To achieve this purpose the UNISS has started several years ago an internationalcooperation with institutions from all regions of the world, based on a system of cooperation where cooperating agents and universities do not act as a contributor or receiver, but as active entities in a mutually beneficial relationship. Each institution con- tributes and receives from a constructive relationship that recognizes its counterpart as a cultural agent that en- hances its performance in the local context. Internationalcooperation is thus seen as a way to prepare the com- munity and its players to interact in a globalized world, in a sustainable social environment where intercultural competence is central to the education of citizens to ensure the autonomy of development and mutual learning, all this must occur in a context where each participant in the partnership must show their own traditions and cultural values and interpret those manifested by the counterparty, promoting the culture and traditions and rais- ing the ability to interact in intercultural groups.
Main subjects Actors in internationalcooperation; international multi-dimensional scenarios; rules and institutions governing the international community and the status of the Italian civilian personnel working abroad; legal and institutional profiles of the multi-dimensional international missions; the role of NGOs in cooperation and humanitarian emergencies; stress management; elements of conflict analysis; negotiation and conflict resolution; intercultural understanding; preventive medicine.
To graduate from least-developed country status by 2020 and to prepare for the country’s regional and international integration, the Government of Lao PDR initiated higher education reforms covering both public and private higher education institutions (HEIs) with the Prime Ministerial Decree on the Establishment of the National University of Laos (NUOL) in 1995, and subsequent decrees on private higher education in 1995 and higher education curriculum in 2001. The decree establishing NUOL began to address the issue of a fragmented higher education system by amalgamating 10 higher educational institutions (HEIs) under a unified structure of NUOL. Within the framework, two regional universities were later established to broaden access to higher education: (i) the Champasak University (CU) in Pakse in southern Lao PDR in 2002, and (ii) the Souphanouvong University (SU) in Luang Prabang in northern Lao PDR in 2003. Meanwhile, the decree on private higher education defined a legal framework for establishing and operating private HEIs, and triggered the growth of private HEIs. In 2007, the Prime Ministerial Decree on the Adoption and Implementation of the National Education System Reform Strategy (NESRS) (2006– 2015) was issued. The decree called for strengthened HEIs to move the higher education system toward regional and international standards, and contribute to the socioeconomic development of the country. The NUOL was given autonomous administrative authority. The Souphanouvong University and Champasak University were given autonomous administrative authorities by the Prime Ministerial Decree on the Organization and the Activities of the SU and CU, issued in March and April 2009, respectively.
The importance of the human side of project management to assess the success of internationaldevelopment project has not been fully considered yet. An analysis of the literature on the project success definition, focused on the success criteria and success factors, was carried out. The organization’s effectiveness, in terms of Relati ons Sustainability, emerged as a criteria integrating the “time, cost, performance” approach to define a project success. Based on previous research contributions on the factors influencing the organization’s effectiveness, the paper expands the analysis of the influence of Organizational Climate on the Relation Sustainability between project manager and project team involved in internationalcooperation for development. The statistical methods used include confirmatory factors analysis and structural equation modeling. The results carry implications for project management identifying five dimensions of Organizational Climate (trust, innovation, social cohesion, communication and job challenge) influencing Relations Sustainability. This finding suggests that Organizational Climate contributes to project success by creating trust, stimulating commitment and generating satisfaction to overcome conflicts between project manager and project team.
Many partner countries are interested in Germany‘s know how and experience in job-related training. This interest has increased considerably as a result of the financial and economic crisis. The German dual system of VET is seen to play a key role in meeting the demand for qualified personnel by combining learning at school with learning on the job. Training under the dual system is not only an important factor in ensuring employability, particularly for the younger generation, it also ensures that German industry is able to benefit from well-trained employees both at home and abroad. German international VET cooperation touches upon the fields of education, economic, labour, migration, foreign and development policy. It is at the interface between government departments, institutions and organizations acting on behalf of the respective minis- tries.
As indicated by the table 1 below, the Convention and the BMF have strong development concerns. The BMF recognize the rights to development of persons with disabilities. Indeed, the term, "Biwako Millennium Framework", itself (the framework) and its structure were taken from the model of MDGs, in order to mainstream disability dimensions into the MDGs as disability was not referred in the MDGs. Among the BMF 7 priority thematic goals, poverty alleviation of persons with disabilities and education of persons with disabilities are the utmost important. Empowerment of disabled women is another priority issue which is duplicated in all of those instruments. As its implementation strategies, the BMF promotes regional cooperation, such as south-south dialogue and sub-regional cooperation, as well as internationalcooperation. It also says, "Anticipate that BMF will contribute to attaining the MDGs and targets as the issues relating to persons with disabilities are vital concerns to be addressed in realizing the relevant MDG goals and targets" (chapter II). On the other hand, the article 32 of the Convention includes various forms of international (development) cooperation, including exchange and sharing of information and technologies, cooperation in research, supporting capacity-building, and disability inclusive developmentcooperation. Among the 9 Millennium Development goals, the goal 1 (eradicating poverty) and 2 (universal primary education) are of particular importance, but also the goal 9 (global partnership for development) is critical to foster disability inclusive developmentcooperation and the so-called "twin-track approach" of disability mainstreaming and empowerment of persons with disabilities (see table 1). The comparison among those international instruments is not exhaustive, but it shows rather that all of those documents are complementary and supplementary to each other, and the common denominators include, right-based, disability, poverty and development, internationalcooperation, particularly south-south cooperation.
The structure and legal status of JINR reflect its special position as the organization of internationalcooperation. Geographically the Institute is located in Russia. Yet this scientific institution holds intergovernmental status and is managed by an international authority complying both with the RF legislation, international legal norms and its own Charter signed by the Plenipotentiaries of the governments of the Member States. The Committee of Plenipotentiary Representatives (CPR) of the governments of the Member States is the supreme body governing the Institute. The Scientific Council and Finance Committee realize their activities annually under control of the Committee of Plenipotentiaries pursuant to the adopted Regulations. It consists now of 18 appointed members from the Member States; 25 members elected by CPR. Specific and required characteristics of work in the international scientific environment created in JINR are high quality of scientific results, flexibility of the researchers’ minds, their readiness to learn something new, maintaining the Institutional spirit of free scientific creativity based on the openness to contacts and readiness to maintain dialogue, cultural and ethno- confessional tolerance. It can be stated using modern lexicon that Dubna was and remains an integrated pan-European space, where multiculturalism is a reality and necessary element of internationalcooperation.
Through contacts with the German Länder the concept of subsidiarity was brought into European political language by Jacques Delors, the former President of the European Commission, who used it interchangeably with decentralization, deconcentration, federalization and regionalization (Hummer, 1992:83). The concept became a means for persuading those countries in the EU who feared excessive centralization of supranational structures and insisted upon national sovereignty and the authority of the national state.15 The word itself has even been written into the Treaty of Maastricht, yet the concept itself was not elaborated in greater detail. Although the term has come into the political language of the EU as support to the idea of a federated Europe, probably the place where it came from16 (combined with the tradition and interests of certain states) influenced the development of two different interpretations of subsidiarity. As noticed by Valery Giscard d'Estaing (Hummer, 1992:84), according to the first interpretation of subsidiarity the Community should perform only those functions whose scope or effects cross national borders. This concept has a more decentralized or federal character, whereby an important political and institutional decision on centralized federalism or decentralized federalism (federal federalism) is still pending. The second interpretation understands that member states will delegate to a higher level only those essential functions which may be better performed on the level of the Community than on the level of national states. Here again we may find the concept of efficiency which may prove to become centralizing. In the Treaty of Maastricht (Art. 3) the higher level of authority should take care only of those matters that are insufficiently dealt with on a lower level and is therefore better that they are administered by a higher level.
The Regional Programme Health in Central Asia, commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and implemented by GIZ GmbH (German InternationalCooperation), aims to improve the quality of sexual and reproductive health in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan by strengthening the countries’ healthcare systems. Working in partnership with the ministries of health, youth, social development, and education, as well as civil society organisations, the programme develops the capacity of medical and non-medical professionals, strengthens medical accreditation, improves quality management, and promotes public awareness about reproductive health. Strengthening midwifery and cooperation with the midwifery associations has been one of the priorities. The GIZ Regional Programme Health in Central Asia has placed great emphasis upon increasing the number of births attended by health professionals, including midwives. It was Germany’s contribution to the Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health, which was launched at the 2010 G8 summit in Canada 3 To this end, the programme has worked closely with government partners, medical training institutions (both pre-service and continuing education), midwives associations, and other development partners to strengthen midwives’ competencies, to bring about changes in the legal framework governing midwives’ practice, and to foster strong professional associations to represent the interests of midwives.
sensitive data. In technological innovations in the discussed settings, most of the data traffic takes place among mobile phones. The architecture of connectivity systems in developing countries is vastly different from industrialised countries, which requires security systems that are tailored to those realities. Is such data traffic safe? Proposing a combination of techniques of cloaking and encryption, Ahmat, Bissyandé and Magoni (2013) provide detailed technical methods for the P2P security of digital transactions (as well as block- chain technology for mobile payment platforms, proposed by Bissyandé, 2016), thereby fully recognising the mobile basis of development and innovation of technologies and adapting security techniques to these. I am looking forward to working with Bissyandé and my PhD-student Gertjan van Stam on developing such techniques, adapted to local realities. In conclusion, digital solutions can be integrated in more sustainable approaches to internationalcooperation. E-health is being integrated in health policies combining solutions of connected care and diagnostics and linking health care to financial solutions powered by mobile money. The rapidly increasing international remittances show that the digital era is driving change in internationalcooperation towards people- to-people aid.
Hence, few institutions in Korea provide such programs (Kim & Lee, 2007; Kim, 2009; Kang & Kim, 2014). However, considering that the health care field takes a relatively large proportion of the official Korean development assistance, the development and application of education focused domestically and overseas are required to promote the global competence of health and nursing students (International Council of Nurses, 2008; Brown, Cueto, & Fee, 2006; Lee, 2012).Since 2009, the Korea InternationalCooperation Agency (KOICA)has been selecting 30 universities each year to provide state subsidy for global competence development issues to allow undergraduate students to be engaged in internationaldevelopmentcooperation and link it to their major fields. An analysis of the trend of research results regarding the effects of global competence programs for undergraduate students showed that there has been significant positive changes in students’ cultural attitudes (Jones, Neubrander, & Huff, 2012; Harrowing, Gregory, Sullivan, & Doolittle, 2012), increases in cultural sensitivity (Ruddock & Turner, 2007; Giger et al., 2007; Long, 2014; Wood & Atkins, 2006), and considerable personal and professional growth (Wros & Archer, 2010). However, there has been a dearth of domestic research on global health abilities(Kang &Piao, 2014) and it is difficult to find research evaluating the critical thinking disposition for solving health problems in developing countries and the global leadership ability of students with and without access to courses on understanding internationaldevelopmentcooperation (Facione, Facione, & Sanchez, 1994). Thus, this study aims to verify the effects of a course on understanding global health competence related to internationaldevelopmentcooperation for health and nursing undergraduate students. The results of this study can be used as a foundation for developing various in-depth educational programs to allow students in the healthcare field to fully exhibit their competence in internationaldevelopmentcooperation.
In 1824, French scientist Joseph Fourier first published an explanation for the near stability of the Earth’s temperature, indicating that downward emission of infrared radiation from the atmosphere played a critical role (Fourier, 1824, 1827). The fundamental laws for thermodynamics were also formu- lated during the period, with many of the insights coming as a result of seeking to understand the behaviour of gases, partic- ularly those in the atmosphere. In particular, experiments by English physicist (and brewer) James Joule and theoretical work by German physicist Rudolf Clausius established the relationship between work and heat and, with later involve- ment of William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin), led to the de- velopment of the law of conservation of energy as the first law of thermodynamics. Clausius was also responsible for contributing to development of the second law of thermody- namics, which posited that entropy always increases (some- times stated as heat flows from hot to cold) and deduced what became the Clausius–Clapeyron relationship that, in the meteorological field, determines the saturation water vapour mixing ratio at various temperatures. Adding insights from experimental studies he began in the 1850s, Irish physicist John Tyndall presented proof that water vapour and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) were the most important atmospheric gases
China stresses internationalcooperation in environmental protection, and is active in conducting relevant activi- ties with the United Nations (UN) and other international organizations. Over the years, it has dispatched senior delegates to all the meetings of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development, and the World Summit on Sustainable Development and its successive preparatory activities . China and the United Nations Environ- ment Program (UNEP) have conducted fruitful cooperation in the fields of desertification prevention and control, biodiversity protection, ozone layer protection, clean production, cyclical economy, environmental education and training, flood prevention and control on the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River, regional sea action plan, and the global action plan for preventing land-sourced pollution and protecting the oceans.
To date, Minsk Group has been consid- ered as one of the most important players of Nagorno – Karabakh development. One of the issues, which was raised in negotiation of Minsk Group, was presentation of a plan, based on which, it was decided that Armenia will first discharge seven Azerbaijan’s occu- pied provinces around Nagorno – Karabakh (including Fozouli, Zangalian, Jibraeil, Kalabjer, Aghdam, Ghobadeli and Lachin) in order to establish peace and security in Karabakh. In return, it also was envisioned that international peacekeepers would be de- ployed in this region. A referendum will be held after five years to determine the legal status of Karabakh.
the rapidly-changing situations, given that diverse entities are involved in cyberspace with their own security measures. Thus, it is meaningful to build an information-sharing mechanism that is multi-layered, consisting of multiple layers including technology, law enforcement, policy and diplomacy. In particular, it is important to develop cooperation among Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs), which are responsible for operational responses, such as detecting cyber incidents, analysing malwares and IP addresses and taking actual responses; cooperation among law enforcement agencies which exercise investigative authorities and are responsible for preventing further damage; cooperation at the policy level which would facilitate quick understanding of the overall picture of an incident and necessary policy responses; information-sharing at the diplomatic level to avoid unexpected escalation into potential conflict; and cooperation among researchers engaged in research and development on leading-edge technology. Indian Government should actively work toward establishing a multi-layered global mechanism for information-sharing and will enhance its preparedness for the event of cyber incident. 12.3. Appropriate Response to Cybercrime Internationalcooperation needs to be strengthened in order to
Awareness of education and cultural exchange and cooperation is growing within the University of Third Age world development. The personal compulsion to visit each other is highly influenced by their specific knowledge or previous experience of similar places, as much as by the messages they have absorbed from friends and relatives, from the media, or through travel promotions. U3A Communication adds value by building an understanding and emotional attachment.
In this paper, we reexamine the quantitative welfare implication of international tax cooperation. The difference from most of the related literature is that we incorporate an international public good, namely a public good whose benefits can extend beyond national boundaries (see Bjorvatn and Schjelderup, 2002, and Tabellini, 2003). As Tabellini (2003) pointed out, such goods constitute an important factor of the EU. Examples include foreign/defense policy and environmental quality. In addition, the abolition of borders between EU member states has generated a status of increased cross- country spillovers in several areas such as internal security, border controls, immigration policy and scientific research. We show that the incorporation of international public goods in a model of international tax competition changes the above mentioned results drastically.
A notable extension of the original Brander and Spencer  model emerged parallel to advancing international trade liberalization beginning in the 1990s. With direct export subsidies becoming largely illegal under GATT/WTO rules, secondary trade policies have gained increasing attention. Several authors have extended the Brander and Spencer  framework to the case of polluting industries. Research in the area of strategic environmental policy has been spearheaded, among others, by Barrett , Rauscher  and Ulph . One general conclusion emerging from these studies is that if the production costs of firms are positively related to the stringency of domestic environmental regulation, environmental policies will be laxer than first-best. However, Greaker  showed that the opposite is the case if emissions are an inferior input. Conrad  uses a reversed timing version of Brander and Spencer  in order to explain why firms engage in voluntary environmental agreements. Investigating this issue in a model where firms are footloose, Greaker  comes to the somewhat surprising result