variable-oriented approach, an individual’s score for a variable, such as depression, is only meaningful in relation to others’ scores on that same variable. Additionally, examining variables can provide useful information about particular risk factors; however, how those variables influence development may differ among individuals. With respect to the present study, variable-oriented studies have not always found the expected links between children’s internal working models and various indicators of adjustment. For example, despite strong theoretical connections between various aspects of internal working models and children’s social information processing abilities, Lynn (2008) did not find significant correlations between those constructs using the same larger sample of physically abused children as was used in this study. Based on this variable-oriented approach, it appeared that internal working models were not important in terms of their link to children’s social information processing. However, it could be the case that the patterns of components that exist within children’s internal working models are meaningful with respect to social information processing of children.
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safely to unknown hazards or, with the extension suggested in section 1.4, to behave in some limited sense ethically. Although some theories of con- sciousness postulate a self-model, for instance (Metzinger, 2009), we can be quite sure that a much richer and more complex set of processes would be required than are present in the architecture outlined here. Nevertheless, we argue that a robot built as proposed in this chapter will be minimally self-aware. Assuming the architecture can be realised as proposed, the robot will – with its Internal Model – be able to test what-if hypotheses about next possible actions, and then moderate its behaviour according to the outcomes of those tests. It is clear from the two example scenarios of Figures 1.2 and 1.3 that without the internal modelling processes, the robot would be unable to choose the safest actions, for itself, or for the human actor in Fig. 1.3. The robot is – we contend – minimally but sufficiently aware of itself and its immediate environment, and the consequences of its actions, to merit the label self-aware. Thus, although aimed at safer robots, the ideas of this chapter do have the potential to advance work in self-aware robots; perhaps most of all by exploring the difficult simulation and timing challenges outlined in section 1.5.
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A second drawback of the architecture shown in Fig. 8(A) is that it requires the climbing-fibre signal to cerebellar cortex to be an estimate of motor error. ‘‘Our view that the climbing fibers carry control error information, the difference between the instructions and the motor act, is common to most cerebellar motor-learning models; however ours is unique in that this er- ror information is represented in motor-command coordinates’’ (Gomi & Kawato, 1992, p. 112). However, experimental investiga- tions of climbing-fibre signals have emphasised their sensory na- ture (see e.g. Miall & Wolpert, 1996), related to touch, pain, mus- cle sense, or in the case of the vestibulo-ocular reflex retinal slip (references in Porrill & Dean, 2007b). The fundamental importance of this sensory signalling is reflected in the zonation scheme for cerebellar cortex, which derives from the organisation of inputs to cortex from the inferior olive that are segregated according to the sensory signals they convey (e.g. Voogd, 2011).
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pendencies between single risks. Therefore they have be- come popular in recent years. The copulas concept in an insurance context was first introduced by Wang , who discusses models and algorithms for the aggregation of correlated risk portfolios. Frees and Valdez  provided an introduction to the use of copulas in risk measurement by describing the basic properties of copulas, their rela- tionships to measures of dependence and several families of copulas. Blum, Dias and Embrechts  discuss the use of copulas to handle the measurement of dependence in alternative risk transfer products. McNeil  presents algorithms for sampling from a specific copula class which can be used for higher-dimensional problems. Eling and Toplek  analyze the influence of non-linear dependen- cies on a non-life insurer’s risk and return profile.
The potential model of Chapter 4 gives no information about the internal promi nence structure and so we have studied methods, in Chapters 6 and 7, in which an internal m agnetohydrostatic solution may be incorporated. Previous internal models have only con sidered vertical structures and so we have formulated a solution, based on the original model of Kippenhahn and Schliiter (1957), which gives the equilibrium of a sheet of slanted m ate rial. Once obtained, this solution represents a general cut across a curved prominence sheet and so, by allowing for the variations along the sheet, it is possible to m atch the internal and external solutions together. The drawback with this method is th at it is only an approxi m ate solution and so the field is not necessarily divergence-free. A way of avoiding this is to reformulate the matched solution by writing it in terms of its constituent components. In this way the composite solution is written as a linear combination of the internal solution, the external solution and a solution for the region of overlap. It can be shown th at aU of these components are divergence free thus resolving that particular discrepancy. Another problem arises, though, since the solution breaks down near the end-points of the sheet and so a separate treatm ent m ust be applied there. Hood (1995) has suggested a possibility by considering an expansion about the end-points, although this work is yet to be completed and so remains as a possible future extension.
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hypothetical stories. It is possible that their view of themselves, which is derived from their working model, might influence how they act in a social context. Previous research has provided a theoretical link for this finding (Crick & Dodge, 1994; Dodge & Rabiner, 2004); however, the actual link has not been established before this study. This finding supports the theoretical link between aspects of children’s internal models and how they process social information. Specifically, this result suggests that it might be helpful to improve children’s negative views of themselves in their attachment relationships in terms of creating more positive responses to conflicts in social situations. Maltreated children do not always view themselves in a positive manner in their relationships (Kaufman & Cicchetti, 1989); therefore, intervening and attempting to change children’s views of themselves may help these children to have positive social responses. Additionally, because maltreated children’s views of themselves are related to how they portray their parents and other aspects of their attachment relationships it may be important to address all aspects of the relationship when intervening.
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The concepts of internal assessment are very closely linked to the recent trend in business management. One of these concepts, the so-called Balanced Scorecard, has become very popular in many firms since the end of nineties. Professor Robert Kaplan (Harvard Business School) and David Norton developed the concept in the early nineties. It is both measurement and management concept. It provides feedback around both the internal business processes and external outcomes in order to continuously improve strategic performance and results. The balanced scorecard views the organisation from four perspectives, and develops metrics, collects data and analyses it relative to each of these perspectives: – the learning and growth perspective
Performance-based funding is a common policy in the United States (Barnetson & Cutright, 2000). From the early 21st century, organizations began to use terms of outcome-based policy (Kong, 2005) while from the late 1970s, policy makers began to evaluate and budget institutions of higher education based on performance (Gaither, Nedwek & Neal, 1994). Higher education in the United States includes both private and public institutions. Private universities in the United States rely mainly on external budgeting and do not receive public funds. For example, MIT uses research grants, donations, contracts, and tuition as its main source of funding. In order to receive research funding, it is necessary to meet competitive terms. At MIT, the internal allocation of resources to departments and faculties is not based on performance, but rather on the previous year's budget and on the number of faculty positions. Hence, the allocation of resources within the institution is not based on performance indicators. Nonetheless, the fact that all funding comes from students and from external investments requires academic personnel to take an active part in raising external funding (Liefner, 2003).
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Hence, the bank started a project to find indicative benchmarks for discriminatory power measured via the AR. Initial research showed that the score of the AR is heavily dependent on the underlying product class for which the LGD model has been built. In order to find the maximum attainable discriminatory power of a model, the bank has developed the so- called implied Gini coefficient. This approach was intended to indicate how well a model in potential can discriminate between the size of potential losses of debt instruments. It was intended to derive an indicative benchmark for discriminatory power from the implied Gini. The realized AR (via historical data) indicates the actual performance of a model on discrim- inatory power. If the realized AR is above the threshold derived via the implied Gini, then the model is perceived to have performed to its abilities according to the bank. The formal definition of the implied Gini that has been developed by the bank is presented in Chapter 3. In this study we review the approach developed by the bank and recommend whether it can be used in its current form. We review the underlying assumptions on the implied Gini made by the bank and research alternative methods for setting the target value for the discrimina- tory power of LGD models based on the AR. We provide recommendations on which method should be used for setting a target value of the discriminatory power. This chapter has the following outline:
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terms of their individual properties determined by their structure and sizes but also in terms of determining a spatial boundary between macro- and microcosm (macrophysics and microphysics). Object sizes “intermediate” between atoms and solid bodies in mesoscopic crystal structures (in which behaviors conform to the rules of both quantum mechanics and classical physics) can reach considerable values, at which the lower complexity limit of a macroscopic crystal is reached. Fundamental considerations and assessments of quantum representa- tion feasibility show that the “coordinate-momentum” uncertainty relation can fit for bodies with the sizes about 10 –7 m, i.e., at a level of nanometer scales . Currently more and more papers deal with investigations of for- mation, evolution and properties of nanostructures and nanostructure-based materials. These investigations cov- er processes of various physical and chemical nature proceeding in a mesoscopic region of spatial scales up to 10 –10 - 10 –4 m: from formation of atomic clusters on a molecular level and nanocrystal synthesis to global changes of a macroscopic continuum state -. Mechanical behavior of nanostructured objects is described using molecular dynamics methods and using statistic models allowing for both thermodynamic and kinetic as- pects of problems under consideration. These problems cover incompleteness of classical description of process running in mesoscopic scales, necessity of developing new models including phenomenological ones that take into account formation of quantum systems and determine growth regularities and nanostructure consolidation, and determination of phase transformation size dependencies, in particular, ascertainment of the effect of poly- morphic transformations on synergy of crystal structures.
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The Executive Board is the highest organ at a university. It consists of members who are elected by the Supervisory Board which is the organ that controls the Executive Board on behalf of the ministry of OC&W. The Executive Board manages the university. Because the first money stream (together with tuition fees) is the only money stream that universities receive central in their organization, the Executive Board only has influence on the allocation of this money stream. Some universities however, generate extra budget by annexing a fraction of second and/or third money stream income for the central budget. But at every university the first money stream is the largest money stream with which universities can influence behavior of faculties, using incentives in the allocation model. The research from the CPB (2003) found that allocation models used in Dutch universities differ in the weightings of these different performance management factors. Little is known about reasoning behind the weightings and current differences between universities. This study will focus on the financial incentives that universities use in their allocation model to stimulate the procurement of research grants.
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This paper examines the factors that hinder the increase in the level of STP in information processing and also considers ways to increase the level of STP available with the current state of information technologies considered. Factors are identified by structural analysis of the process model, construction of the STP level assessment algorithm and comparative analysis of the STP level for processes with low and high STP levels. Within the process model, 11 main structural elements of the external and internal process environment are identified, including the process deployment mechanism with a process template. A procedure is proposed for measuring the level of STP, taking into account the possibility of deploying various instances of the process. There are five groups of factors that hinder the increase in the level of STP and three groups of ways to increase the level of STP in information processing.
If these maps agree, this would instil confidence in this simple approach, and if not, more complex models are required, for instance incorporating additional state variables (e.g. signalling machinery, epigenetic status) as well as direct environmental input on gene expression, which in prokaryotes is primarily mediated by two-component sys- tems (Whitworth and Cock 2008). It is not a priori obvious how a cell might integrate feedforward (signals emanating from ambient conditions) and feedback (signals from internal status such as reserves) regulation. Ambient stimuli could be the main driver, with a modulatory role for reserve status. Alternatively, reserves transmit a message effectively expressing the urgency of requirements for certain building blocks, whilst the ambient signals are used to decide between alternative sources to replenish these reserves, that is, where the organism is capable switching between, e.g., alternative carbon sources, it would dispose of the genetic material encoding the assimilatory machineries that can handle these respective alternative nutrients, and feedforward- type signals could be key to driving changes in gene expression, corresponding in our formalism by the r-factors.
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From a company perspective, it is clear that the level of importance and innovation covered by the engine thermal model is considerably high: this because it has been created from a blank paper and integrated in the Chrysler prediction tool, offering a brand new possibility to improve the accuracy level of the simulations. Thanks to its features, in fact, the engine coolant temperature can now be determined and used in the overall prediction software to simulate the engine behaviour in a more precise way. From a research perspective, on the other hand, the innovation degree of the engine model must be studied from a completely different point of view, trying to understand what are the aspects that make it a novelty. From various literature researches, it has been tried to individuate papers and documents describing similar models and tools, in order to make a comparison between them and the engine model created during this project. In this regard, there are not already existing software that perform its same task and that have its same final purpose but, in general, it has been pointed out that the following aspects determine definitely the novelty introduced by the engine cooling system model.
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In this study, fouling mechanisms are considered to occur subsequently. At first, the internal fouling, then the pore blockage and finally, followed by the cake formation. At the initial filtration, pore constriction is the beginning mechanism until the inside radius of pores constricts and then membrane pores incline toward blocking due to the particle aggregation until the formation of the cake layer over the blocked regions of the membrane surface. The schematic diagram of combined three mechanism models are presented in Figure 1-b. This figure shows two main combined mechanisms which they are standard intermediate cake filtration (SIC) and standard complete cake filtration (SCC). The difference between SIC and SCC is that in SCC the particle aggregates blocks some pores while in SIC, particles enters through the pores and then pore blocking and cake filtration are happened. The five different three mechanisms, their abbreviation and final relation equations are provided in Table 1.
1987; Lacquaniti and Maioli, 1989). W hen w e catch a bail that falls ver tically to the hand, both predictive and reactive mechanisms are used to produce an appropriate catching action. The forw ard m odel needs to pre dict time, location and m om entum of the impact so that limb kinematics and kinetics can be appropriately controlled. This control of limb position and compliance has to adhere with the timing requirem ents of the task for catching to be successful. EMC recordings show ed there were early and late components, the early component is thought to be related to anticipation. The am plitude of this early EMG response was inversely proportional to the height of the fall and is thought to correspond to the readiness reaction that incorporates the fall duration. The role of prediction has been examined by modification of different variables in the task, for example the height of fall and mass of ball. W hen balls of identical external appearance were used but different masses were used, and the mass of ball is unexpectedly changed, subjects scale their response to the expected m om entum . The prediction used is thought to be based on a model of the ball's flight combined w ith an internal model of the current position and m ovem ent of the arm. This for w ard model is accessed to predict a target, but is u p d ated using peripheral information from vision to produce an adapted response.
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An Apple-authorized dealer or service provider can install internal SCSI devices, along with any necessary data cables or brackets to secure each SCSI device inside the computer. (Models with an internal Zip drive have an internal SCSI cable that includes an extra SCSI connector for the second expansion bay. Models without an internal Zip drive do not come with an internal SCSI cable; a dealer or service provider must install a SCSI cable in order to connect internal devices to the SCSI chain.)
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This paper examines determinants of destination choice for foreign-born and 1.5 generation adult children of immigrants in the U.S. An immigrant concentration- weighted accessibility parameter is included to assess the spatial structure of destination choice. A comparative origin-destination immigrant-native wage gap measure is also a strong determinant of destination choice, indicating the importance of relative labor market position. Although spatial assimilation perspectives would suggest that intergenerational social mobility should be connected with spatial dispersion, these models reveal the continuing importance of immigrant concentration for the 1.5 generation. Further, the increased model strength and parameter estimates associated with immigrant concentration and the accessibility measure suggest the spatial structure of destination choice depends on immigrant concentration at multiple scales – both to metro areas and to immigrant states or regions. The paper thus presents evidence for and suggests more attention to theorizing the geographic contexts of intergenerational immigrant incorporation.
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Internal validation of training set: To evaluate the robustness of the generated GQSAR models, internal validation was performed on the training set using the leave-one-out (LOO) method 29 . The compounds from the training set were removed individually, and the activity of each was predicted using the model fitted to the remaining molecules. The process is repeated until all compounds in the training set are exhausted, and the cross-validated coefficient of determination (q2) was found from the equation 5:
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When designing autonomous or semi-autonomous characters for computer animation it is vital to have a good model of the internal processes that produce the character’s external behaviour. If the character is to be compelling and interesting it must also have a lot of expressive behaviour that gives a human-like im- pression of internal feelings. This paper will argue that these two aspects should be tightly coupled so that the audience/user can understand the motivations etc. of the character. We will elaborate this idea in section 3 and then describe two examples. Section 4 sketches a conceptual example of how this system might work implemented with a complex behavioural architecture. Section 5 describes a concrete implementation of such a system, focusing on one aspect, visual perception.