International Exchanges

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International Exchanges by College Nursing Students: “International Comparisons of Awareness and Challenges”

International Exchanges by College Nursing Students: “International Comparisons of Awareness and Challenges”

DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2019.97059 781 Open Journal of Nursing dies which explored the extent of awareness of international exchanges among college nursing students in Japan and other countries and to identify strategies to improve their awareness. Through September 2018, the following databases, “Ichushi-Web,” the Internet-based retrieval service by Japan Medical Abstracts Society (JAMAS) [5], Google Scholar for domestic documents and PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library, Google Scholar for foreign documents were searched by the author to find additional studies related to the topic, as were the reference lists of included papers and related reviews. Search terms included a combination of keywords by thesaurus, i.e. , “international educational exchange”, “schools, nursing”, “students, nursing”, “program evaluation”, and “awareness” and the retrieval year was “the whole year,” and then original articles published were peer reviewed.
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Politics & International Relations. ERASMUS and International Exchanges

Politics & International Relations. ERASMUS and International Exchanges

• Theories of IR, as well as EITHER Global Justice and Citizenship OR Global Security, OR International Political Economy. • Sustainable Development and IR[r]

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An investigation of intraday price discovery in cross-listed

An investigation of intraday price discovery in cross-listed

The only research reporting mixed findings seems to be that of Eun and Sabherwal (2003) on 62 Canadian– US cross-listed securities; in that study, the foreign market was found to be dominant for a number of stocks. We can explain the difference between the results of Eun and Sabherwal (2003) and those of the previous studies by the extent to which trading in the host market is “liquidity- rather than information-driven” (Agarwal et al., 2007). US and Canadian markets are informationally linked by virtue of their geographical proximity and shared language; thus the US market is an important one for Canadian companies and is more likely to play an influential role in their price discovery process. In the other studies cited here, language, cultural, and geographical barriers may increase the probability of the host market being more liquidity driven than information-driven. Whether this result is true for emerging market stocks that list on international exchanges such as the USA or London is yet to be studied, and such research is necessary in order to corroborate this hypothesis and explain the factors underlying the price discovery process.
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International Investments Flows: The Role of Cultural Preferences and Migrants Networks

International Investments Flows: The Role of Cultural Preferences and Migrants Networks

tries speak the same language (Melitz and Toubal, 2014) or share similar genetic traits (Shenkar, 2001; Felbermayr and Toubal, 2010; Tung and Verbeke, 2010). In this sense, the recent study by Melitz and Toubal (2018) on the role of genetics and its impact on international economic exchanges is particularly interesting: the authors nd co-ancestry to have a more reliable inu- ence on bilateral trade than other cultural variables: yet, the possibility that cultural preferences shape international exchanges beyond the role of those measures of objective similarity still re- mains substantially neglected. This leads to the question of whether and how asymmetric (and time-dependent) cultural variables, such as preferences for cultural systems or bilateral trust, play out as determinants of investment patterns. The literature here oers only half of the an- swer. While the seminal contribution by Guiso et al. (2009) has shown that investment increases if individuals in the investing country trust the citizens of the receiving economy, the potential role of the opposite direction of trust is left unexplored. More generally, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the asymmetric dimensions in bilateral cultural relationships as determinants of FDI. Given the premise that the cultural relationship between two countries, say Kenya and the UK, features a potentially asymmetric element such as the appreciation of each other's cul- tural systems, it is a fairly safe assumption that the way individuals in Kenya appreciate British culture might be very dierent from how Kenyan culture is attractive for the UK. It is equally safe to expect that these patterns are likely to change over time. How do these two dierent and evolving forces aect British FDI in Kenya? Is one more relevant than the other? These are questions that motivate this paper, which represents a rst attempt to assess the eect of cultural proximity (CP) on FDI, explicitly accounting for the asymmetric and time-dependent
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Reflection on Consecutive Interpreting Note-taking Textbooks Published in China

Reflection on Consecutive Interpreting Note-taking Textbooks Published in China

Abstract: Increasing international exchanges have made consecutive interpreting more and more prevalent nowadays, and the success of consecutive interpreting activities is, to a large extent, dependent on the interpreters’ memory of the speaker's source information, and in order to do that, interpreters need to take notes in a methodical manner, which helps interpreters to enhance their concentration, activate memory, ensure accuracy, and reduce memory burden, thus improving the overall quality of consecutive interpreting. However, note-taking skills do not receive a fair amount of attention in interpreting textbooks, previous studies on and textbooks of consecutive interpreting usually overemphasize the individuality of the note-taking method and symbols system while neglecting the regularity and universality underpinning the note-taking system. This paper addresses this neglected aspect of consecutive interpreting note-taking textbook research and chooses four major note-taking textbooks published in China, comparing and analyzing their merits and demerits in terms of their positioning, theoretical elaboration of note-taking skills and the choice of note-taking practice materials etc. Four suggestions are presented as the findings of this study: 1). Clarify textbook positioning. 2). Combine note-taking techniques with selected exercise topics. 3). Diversify training materials and training methods. 4) Offer audio or video practice material so as to form a three-dimensional note-taking textbook system, which may hopefully provide some food for thought for the further compilation, development and research of note-taking textbooks.
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Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions

Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions

9 Flexible inter-sector and international exchanges of highly skilled research and innovation staff. 9 Based on a common research and innovation project[r]

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Commodity Derivatives Exchanges in India: A Study of Select Exchanges

Commodity Derivatives Exchanges in India: A Study of Select Exchanges

organized for various stakeholders of the commodity futures market. Of this, 486 programs were held exclusively for farmers. In the year 2009-10, 515 awareness programs were held, of which 423 were exclusively for the farmers. These awareness programs have resulted in creating awareness among the various constituents about commodity futures trading and the benefits thereof. The programs were organized in association with various organizations/universities having connectivity with the farmers, viz. agricultural universities, NABCONS , farmer cooperatives and federations, GSKs, National & Regional Base Commodity Exchanges, etc.
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The Impact of SMP and EMU on German Banking

The Impact of SMP and EMU on German Banking

On the level of retail banking, the single currency will lower the preferences of custom- ers for a home-country bank. Prices, conditions and quality will determine the decision of depositors, not the nationality. Not all banks will be able to attract foreign customers, however. Because of low transaction costs, direct banks will have a comparative advan- tage in the cross-border retail business. The large German credit institutions have well- established direct banks with attractive conditions, which could gain significant market shares in the international retail banking segment. As a consequence, large banks may in general redirect their retail business towards direct banking, where their technological leadership puts them in advantage compared to mid-sized or small banks. At the same time, the branching network of commercial banks can be expected to be scaled down. In spite of high growth rates of direct banking, that strategy would reduce the significance of retailing for large commercial banks. Savings banks as well as cooperative banks could fill this gap, at the same time losing market shares in the commission business. Currently, the discussion about an appropriate response to EMU is strongly focused on mega-mergers, for example between Deutsche Bank and Dresdner Bank - number one and number two of the German banking industry. From a public point of view, the de- gree of concentration within the EC region can be regarded as low, and no obstacles from the antitrust authorities should be expected. However, the economic success of M&A’s is neither guaranteed for defensive nor for strategic mergers. Although strategic mergers as in the cited example above offer wide opportunities for saving costs, increas- ing revenues and reducing risks, the negative evidence from empirical banking studies should be kept in mind. To be more specific, the significance of managerial X-efficiency is again to be stressed at this point. Unit costs are clearly more influenced from manage- rial quality than from the size of a bank. Wheelock and Wilson (1999) are confirming the importance of low X-inefficiency values for the US market, where the probability of bank failure was significantly higher for inefficient banks than for well managed firms.
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TelephoneNumbering. Each telephone set (or subscriber card) has a unique identification number

TelephoneNumbering. Each telephone set (or subscriber card) has a unique identification number

Example 2 : Subscriber dials “09 13115” for a long-distance call to Helsinki. First digit “0” tells exchanges this is a long- distance call to be routed to the regional exchange. Due to next digit, “9,” regional center routes call to Helsinki, helped by other regional centers. Helsinki regional center analyzes next two numbers, “13,”

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Characterization of C-strain “Riems” TAV-epitope escape variants obtained through selective antibody pressure in cell culture

Characterization of C-strain “Riems” TAV-epitope escape variants obtained through selective antibody pressure in cell culture

piglet kidney cells (EFN). A first generation of E2 escape variants displayed a single nucleotide exchange in the TAV-epitope of the E2 at nucleotide position 2870, asso- ciated with a compensatory nucleotide exchange at pos- ition 2122 in the E1 encoding region. Further incubation of this variant with E2-specific neutralizing antibodies and polyclonal serum derived from TAV-peptide immu- nized rabbits led to the isolation of a new variant with an additional exchange in the extended TAV-epitope at nucleotide position 2889. Moreover, a third generation of E2 variants featured an additional nucleotide ex- change in the TAV-epitope of the E2 protein at position 2862. In detail, the TAV-epitope of wild-type C-strain- consisted of amino acid sequence CTAVSPTTLR- TEVVK. Variant B5/2 showed two exchanges resulting in sequence CTAVSSTTLRTGVVK, and variant S10 showed sequence CTVVSSTTLRTGVVK. At this point, a second compensatory exchange in the E1 protein at nucleotide position 2099 was observed. All E2 escape variants displayed an additional exchange at position 1649 in the E RNS protein. All these nucleotide exchanges caused amino acid exchanges in the corresponding pro- tein. An overview of the E2 escape variants is shown in Table 1. Immunofluorescence staining of the E2 escape variant S10 with the antibodies A18C (TAV-epitope- specific; Cedi-Diagnostics), A18I (TAV-epitope-specific; IDEXX Laboratories) and C16 (specific for nonstructural protein 3; CRL) is shown in Figure 1. Whereas E2- specific staining of the escape variant was negative even after the 10 th cell culture passage without antibody pres- sure, the parental C-strain “Riems” virus was stained positive with all E2 specific antibodies.
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Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity

Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity

The conservation of crop genetic resources requires understanding the different variables — cultural, social, and economic — that im- pinge on crop diversity. In small-scale farming systems, seed exchanges represent a key mechanism in the dynamics of crop ge- netic diversity, and analyzing the rules that structure social net- works of seed exchange between farmer communities can help decipher patterns of crop genetic diversity. Using a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches, we investigated the relationships between regional patterns of manioc genetic di- versity in Gabon and local networks of seed exchange. Spatially explicit Bayesian clustering methods showed that geographical dis- continuities of manioc genetic diversity mirror major ethnolinguistic boundaries, with a southern matrilineal domain characterized by high levels of varietal diversity and a northern patrilineal domain characterized by low varietal diversity. Borrowing concepts from anthropology — kinship, bridewealth, and fi liation — we analyzed the relationships between marriage exchanges and seed exchange networks in patrilineal and matrilineal societies. We demonstrate that, by de fi ning marriage prohibitions, kinship systems structure social networks of exchange between farmer communities and in- fluence the movement of seeds in metapopulations, shaping crop diversity at local and regional levels.
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ESMOS WP9 report – communication trialling (tripartite blogging)

ESMOS WP9 report – communication trialling (tripartite blogging)

While there are tutors who are able/willing to engage in tripartite communication and dual supervision of international exchange and placement students, for reasons explained in the following section it can be quite difficult in practice to establish such ‘shared spaces’. However, the tripartite relationship does not necessarily need to be between the student and home and host tutors. In fact it may be equally (or even more) beneficial for the student to have tripartite communication with peers and their tutor. Two of the ESMOS case studies (Using blogs as a support tool for Adult Nursing students at home and abroad”, and “Tripartite communication between students, home and host tutors using a group blog) have explored group blogs as a way of supporting international mobility students, where the tripartite relationship is between placement students, their peers and their home tutors. This has proved to be an effective way of supporting students who go overseas for a work placement, and it also offers ‘virtual mobility’ to home-based students as it allows them to gain an international perspective on their work through sharing experiences with students who have gone overseas.
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CLIVAR Exchanges No  12

CLIVAR Exchanges No 12

Through the process of building a scientific consensus on what CLIVAR should focus on, and the events in 1998, a great deal of momentum was built up for CLIVAR. Mike Hall of NOAA in the United States, in a stirring closing address at the conference, commended CLIVAR on this but pointed out the need to capitalise on the momentum as we now move ahead. This is not easy. The devotion of all the resources of the ICPO to the conference, meant that actual implementation of the CLIVAR plan was set aside, and the huge scope of CLIVAR is a major challenge for us all. Some parts of CLIVAR are well underway, notably those initiated in TOGA and carried on under a CLIVAR banner, and WOCE synthesis activities are of central inter- est to CLIVAR as well. Infrastructure established from TOGA such as observing systems like the Tropical Atmosphere-Ocean (TAO) moored buoys in the tropical Pacific, seasonal forecast activities at national centres and the International Research In- stitute (IRI), and global numerical modelling help enormously. Nevertheless, the ICPO is clearly stretched to the limit to deal with all that is required. So the focus now switches to implementation of CLIVAR, and much of this has to be accomplished through the standing Working Groups and Panels, as well as several new implementation panels in the formative stages, while being co-ordinated through the CLIVAR SSG and cross-cutting working groups such as the Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM), Working Group on Seasonal to Interannual Prediction (WGSIP), the Upper Ocean Panel (UOP), and the CLIVAR-PAGES 1 Working
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CLIVAR Exchanges No  9

CLIVAR Exchanges No 9

A second focus of the SSG meeting was a pre- liminary assessment of how well the 97/98 ENSO event, and its impacts around the globe, have been ob- served, modelled and predicted. Reports were heard from the various nations and institutions represented at the meeting as to their experiences and what lessons had been learned which might be applied to CLIVAR research. It was clear that the observing system in the Pacific had played a key role in the ability to predict the event, but also that most models failed to predict the intensity of the event until it was underway. Pre- diction of regional impacts saw a mixture of successes and failures; some of the latter may be attributable to anomalous conditions in the rest of the equatorial oceans and elsewhere. A comprehensive report will be compiled by K. Trenberth and submitted as a CLI- VAR contribution to the United Nations 97/98 ENSO Retrospective which is being organized under the aus- pices of several UN agencies. A summary appears in this issue of Exchanges.
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CLIVAR Exchanges No  8

CLIVAR Exchanges No 8

Following the successful TOGA Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere and WOCE World Ocean Circulation Experiment programmes and responding to scientific challenges which evolved during those p[r]

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CLIVAR Exchanges No  10

CLIVAR Exchanges No 10

The transition of the ICPO from Hamburg to Southampton has of course some rather sad conse- quences. The most significant of these is that at the end of the year Anne Stephan who has been the CLI- VAR project administrator from the very start of the ICPO will be leaving CLIVAR. Anne brought her own international flair to the Office. She was widely travelled, spoke several languages and took a deep cultural interest in the people and affairs of the many nations she dealt with. I want to pay tribute to her con- tribution to the Project Office over the years. She has been most helpful to me, as she has been to the previ- ous ICPO Directors, and to all of the CLIVAR com- munity. I am sure that you join me in wishing her well for the future.
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CLIVAR Exchanges No  14

CLIVAR Exchanges No 14

It is now a year since the International CLIVAR Conference in Paris. The report has been widely circu- lated and contains the text of the plenary lectures and summaries of the national reports made to the confer- ence It is essential that the CLIVAR SSG and the ICPO are kept well informed about the progress of national programmes for CLIVAR research and in light of this I will be contacting national co-ordinators for CLIVAR requesting updated statements on national plans. Infor- mation flow is a two way process and we are about to make available on the WWW a searchable information source that will enable anyone to find who is doing CLIVAR research on a particular Principal Research Area, in a geographical area or by an individual country. It will we hope include a searchable bibliography of CLIVAR- related papers and reports. The system has been devel- oped by Christine Haas who has been working in Ge- neva on CLIVAR matters for the past year and I think it will prove to be an invaluable asset to CLIVAR. The value will be greatly enhanced as more information is added and kept up to date. That is where all of you CLIVAR researchers can help by feeding new information to the ICPO for inclusion.
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CLIVAR Exchanges No  11

CLIVAR Exchanges No 11

timescales, including particularly extra-tropical and seasonal interactions and their effects on monsoonal flows. New formal terms of reference have been drawn up for the group which will in the future be known as the CLIVAR Working Group on Seasonal- to-Interannual Prediction (WGSIP). The meeting lo- cation at the International Research Institute for Cli- mate Research, which is now making significant strides towards its basic objective “to foster the im- provement, production and use of global forecasts of seasonal-to-interannual variability for the explicit benefit of society”, was a very appropriate venue in view of the transition in CLIVAR NEG-1’s activities. It was certainly anticipated there would be close co- operation with IRI in the co-ordinated modelling stud- ies of the type undertaken by CLIVAR NEG-1 and in such areas as analysis of multi-model ensembles.
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CLIVAR Exchanges No  33

CLIVAR Exchanges No 33

Ocean observations are a key element of the CLIVAR programme. CLIVAR aims to help establish the appropriate mix of measurement platforms and synthesis techniques required to determine the full suite of ocean variables, including air-sea fluxes. Coordinated global collation and quality control of key data streams is essential. Accessing and searching these data is even more critical. CLIVAR is initiating plans to address these needs. As a general policy, CLIVAR encourages the timely and open exchange of data relevant to the programme’s mission. Submission of data to official CLIVAR DACs, national archives and other data centres that support CLIVAR’s mission, is strongly encouraged (see CLIVAR’s Data Policy on page 4). For ocean observations, CLIVAR has enlisted the support of a number of Data Assembly Centres (DACs) dedicated to the collation and archival of ocean data as well as the delivery of data and products (Figure 1, front cover and below). To date there have been a number of scientific cruises and experiments for which data have been recorded, but perhaps not made publicly available. Please make the most of these specialized DACs and help produce the necessary products for climate research by providing relevant data to them. For general observation related enquiries, do not hesitate to contact the International CLIVAR Project Office at icpo@noc.soton.ac.uk
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CLIVAR Exchanges No  38

CLIVAR Exchanges No 38

Ed Harrison (chair, Ocean Observing Panel for Climate, OOPC) opened the session on the ocean’s role in climate from the perspective of CLIVAR’s role in the development of the global ocean observing system and products, including synthesis activities through ocean reanalysis. Detlef Stammer provided a review of Global Synthesis and Observation Panel (GSOP) activities in this area, including proposals for a global synthesis evaluation framework to determine the quality of analysis/synthesis products and assess their usefulness for climate research. David Legler led the road map activity from the ocean observation perspective. He emphasised the need for CLIVAR to (i) continue its close cooperation with OOPC through its ocean basin panels and GSOP; (ii) complete and validate multiple global reanalyses (especially in time for IPCC AR5) and (iii) stimulate international activity to evaluate the current state and development vector of the global ocean observation system. We should aim, by the end of CLIVAR, to have developed a global description of subsurface ocean variability and to have in place a permanent and truly global ocean observation system. Both of these would be key legacies of CLIVAR, a theme which Bob Weller subsequently picked up on. In particular it was suggested that a post-CLIVAR legacy would be the initiation of an “ocean data synthesis decade” built on the modelling and observational tools developed through the CLIVAR period. A key issue for CLIVAR is to firm up on its overall data legacy and to develop activities which bring this together.
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