing time. The objective function of this problem tends to minimise the generalised cost (1) which comprises the costs for pre- and post-haulage by road plus the main haulage using the waterways (including possible economies Table 1 Performance measures
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Intermodal rail freight transport has been in use in Slovenia since 1974, with the first “piggy-back” trains connecting Ljubljana with Köln and Munich in Germany. In 1989 established company YuCombi, later renamed into Adria kombi ltd., has a wide spread network of trains transporting containers, semi-trailers and swap bodies to 72 terminals in Europe and currently offers nine specialized services both in domestic and in international traffic. In addition, they also provide tailored services for automobile industry and the industry of fast moving consumer goods.
The sample representing the population of this study was taken as many as 300 respondents with characteristics of sex, age, education, employment, and income. The research location is at the Harjamukti bus terminal, Prujakan train station, and the Cirebon Prosecutor's train station. The technique of collecting data using questionnaires and interviews. Data analysis techniques using structural equation modeling with PLS.
The purpose of this research was to assess the cost-efficiency of the use of various sizes of container transport units carried in sea-land intermodal chains. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of the economic efficiency of the transport chain using cargo units of different sizes, including standard and non-standard. For assessing different scenarios of transport, the mathematical model was elaborated and calculations with the use of this model were conducted. The obtained results were used for the assessment of the influence of the use of different combinations of containers on the economic efficiency of global trade by comparing the costs of deliveries of goods with the value of these goods.
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The materials that are used for the bachelor assignment is what can be found in the literature concerning the subject, and the data set that has been gathered by Cofano. The data set is a large database considering various aspects of the container terminal, and all the containers moves being performed. The data covers all container information over a time span of 1 year. Data that could be used is the arrival and leave date of the containers, the import and export modalities, and the amount of relocation moves being performed. This data can be used to help create a new stacking method, and to make this new method comparable to the current policy. The knowledge from the literature can be combined with the dataset that is available to strengthen the solution that will be devised. A more elaborate overview of the available data and the data analysis itself can be found in Section 3.2. Information can also be obtained by conversing with the company supervisor, the other employees of Cofano, and from expertise knowledge from the UT-supervisor. Furthermore, information can be obtained from previous bachelor assignments, which will provide a guideline for the research setup and to give an indication about the requirements and time limit.
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Another important point in the context of the intermodal freight hub enclave Budapest terminal 1 is the realization of a Cargo City. It's a great strategic infrastructure for managing and handling of new freight traffic volumes expected in an area of strong growth as Budapest. It is an innovative project under every aspect: structural, logistic, security and technology. Cargo City will be a cutting-edge reality, able to manage and efficiently handling all kinds of goods: perishable goods, dangerous goods, valuable goods and animals. The Cargo City could respond concretely to the prospects more than favorable growth of cargo sector representing innovative business opportunity that would produce positive effects on employment and ensure a better quality of logistics services offered. Cargo City will be built in a strategic position near the Airport Terminal 1 and will be directly linked to the intermodal freight hub, to the motorway network and to the passenger Terminal 2. The project must be developed for subsequent modules, to allow progressive extensions in the light of the increased volumes of traffic and requests by operators. The structure should also accommodate office areas, policies and services for businesses (banking and post office, dining, etc.). Specialized freight-handler will operate in the Cargo City that must be provided with warehouses and refrigerated areas of adequate automatic storage systems. Cargo City should have, in addition, pitches for all-cargo aircraft, placed just in front of the warehouses so as to facilitate and expedite freight operations. In Cargo City must be present all State bodies responsible for carrying out all the necessary procedures for the handling of import and export goods. Ample space for offices and warehouses will be dedicated to air carriers, freight forwarders and freight operators. New aircraft parking areas, paving of roads and parking lots, as well as the engineering works, electrical, mechanical and electromechanical and its highway access ramp have to be realized. The area also will be served by a shuttle to the Terminal 2 passengers and train station nearby the intermodal freight hub.
Efficient transfer coordination in an intermodal transportation network can reduce the dwell times of cargos at the transfer terminals where various routes interconnect, thereby also increasing the vehicle utilisation rates, reducing the need for direct routes to connect many origins and destinations, reducing storage requirements at transfer terminals, and improving total system efficiency. In this paper we analyse an intermodal freight system with a single transfer hub and develop a model that optimises the schedule of vehicles on main routes while assuming Poisson arrivals on feeder routes. This model determines the departure times on main routes that minimize the supplier’s overall system cost, including storage, vehicle, in-terminal operation and late delivery penalty costs.
Abstract— Intermodal transportation is the transportation between two modes like road and rail. It also known as combined transportation system. The aim of this study is to develop a model called SimConT model, or simulation container terminal model for intermodal transportation system. Two modes i.e., rail and road mode is considered to develop this model. The model can also be used as a tool to calculate the costs and environmental effects of a given transport system. The potential of intermodal road-rail transport was determined using the SimConT model. An input data set was developed based on the collected data from Mahuva port. The output data of this SimConT model is compared with the data of Mundra port. By using this intermodal transportation model business economic costs and social economic costs can be lowered, as well as harmful environmental effects can be controlled. SimConT model can be better used for identification optimal route for delivery of goods, optimization of the use of resources, for improvement of existing model or database system.
It’s easy to anticipate and understand the need for investments in intermodal transportation using the geography of freight transportation networks. GIS mapping was used to construct and process shipment routes considering different combinations of truck, rail and water transportation. Mapping allows the different mode to be linked together via more than one transportation terminals (Southworth & Peterson, 2000).
The majority of the studies that deal with intermodal freight shipments seek to minimize routing cost. Barnhart and Ratliff (1993) proposed a model for minimizing routing cost in a road-rail intermodal network. Their model was to help shippers in deciding routing options. It used shortest path and matching algorithmic procedures to achieve the objective. Boardman et al. (1997) developed a software-based decision support system (DSS) to assist shippers in making the best selection given a combination of modes. The crux of this DSS is the calculation of least-cost paths using a k-shortest path method, while requiring the transportation costs of all modes and transfer costs between modes as input. A similar approach was used by Song and Chen (2007) in their development of mode selection software. However, the modes considered by Song and Chen had pre-scheduled departure times. The authors concluded that the minimum cost delivery problem is equivalent to the shortest path problem if the release time at the origin and the due date at the destination are provided.
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