Three items with highest scores were “13. How well do you feel you can talk to and be heard by this parent? (M=3.95, SD=.74)”; “14. If you had a problem with this child, how comfortable would you feel talking to his/her parent about it? (M=3.91, SD=.83)”; “16. How much do you feel this parent has the same goals for his/her child that the school does?”(M=3.67, SD=.81) . Results suggested that teachers felt a lot  comfortable talking to parents and felt that parents shared the same goals. The overall (21 items) parent-teacher involvement was 2.68, slightly below average ( SD=.45). Results suggested that even though in general teachers had positive attitudes toward parent- teacher involvement, in reality, parents and teachers rarely had direct contacts with each other face to face (frequency ranking from never to once or twice a year). Indirect contacts (such as notes, phones) were more frequent, still less than once per month. Teachers appeared to be only slightly more active than parents. This finding is consistent with Hsieh’s (2007) findings that foreign parents were not actively involved in school. In this study, teachers rated that Chinese and Southeast Asian spouses in Taiwan valued children’s education a lot (M=3.52, SD=.96) and shared same goals with schools (M=3.67, SD=.81), however, in reality, they were not actively involved with schools; i.e., direct involvement and contact with the school and teachers. These findings were consistent with Thao’s (2009) findings in the U.S. Thao (2009) stated that in the U.S. though immigrant parents highly value education, they are less likely to be involved in their child’s education and school than parents born in the United States. Compared to U.S.-born parents, foreign-born parents are less likely to visit their children’s school, participate or attend school activities and events, help with homework, and talk to teachers and school staff. Chen (2004) found that new immigrants in Taiwan have strong motivation for children’s academic acheievement, and were involved in supervising children’s home works (Chiang, 2005). Chiang (2005) found that many new immigrants also participated in educational activities such as field trips, and considered these activities were good opportunities for children’s happy learning and parent-teacher communication (as cited in Yu, 2011). Hsieh (2007) studied parent participation in children’s learning activities, and found that 60% of parents were not able to participate in children’s learning activities because of work; 26% indicated they were not invited or they did not know the information, 12% needed to care for children or other people; the rest were not interested or had special problems.
In Chapter Seven Roger Seifert provides a first-hand insider’s account of the origin, development and defence of the distinctive industrial relations contribution made at Keele, in particular its provision of part-time and distance-learning courses for trade union activists. Clearly the campaign over Keele, important as it was, touched a raw nerve for BUIRA members, as it appeared to be symptomatic (albeit in a sharper form than in other institutions) of the threat posed to industrial relations research and teaching more generally. As it happened, the combination of internal resistance at Keele (particularly an assessment boycott and petition to the University Visitor) and external protest (particularly UCU’s national and international ‘greylisting’ of the institution) helped eventually to force Keele management into a negotiated settlement that avoided compulsory redundancies, offered much improved voluntary severance terms, and retained industrial relations delivery in different (albeit much changed and diminished) forms. But, as the chapters in this book testify, the specific campaign over Keele inevitably highlighted in sharp relief some of the other broader underlying challenges to the field of IR which have become apparent across institutions in recent years.
In general, a thesaurus is a collection of controlled terms in a given field that clearly indicates synonymous and hierarchical relations. It can be used to increase efficiency in document searches within systems of information, storage, and search, and to give coherence in document indices. However, there are several technical difficulties that have to be overcome in order to transform a large volume of keywords into a useful thesaurus. Further, questions of credibility related with the methods used to build an automatic thesaurus or ontology exist if specialists are excluded from the process. Consequently, we constructed the thesaurus with the standardized research keywords using a glossary of IP technical terms, and enlisted the aid of the experts to check the thesaurus’ list three times to obtain more meaningful results. The number of research articles and research keywords selected in the three filtering steps are shown in Table 3.
Cooperation between China and African countries has often been portrayed as an economic one. Despite multiple exchanges in the area of culture and knowledge production, not much is written about chinese culture in Africa or knowledge production interaction between both China and African countries. Just to give an example, each African major town has chinese restaurants and Africans like chinese food. But food is seen as an economic asset, not a cultural one. Chinese cuisine is not enough taken as scientific knowledge, but as professional economic skills. I want to argue that economics is not divorced from culture and academia. I further want to understand how culture and academia have also united Chinese and Africans for many centuries. African universities consume more western knowledge than chinese one, despite the fact that China offers alot in this regard as well. I want to show how African countries also offer alot to China in terms of knowledge production. I will choose few countries of Africa and examine how this cultural and academic exchange happens with China. My data are mainly from documentary research where I use content analysis. I seek to answer the following research questions: In what ways did the academic and cultural cooperation between China and African countries evolve? What can be done in order to make it more beneficial on both sides?
The term ‘effectiveness’ does not seem to lend itself to a straightforward interpretation. It has been described as an “elusive concept” [20 p. 3, 57 p. 274], meaning “distinctly different things to different communities” . Various researchers have provided different analytical approaches and understandings of the term. Vogler [18 pp. 155-178] provides four different angles of viewing effectiveness: (i) effectiveness as international law, whereby effectiveness is measured in terms of the legal status of rules and the extent to which states consider themselves bound by them; (ii) effectiveness as transfer of authority from a national to an international level; (iii) effectiveness as behavior modification, where the behavioral change of actors is analyzed pursuant to the establishment of the regimes; and (iv) effectiveness as problem-solving, where the effects of the regime on “sustainability and equitable management of the commons” are considered. Young and Levy’s  five-pronged approach to the concept of effectiveness supplements Vogler’s understanding with the addition of the following: (i) the economic approach, which adds the element of efficiency criteria to the legal definition; and (ii) the normative approach, which includes considerations of “fairness or justice, stewardship, participation,” among others (p. 3). Honkonen adds the following additional dimensions: (i) political effectiveness, which is equated with participation in the regime; (ii) administrative and institutional effectiveness, which refers to the “general procedural and institutional flexibility of the regime” (p. 289); and (iii) local effectiveness, which looks at the impact (or harm) of the regime on local communities in the developing world (pp. 288-291).
In conclusion, in a society with a competitive market, to keep you on the market and to be prosperous, it must be competitive, that means to satisfy the customer's requests, to report yourself to the highest standards and to produce quality. The educational component is no exception to the need for quality, especially the academic education, preparing future generations of specialists able to cope with multiple demands of contemporary society, depends largely on the quality of supply and educational benefit of university education environment (Teodorescu, 2009: 220). In this context, the process of defining skills of the Bachelor’s degree graduates has an important role in determining the quality of the educational offer. Even if this process is still in its infancy in Romania, important steps have been taken for developing the National Qualifications Framework. In turn, the National Qualifications Framework for academic education must be aligned to the requirements of national occupational standards and even European. Therefore, the effort of the SERI staff from the Department of Oradea is an example of good practice in what concerns the combining of the ARACIS standards with the requirements of the local and regional economic environment. The outcome approach is the transmission of a piece of knowledge and skills which results in a set of skills and competencies consistent with the highest European standards. Also, the whole process of determining these competences is an approach for improving the quality of university programs.
Social capital theory has been incorporated into economic literature from studies of non-economists. After the initial thoughts in the field of Sociology by Pierre Bourdieu and James Coleman (1988, 1990), the subject was handled by the political scientist Robert Putnam (1993, 1995). These authors introduced the theoretical basis for the incorporation of social capital as an important production factor and with effects and impacts on economic activity 3 . The main equation and the common views of Bourdieu, Putnam, Coleman and Fukuyama are given as follows: Social capital is an approach characterizing the trust of people with one-another, the trend to be united with them in groups and social networks and the development by means of cooperation of the reciprocity value norms. The entirety of this human energy leads to the economic realization of a democratic order, characterized by institutions functioning according to the law.
The D epartm ent o f International R elations at the L ondon School o f Econom ics provided the ideal environm ent in w hich to explore and debate the many facets o f the discipline which this thesis addresses. A cadem ic colleagues and students encountered along th e way have all in fu en ced th is th e sis, alth o u g h th e ir ag g reg a te e ffe c t co u ld hardly be disassem bled. I owe a special debt to m y superv iso r, M ichael Banks, fo r his p atience and encouragem ent. D iscu ssio ns w ith M ichael Banks, Chris B row n, Robin Brown, M ichael D onelan, M ervyn F rost, Owen H artley, M ark H offm an, R obert Jackson, H ayo K rom bach, C ornelia N avari, Rob W alker, D aniel W arner and P hilip W indsor have left th eir mark. Robin Brow n, M ervyn F rost, Owen H artley , M ark H offm an, F ried rich K ratochw il, T erry N ardin, and John V incent were kind enough to give me w ritten com m ents on my woik. I am grateful to them for challenging me to make the m ost o f my argum ent. A long with m any oth ers, I b en efited from John V incent's rem arkable wit and insight until his untim ely death on 2 N ovem ber 1990, and my small part in a widely felt sense o f loss was sharpened by subsequent receipt o f his unfinished com m ents on a d raft o f this th esis. The D epartm ent o f P olitics at Q ueen M ary College, The D epartm ent of P olitics at The U niversity o f N atal, and The Institute for International S tudies at The U niversity o f L eeds contributed to the intellectual and social environm ent in w hich this th esis w as w ritten. I was fo rtu n ate to have the su p p o rt (and toleration) o f many friends. Ali, A lison, A llison, Anne, A riane, Bob, B rad, C arla, C arol, C aroline, C ornelia, D avid, D irk, E dw in, E ric, Fernando, Fida, Franzi, G ill, G isela, Gautam , Hayo, Hugh, Ian, Ingrid, Isabelle, Jam es, Jo2o, John, K atarina, K athleen, K im , K ristina, K urt, Leon, Lori, M alory, M arina, M ark, M ax, M ichelle, M ike, N ick, P eter, P hilip, Rania, R azeen, Rebecca, R obin, R onen, Shari, Sim on, Spyros, Stephen, S teve, Tony and Yesim all shared in my life a n d 7 w ork during the preparation o f this thesis, and are m ore im portant to m e than I can easily say. My family has nurtured me and endured my shortcom ings, and I dedicate this thesis to them. In acknow ledging the assistance o f these people I also absolve them o f responsibility for this thesis, which is my own folly. H.C.D., Leeds, October 1992
from different countries will provide a more rigorous and generalizable investigation of the validity of the AGQ and AGQ-R measures. To our knowledge, there have been no cross-national validation studies of the motivational pref- erences of pharmacy students. Thus, results of this study will lay a foundation for future studies into undergraduate pharmacy students’ achievement goals and will facilitate comparative and longitudinal research between different countries. Knowing pharmacy students’ achievement goals will provide academics with invaluable understanding of how their students respond when they encounter academic activity. 23 Yet the first step is to determine a precise instru-
Another study, (Dowson, et al., 2003), investigated causal relations between self-concept and motivational goals represents a leading edge in self-concept research. The objective of the study was to determine the nature and extent of causal relations between students' academic self- concept, motivational goals, and achievement. Three waves of data were collected from approximately 2000 high school students using (a) the English and Math Self-Concept scales from the Self- Description Questionnaire II (Marsh, 1990), and (b) the Mastery, Performance and Social Goals scales from the General Achievement Goal Orientation Scale (McInerney, 1997). The data were used in a series of longitudinal Structural Equation Models to determine whether Self-Concept, Motivational Goals, or neither was causally predominant with respect to students' achievement (as measured by their Mathematics and English examination results). Results of the study indicate that the models with Goal Orientations (at Time 1) leading to Self-Concept (at Time 2) leading to achievement (at Time 3) fit the data better than models positing Self- Concept as predominant over Goals, and models positing neither Self-Concept or Goals as predominant. They conclude that students' self-concept is more directly related to their achievement than their motivational goals. However, they also conclude that motivational goals may be an important antecedent of students' self- concept. Hence, motivational goals and self- concept appear to work together in a causally definable manner to influence students' academic achievement
The theory of multiple intelligences (MI) developed by Gardner, proposes at least nine different human intelligences that are distinct and relatively autonomous human intelligences through which people learn. It has been theorized that knowing our MI profile assists us to learn and use this awareness to obtain necessary information and knowledge from a lesson. Characterizing learners’ personal MI profiles thus may enhance learning. Language learners’ learning process, on the other hand, can be facilitated through the use of language learning strategies, particularly if the strategies have been explicitly developed by instructors who possess knowledge about individuals’ learning styles. This paper presents data from an exploratory study to investigate any possible relationship between ESL students’ MI profiles and their use of language learning strategies and hence their proficiency level, as measured by the MUET (Malaysian University English Test).
There are some limitations to our review and case report. For example, in case 2, the patient received radiation treat- ment 1 month prior to presentation. A visual field deficit resulting from irradiation to the optic pathways could have been a plausible initial explanation for the patient’s pre- sentation. However, his worsening visual field deficits on follow-up examination were ultimately predictive of MRI findings consistent with tumor progression. As we describe only two cases, additional studies are needed to determine the specificity and sensitivity of HVF testing, to identify appropriate referral criteria for visual field testing, and to specify follow-up criteria once a visual field deficit is noted. Ultimately, we must also recognize that the diagnosis of GBM progression can only be definitively made by biopsy with histologic identification.
The ultimate aim of Public Relations is to present organizations in the best light possible. This requires special skills in the area of research, managerial, persuasive communication, strategic planning and writing. The standpoint is needed to evaluate the progressive of the profession growth in the industry. Public Relations itself can be a best platform for a person to represent themselves and express their interest towards the profession. This research examined the study of factors and perceptions towards the student’s school and academic performances and their tendency to choose Public Relations course as the main options. The amount of survey calculated based on Krejcie and Morgan Table, N=95 , S=76 by using purposive sampling method. Descriptive quantitative research study was conducted through survey using questionnaire form. The hypothesis testing gained by using two different methods which indicated different result which are Pearson Correlation and Multiple Linear Regression. Based on the research by using Pearson Correlation method, the five listed null hypothesis is accepted based on the standardized significant values which is must be or less than 0.05. However, based on Multiple Linear Regression method, there is different reading which formed different results. Based on significant value in Coefficient Multiple Linear Regression analysis, the null hypothesis of self-interest (0.042) and industry prospect (0.037) is being accepted with significant value below than 0.05.
The authors link their bilateral case with a broader body of IR theory and concepts, labelling US-Venezuelan relations a “midlevel security threat,” a category that receives little attention from IR theory. While chavista foreign policy had certain continuities with its predecessors, the relationship with the United States represented substantial change. During the Chávez era, the United States and Venezuela were each a frequent irritant to the other, but not one large enough to merit a complete rupture of relations—particularly one that would disrupt mutually advantageous oil flows. Oil played a “double role” in facilitating Venezuela’s challenge to the United States while also curtailing both sides’ hostility. The authors clearly saw the oil sector’s rotting roots that led to today’s fiscal crisis. They also pointed out that while “oil thus allow[ed] Chávez to operate in a sort of middle zone” (65) with the United States, the Bolivarian government had grown more asymmetrically dependent given the failure to substantially diversify Venezuela’s markets or enhance the autonomous technological capabilities of the state oil company, Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A., better known as PDVSA. Meanwhile shifts in US production and importation patterns made Venezuelan oil less important.
The results of research show that various def- inition for Power have been provided, among which the most proper definition is: The Power is psychological relation, based on which the wishes and intention of one party realizes from other party and to continue this relation, potential facilities and abilities will be applied. The Power emerges in different forms so called Power modification and it has also descriptive and explanatory attributions such as degree, level, resource, scope, do- main and distribution of Power. Among is- sues that follow discussion about quality and quantity of Power, is the matter of Power measurement, for which different methods such as Algebra loss and statistical methods have been raised. It could be suggested that Power in international policy means ability of people to use tangible and intangible re- sources, so that influence on behavior of oth- er people. With respect to national Power, it could be divided to 3 components as: Power application analysis (influence actions), Pow- er sources (influence tools), and answers. Power sources categorize in two groups of material (tangible) or immaterial (intangible). At the end, states in view of level of Power could be categorized into 6 groups as: 1. First level Powers, 2. Second level Powers, 3. Middle Powers, 4. Low level Powers, 5. Re- gional Powers and 6. Very low level states.
Alfred Zimmern, a central figure of the early development of InternationalRelations, stressed the centrality of industrialization and modern communication technologies as the leading process of international integration. For Zimmern, international integration was a “result of technological innovation, more specifically the increasing speed and ease and hence volume of global communications” (Zimmern 1928:154). Human technological capabilities, marked by the ability to acquire or produce atomic bombs, has been the drive of states’ interests at this period. On the other hand, Hans Morgenthau, also the central figure of the early development of IR, stressed that technological development not only was destructive but also productive. Reinhold Niebhur, like Morgenthau, asserted that technological development had made a “universal community imperative”. The irony is that the new idea of a universal community driven by technological development is also threatened by such development as it provided the ability to demolish of the new community by the conflict of interest among its components (McCarthy 2015).
Cooperation and the role of non-state actors have broad literature in internationalrelations theory (see Herber, 1996; Keohane, 2005; Perlman & Cunningham, 2011), out of which the theory of complex interdependence and institutional liberalism will serve as the cornerstone for theoretical analysis. Keohane and Nye, when putting the information revolution in the context of their theory of complex interdependence, argue that the information revolution affects power measured in terms of resources rather than behaviour. Moreover, they add that the information revolution, by reducing the costs of disseminating information, has added to corporations’ marketability and has increased the value of commercial information. In addition, they highlight that the ability to disseminate free information has increased the agency of those sharing the information, and has enhanced their pow- er for persuasion in world politics (Keohane & Nye, 1998). In the present context, these assertions are valid; however, the fact that companies do not only disseminate a vast amount of information, but also collect it and keep much of it to themselves, is vital. Power has shifted from the ability to dissemination to the ability to collect, filter, and share — or not share — information. Moving for- ward, to assess the cooperation or the lack of it between the affected actors in the realm of big data based analytics in peace studies, three factors must be taken into account: state interests, the influ- ence of private interests and the role of ideas (Ovodenko & Keohane, 2012, p. 538). The three fac- tors will provide the foundation for the analysis of the power and influence of the relevant actors.
domestic structures and that the present global economic order is unethical because of its role in perpetuating inequality. Citizens of affluent nations bear some responsibility for upholding this unjust system, through, for example, unfair trade rules and the international arms trade. He maintains that by upholding this coercive regime without actively working for its reform or compensating those it harms, we are partly responsible for the inequality it engenders. Like Beitz, he points to the unacceptability of Rawls’s double standard for national and international orders, saying: ‘we owe the global poor an account of why we take ourselves to be entitled to impose on them a global economic order in violation of the minimal moral constraints we ourselves place on the imposition of any national economic order’. 37 Pogge advocates an institutional understanding of justice, claiming that we have a duty not to uphold a coercive institutional order that avoidably restricts access to basic necessities for some human beings. He maintains that structural changes are needed to address the poverty and inequality that so often engender human rights abuses. One of the reforms he suggests is the instigation of a Global Resources Dividend (GRD) to improve the capacity of the global poor. The GRD is based on the