Internal Combustion Engine

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IJER editorial: The future of the internal combustion engine

IJER editorial: The future of the internal combustion engine

It is important to note that there are still no real alternatives that can compete with the IC engine over the entire range of applications that they cover and that, even today, IC engines are undergoing continuous further improvement [1, 2]. These developments make it even more challenging for competing technologies to gain advantage over the IC engine. Focusing on transport, the demand for energy is very large. There are around 1.2 billion light-duty vehicles (LDV) and around 380 million heavy-duty vehicles in the world, and these numbers are growing. The daily demand for liquid fuels exceeds 11 billion litres (~3,000 million tonnes oil equivalent per year, see Fig. 1). All alternatives, whether they are alternatives to IC engines or alternatives to petroleum-based liquid fuels, face very significant barriers to fast adoption. But, ill-informed mischaracterizations of combustion have led to a belief in many quarters that the death of the internal combustion engine (ICE) is both desirable and imminent. For example, many people believe that most of the world’s greenhouse-gas
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The effect of ambient temperature to the performance of internal combustion engine

The effect of ambient temperature to the performance of internal combustion engine

rotate the crankshaft. Crankshaft reacted as an output of the engine, connected to a transmission or power train to transmit the energy to drive a vehicle. There three type of internal combustion engine. There are rotary engine, reciprocating engine and gas turbine engine. In rotary engines, a rotor rotates inside the engine to produce power. In the case of the reciprocating engines, a piston reciprocates within a cylinder. The reciprocating motion of the piston is converted into the rotary motion of the vehicle's wheels. In automobiles, reciprocating engines are used. They are the most widely used type of engine. The classification of internal combustion engine been shown at Figure 2.1 (Wallington, Kaiser, & Farrell, 2006). The reciprocating engine mechanism consist of a piston which moves in a cylinder and forms a movable gas tight seal from crankshaft and connecting rod to create a rotary motion (Gupta, 2013). Pistons generally are dome-shaped on top, and hollow at the bottom. In a four-stroke engine, the piston completes one reciprocation cycle in four strokes: intake, compression, power, and exhaust. There are two types of reciprocating engine; which are spark ignition (SI) engine also known as gasoline engine and compression ignition (CI) engine or usually known as diesel engine. Since reciprocating engines are the most widely used engines, they have become synonym with the termed IC engines.
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Two Alternatives to the Internal Combustion Engine

Two Alternatives to the Internal Combustion Engine

Both the pollution problem and the oil shortage require new ways of powering our automobiles. One possible solution is to replace the conventional internal combustion engine with a combination of an electric motor assisting a smaller, more fuel efficient internal combustion engine. Automobiles with this combination are called hybrid-electric vehicles. Currently, only Toyota and Honda sell such vehicles in the United States, and the two companies have different design philosophies in regard to how to best use the electric motor/gasoline engine combination.
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Rotory Internal combustion engine- A study

Rotory Internal combustion engine- A study

Most widely studied rotary internal combustion engine is Wankel engine. A lot of research is available on Wankel engine[3].The Wankel engine has triangular rotor as in fig1, which rotates within a trochoidal housing. [4]. The tops of the triangular rotor are continuously in contact with the housing. This results in three separate volumes each of which helpsin a key function.A combustion area is built into each rotor flank which contains about 50% of the total working volume at top-dead-center. Each of the rotor side functions as a sealed working volume, where all the four stroke are accomplished. The inlet port allows air fuel mixture in cavity. As the rotor rotates it compresses this fuel air mixture. A spark plug is provided their which ignites this compressed fuel air mixture. The expansion force from combustion of mixture, acts on the rotor and rotates it further. This movement open the exhaust port thus allowing the residual gases to escape from the chamber as visible in fig1. One crankshaft rotation completes four stroke cycle.The "rotary piston" turns directly on an eccentric shaft.The Wankel's engine crankshaft completes three rotations for every one rotation of the triangular rotor, this means that the full rotation of crankshaft one power stroke is delivered.
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Performance Evaluation of Internal Combustion Engine With Hydrogen addition in Fuel

Performance Evaluation of Internal Combustion Engine With Hydrogen addition in Fuel

The source of diesel, petrol, LPG is limited and availability is decreasing day by day in bulk and production rate of fuel will decrease in future and environmental pollution will increase by emission from engine exhaust gases. Therefore, there is strong motivation in looking for alternative fuel for different application. The history of alternative transportation fuels such as methanol, compressed natural gas and ethanol, biodiesel has not been very successful. Lack of any private benefits, need of major infrastructural changes for their mass acceptance has contributed to this failure. However, depending on the fuel supply and storage infrastructure and the application in present day vehicles, natural gas and bio-fuels are seen to be the short-term option for meeting the above mentioned goals, whereas hydrogen and the fuel cell technology are expected to contribute in the long run. Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, nontoxic flammable gas, with less local pollutant effects. It can be used as a transport fuel, in internal combustion engine (ICE). It contains more energy per unit mass than other fuel. The future prospects of renewable hydrogen that is hydrogen produced from renewable sources, its availability, its penetration and acceptance in the future transport sector.
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REVIEW OF TRIBOLOGY PARAMETERS IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

REVIEW OF TRIBOLOGY PARAMETERS IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

This paper presents studies related to engine tribology in internal combustion engine. Friction loss is the main portion around forty nine percent of the energy consumption developed in an engine. Lubricants are used to reduce the friction and wear and fuel consumption, increased power output of the engine, reduced oil consumption, a reduction in exhaust emissions in the engine. From the Analysis of the tribologist this means increasing specific loads, speeds and temperatures for the major frictional components of the engine, namely, the piston assembly, the valve train and the journal bearings, and lower viscosity engine oils with which to lubricate them. The literatures revealed that the most important parameter in the engine is lubricant, speed and load and with help of many different methods like blending the engine oil, remove the compression ring , additives are added to engine oil and analysis of piston ring assembly it can get the control on to the friction and wear and achieve almost all the objective that are concerned.
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A Review on Finite Element Analysis of the Crankshaft of Internal Combustion Engine

A Review on Finite Element Analysis of the Crankshaft of Internal Combustion Engine

The advancement in industry and technology leads to the need of low cost and highly reliable product. Internal combustion engine is one of the most important devices in the industry which converts chemical energy into mechanical energy. Consequently, there is a constant requirement of highly efficient and durable internal combustion engines in the market. Crankshaft plays a pivotal role in its functioning. Stress evaluation, fatigue calculation and vibration analysis are the most important for satisfactory working performance and life of engine. Modal analysis gives information about the vibration structure characteristics. Fatigue analysis gives an idea of life of the components whereas stress intensities and critical stresses are evaluated using structural analysis, therefore Finite Element Analysis is the most effective technique for designing the crankshaft which helps engineers to improve the existing crankshaft design and as well as to find out the best optimized crankshaft design. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been developed into a key indispensable technology in the modeling and simulation of various
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Review of Flywheel based Internal Combustion Engine Hybrid Vehicles

Review of Flywheel based Internal Combustion Engine Hybrid Vehicles

Hybrid vehicles of different configurations and utilizing different energy storage systems have existed in development for many decades and more recently in limited production. They can be grouped as parallel, series or complex hybrids. Another classification is micro, mild and full hybrids which makes the distinction on the basis of functionality. The common energy storage systems in hybrid vehicles are batteries, supercapacitors and high speed flywheels. This paper aims to review a specific type of hybrid vehicle which involves the internal combustion engine (ICE) as the prime mover and the high speed flywheel as an energy storage device. Such hybrids are now attracting considerable interest given their potential for low cost. It is hence timely to produce a review of research and development in this subject. The flywheel is coupled to the drive line with a continuous variable transmission (CVT). The CVT can be of various types such as electrical, hydraulic or mechanical but usually in this case it is a non-electrical one. Different configurations are possible and the paper provides a timeline of the development of such powertrains with various examples. These types of hybrid vehicles have existed as prototypes for many decades and the authors believe that their development has reached levels where they can be considered serious contenders for production vehicles.
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Failure Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Valves: A Review

Failure Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Valves: A Review

Abstract: Intake and exhaust valves are very important engine components that are used to control the flow and exchange of gases in internal combustion engines. They are used to seal the working space inside the cylinder against the manifolds; and are opened and closed by means of what is known as the valve train mechanism. Such valves are loaded by spring forces and subjected to thermal loading due to high temperature and pressure inside the cylinder. The present study focuses on different failure modes of internal combustion engine valves, failures due to fatigue at high temperature, high temperature effects on mechanical properties of materials, like hardness and yield strength; wear failure which is due to impact loading, and wear rate that depends on load and time. For the study of fatigue life, a combined S-N (max. stress v/s number of cycles) curve is prepared. Such a curve helps in comparing the fatigue failure for different materials at different high temperatures and may also assist the researchers in developing the valve materials with a prolonged life.
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Spark ignition internal combustion engine modelling using Matlab

Spark ignition internal combustion engine modelling using Matlab

Abstract A number of Matlab routines for combustion calculations and thermodynamic simulation of spark ignition internal combustion engine operation are described.. Functions that return[r]

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Importance of Tribology in Internal Combustion Engine: A Review

Importance of Tribology in Internal Combustion Engine: A Review

tribology in internal combustion engine. Friction loss is the main portion (48%) of the energy consumption developed in an engine. Lubricants are used to reduce the friction and wear and fuel consumption, increased power output of the engine, reduced oil consumption, a reduction in exhaust emissions in the engine. From the Analysis of the tribologist this means increasing specific loads, speeds and temperatures for the major frictional components of the engine, namely, the piston assembly, the valve train and the journal bearings, and lower viscosity engine oils with which to lubricate them. The literatures revealed that the most important parameter in the engine is lubricant, speed and load and with help of many different methods like blending the engine oil, remove the compression ring , additives are added to engine oil and analysis of piston ring assembly it can get the control on to the friction and wear and achieve almost all the objective that mention above.
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Internal combustion engine heat transfer-transient thermal analysis

Internal combustion engine heat transfer-transient thermal analysis

The internal combustion engine is one of the most common and prefered sources of mechanical power in the modern world. This type of engine is used in dif- ferent fields including but not limited to, transportation and electrical power generation. There are many designs and types of these engines, such as Spark Ignition (SI), Compression Ignition (CI) and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), however the spark ignition is the one of primary interest in this work. Heat transfer is an important issue for internal combustion engines, be- cause it affects critical operating parameters of the internal combustion engines such as the in-cylinder pressure and temperature. However, engine heat transfer analysis and modelling are among the most complicated issues, because of the combustion process, the in-cylinder charge turbulence and the rapid motion of the piston within the combustion chamber. All of these factors contribute to the unsteadiness and local changes of the in-cylinder heat transfer. Moreover, heat transfer also has an effect on the engine exhaust emissions, because of the effect of the temperature changes on the NO x formation. It was found that a reduction
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Stress Strain Analysis of Six Stroke Internal Combustion Engine

Stress Strain Analysis of Six Stroke Internal Combustion Engine

In six stroke engine, there are additional two strokes, namely another power and exhaust strokes. The engine works through harnessing wasted heat energy created by the fuel co mbustion. After the co mbustion stage water is in jected into the superheated cylinder. The water exp lodes into steam and force the piston down. It in turn helps to cool the engine. That resulted in normal levels of power but using much less fuel. It also has the advantage of not requiring an external cooling system. In order to achieve these benefits, major modifications of conventional internal combustion engine must be done.
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Analysis of a hydrogen fuelled internal combustion engine

Analysis of a hydrogen fuelled internal combustion engine

In the history of internal combustion engine development, hydrogen has been considered at several phases as a substitute to hydrocarbon-based fuels. Starting from the 70’s, there have been several attempts to convert engines for hydrogen operation. Together with the development in gas injector technology, it has become possible to control precisely the injection of hydrogen for safe operation. Since the fuel cell needs certain improvements before it is widely used in vehicles, the conventional internal combustion engine is to play an important role in the transition. This study examines the performance characteristics and emissions of a hydrogen fuelled conventional spark ignition engine. Slight modifications are made for hydrogen feeding which do not change the basic characteristics of the original engine. Comparison is made between the gasoline and hydrogen operation and engine design changes are discussed. Certain remedies to overcome the backfire phenomena are attempted.
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GAS INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH INTERNAL MIXTURE FORMATION

GAS INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH INTERNAL MIXTURE FORMATION

To verify the advantages of and benefits from the high pressure injection of gas directly into an engine cylinder, a new testing bench is presently being prepared in the Piston internal combustion engine laboratory (Technical University of Liberec, Department of Vehicles and Engines). With this project, our laboratory extends the research programs to the area of the internal mixture formation for small engines designed for passenger cars; namely a three-cylinder internal combustion engine having a total displacement of 1.2 dm 3 .

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Simulation of the Transient Operation of an Internal Combustion Engine

Simulation of the Transient Operation of an Internal Combustion Engine

Since the internal combustion engine is a highly non-linear mechanical system, truly predictive capabilities can only be attained if purely non-linear simulations are developed. Thermodynamic engine simulations have been refined with phenomenological process descriptions over the years and have been used very successfully for the prediction of steady-state engine operation. Consequently, the natural approach to the development of a non-linear engine simulation is by building on and extending such steady-state thermodynamic models to consider the engine dynamics. The development of our non- linear engine model was undertaken by taking into account these factors. The foundation for the transient model was the successfully tested thermodynamic simulation of an internal combustion engine [ 1 ] which was upgraded by the engine dynamics model.
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Internal combustion engine heat transfer-transient thermal analysis

Internal combustion engine heat transfer-transient thermal analysis

Heat transfer to the cylinder walls of internal combustion engines is recognized as one of the most important factors that influences both engine design and op- eration. Research efforts concerning heat transfer in internal combustion engines often target the investigation of thermal loading at critical combustion chamber components. Simulation of internal combustion engine heat transfer using low- dimensional thermodynamic modelling often relies on quasi-steady heat transfer correlations. However unsteady thermal boundary layer modelling could make a useful contribution because of the inherent unsteadiness of the internal combus- tion engine environment.
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PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS OF ALTERNATIVE FUELED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE: A REVIEW

PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS OF ALTERNATIVE FUELED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE: A REVIEW

The increasing industrialization and transportation of the world has lead to a steep rise in the demand of petroleum based fuels. Petroleum based fuels are obtained from limited reserves. These finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world and therefore to fulfill the demand of the rest of the regions they have to import the crude petroleum for the power production and industrialization. On the other hand the emissions from the fossil fuels are considered as a major source to the environment pollution and have an adverse effect on human health. Hence it is necessary to look for alternative fuels which can be produced from the available local resources and that could reduce the dependence on petroleum. Alternative fuels like LPG, CNG, hydrogen etc has emerged as a solution to depleting crude oil resources as well as to the deteriorating urban air quality problem. As a gaseous fuel, gains from LPG have already been established in terms of low emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon. Air-fuel ratio, operating cylinder pressure ignition timing and compression ratio are some of the parameters that need to be analyzed and optimally exploited for better engine performance and reduced emissions. In the present paper a comprehensive review of various operating parameters and concerns have been prepared for better understanding of operating conditions and constrains for a LPG fueled internal combustion engine.
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Design and Specification of Internal Combustion Engine

Design and Specification of Internal Combustion Engine

An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine. In an internal combustion engine, the prolongation of the high- temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy. The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six- stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. It also involves the thermodynamics relations that govern the processes of these engines, highlighting two main important cycles, which are: Otto cycle and Diesel cycles.
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Internal Combustion Engine Using Acetylene As An Alternative Fuel

Internal Combustion Engine Using Acetylene As An Alternative Fuel

The present paper is particularly directed to using the internal combustion engine because of its reliability and other proven qualities; and to adapting it to using acetylene as a fuel for the twin purposes of reducing exhaust emissions there from as contrasted with exhaust emissions from gasoline fuelled internal combustion engines and of providing a thermally more efficient engine.

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