development and diverse needs are necessary for designing instruction to maximize student learning, especially in environments where learners differ in abilities
Review of the Literature
This review is of literature associated with professional development for training teachers to implement strategies identified as best practice for working with strugglingreaders. The results of this study and the literature reviewed support that continuing education offers the type preparation teachers need to remain current and to use research based best practice instructional strategies. The varying characteristics of strugglingreaders also suggest the value of frequent professional development to better serve their needs. References included in the review were selected through Internet searches of databases including ERIC and ProQuest, online university libraries, peer-reviewed publications, books, and reliable and scholarly media sources. Relevant search terms used included professional development, continuing education, reading programs and interventions, and teachers' needs for instructing middle school learners.
technology for reading. With the growing number of interactive and social networking sites, students have many opportunities to access information through the interest. This reliance on the Internet as a dominant text has also been shown in the habits of adolescents; students report spending 48 minutes a day reading online compared to 43 minutes offline (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005). Similarly, American adolescents read online at a rate far greater than other parts of the world’s population, indicating an important shift in this generation’s advances in texts (Lenhart, Madden, & Hitlin, 2005). When integrated with New Literacies, students operate as “designers” and “apply critiqued knowledge of the subject/topic synthesized from multimodal sources” (Kimber & Wyatt-Smith, 2006, p. 26). These tech-savy students demonstrate their abilities to transfer knowledge from the screen to create multimedia. In multimediating, students construct a “representation of new knowledge” (Kimber & Wyatt-Smith, 2006, p. 26) and
Teachers can examine students’ daily reading behavior and materials and encourage them to be more aware of what they read and of how they do so for multiple purposes. This insight will lead to students developing their self- perception as readers. As Partin and Hendricks (2002) stated, teachers should expand their scope of what they consider acceptable reading material. Including popular culture, music, the Internet, and magazines in the curriculum may help promote the social aspects of reading and thus enable students to read with the goal of sharing what they learn with friends (Hughes et al., 2011). Another idea is to read books that have been adapted into motion pictures to incentivize students (Koskinnen et al., 1986). Teachers play an instrumental role in enhancing
Suite of built-in tools supporting reading, writing, studying, and Internet research, all with customized auditory and visual modifications. Import curriculum to be read; Web browsing with text extraction; listen to links aloud without activating; writing and study tools include dictionary, two spell checkers, word prediction, note-taking, voice notes, bookmarks, and study guide extraction. Easy to learn with simplified interface.
Classroom teachers can increase student reading outcomes by implementing one- on-one instruction (Amendum, Vernon-Feagans, & Ginsberg, 2011; Vernon-Feagans et al., 2010; Vernon-Feagans et al., 2013); however, little is known about teachers’ experiences while providing this instruction. When classroom teachers do provide reading intervention, they often receive additional training and support that may enhance their overall instruction (Broaddus & Bloodgood, 1999; Nelson-Walker et al., 2013; Vernon-Feagans et al., 2010); however, teacher experiences are often not reported in research studies (e.g., Amendum et al., 2011; Denton et al., 2010; Ferguson, Currie, Paul, & Topping, 2011). If classroom teachers are to provide intensive reading intervention in the classroom setting, a better understanding of their experiences in such a role is necessary. Ultimately, such an understanding will allow researchers and educators alike to facilitate effective professional development and school or classroom practices that support intensive, individualized instruction for the lowest performing readers.
International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education Vol.7 Issue 1, 71-82,2014
– and perhaps even additional tutoring or intervention in school. His teacher further shared that during self-selected reading, Caleb rarely completed the books he started. More troubling, he was not able to make reading “sound like talk”, and he rarely read in phrases or sentences. Instead, connected text was treated as a list of individual words that Caleb tried to sound out. This word-by-word-reading was painfully slow and his reading accuracy, expression, and comprehension were suffering as well. Whether at home or school, when Caleb was asked to read, his shoulders slumped, he placed his head close to the page, pointed slowly to each word, and often incorrectly proceeded to read the print. Even though his mother tried to encourage him to “take his time” and “sound it out,” she expressed exasperation that she just did not know how to help him. As a result, she watched him struggle daily despite his working incredibly hard. Clearly, Caleb was losing his motivation, confidence, and interest in reading. His teacher continued to search for research-based strategies that would ameliorate the learning to read trajectory for Caleb and the other strugglingreaders in her class. His mother wondered if this meant he would continue to function well below his peers and would always find school difficult.
Many secondary school students demonstrate poor comprehension of grade-level text. The Simple View of reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986) describes reading as a multiplicative process in which word recognition translates print into language, and the language comprehension component makes sense of this information. However, while both components are needed for comprehension to occur, they do not contribute equally to comprehension across time. By middle school, listening comprehension outweighs word reading ability in terms of significance, and most poor readers demonstrate listening comprehension deficits (Catts, Hogan, Adlof, & Barth, 2003; Garcia & Cain, 2013). Despite this shift, there is a lack of empirical studies that investigate the effects of using oral language and listening comprehension to support reading comprehension in strugglingreaders beyond the elementary grades.
with reading throughout their educational experience, and are at an increased risk for dropping out of high school. Therefore, teachers should consider continuing to look for innovative ways to engage and motivate readers, so students develop a love for reading and develop the skills necessary to meet the demands of the CCSS (Common Core State Standards) which include reading, writing, listening, speaking and viewing. Digital literacies can be the means that teachers use to help students to meet these standards through different literacy resources that are available. In school, students continue to read traditional texts and many teachers continue to use the same pedagogy that does not embrace technological advances. To ensure the needs of digitally literate students are addressed, and also assist students who are less digitally literate in the acquisition of essential knowledge and skills that will aid in the literacy learning and
In the field of literacy, researchers have conducted a plethora of studies to examine reading instructional methods and approaches used with strugglingreaders (see e.g., Allington, 1983; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998; Gambrell, 2004; Lenski, 2001; Nagy, Herman, & Anderson, 1985; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000). However, within this vast research base on strugglingreaders, very few studies address the nature of strugglingreaders from their own perspectives; that is, how strugglingreaders experience reading instruction. As Oldfather (1995) suggested surveying when this field, “students are a rich but often untapped resource for teachers” (p. 14). She argued that simply talking and listening to students could help educators improve their instructional programs. Even though students are rich informants and stakeholders in the reading process, researchers seldom focus on understanding how students perceive classroom reading instruction and themselves as readers. A range of researchers have noted this gap (Chapman, Greenfield, & Rinaldi, 2010; Erickson & Schultz, 1992; Evans, 2002; Oldfather, 1995). Erickson and Schultz (1992) recognized this problem by asserting, “If the student is visible at all in a research study, he is usually viewed from the perspective of…educators‟ interests and ways of seeing….Rarely is the perspective of the student herself explored” (p. 467). In addition, educators and researchers often make
4. Older students with reading difficulties benefit from improved knowledge of word meanings and concepts. Reading at length and
widely is a valuable way to increase vocabulary knowledge, and students with reading difficulties spend less time reading than more capable readers. Findings from this meta-analysis support the use of more direct types of vocabulary instruction to improve students’ vocabulary. Students engaged in vocabulary interventions make gains when directly tested on the words they were taught. Since vocabulary instruction is essential to all domains of learning, it may be valuable for schools to initiate vocabulary- building practices schoolwide, thus benefiting a broad range of learners. Content-area teachers may see gains in achievement by focusing
The majority of struggling adolescent readers and many adolescents with disabilities in upper elementary and high school read below the basic level and are still challenged by the literacy demands of their grade levels (Grigg et al., 2007; Lee et al., 2007; Wagner et al., 2003). To improve students’ reading skills, adolescents’ motivation to read is a critical intervention point; a lack of motivation adversely affects adolescents’ abilities to enhance vocabulary and reading comprehension skills and to develop powerful reading strategies (Roberts et al., 2008). Due to serious problems with reading skills and consequently frustration, strugglingreaders often exhibit a negative attitude and low motivation to read (NJCLD, 2008; Swanson and Deshler, 2003). A limited numbers of studies have investigated the correlation between students’ motivation to read and students’ success in reading (Morgan and Fuchs, 2007). Since students’ motivation to read may predict reading achievement, reading interventions for adolescents should also include strategies to improve motivation.
effective instructional practices and receive ongoing staff development and support (Dean, Hubbell, Pitler, & Stone, 2012; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998) in order to deliver this necessary instruction.
Research conducted by the National Reading Panel has prompted the use of research-based practices and the development of instructional strategies, teaching techniques, and programs to address strugglingreaders’ issues. Reading intervention programs that target kindergarten through third grade students have been implemented to remediate reading difficulties. Explicit and systematic instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension is encouraged to occur daily during reading instructional time (Kuhn, Groff, & Morrow, 2011; Paratore & McCormack, 2011; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998).
Research Question 1: How does leveled text, support the comprehension of strugglingreaders?
I have discovered that there are both benefits and drawbacks to leveling text. The benefits include that students are able to feel self-assured that they are reading a book successfully. This helps increase their confidence which can have a positive effect towards their motivation to read. The drawbacks I discovered are that if they are reading at a lower level than their peers it is very apparent and students often perceive the books they have to choose from as “baby books.” Often students will find high interest books that are leveled high or lower than what they are placed at. Not being able to choose these high interest books will decrease student motivation and willingness to read.
facilitate greater interaction between readers and the text, and it is that interaction that forms the basis for the reader constructing meaning (Rosenblatt, 1983). For strugglingreaders, the interactive features are hypothesised to act as electronic scaffolds (Bus et al., 2006) that are beneficial to student learning (Grant, 2004). Lumby (2011) found that experiential, interactive forms of learning are a source of positive feelings for students. Similarly, multi-modal forms of presentation (sounds, text, pictures) provide contextual support to aid understanding (Trushell et al., 2003) and lessen the decoding burden (McNabb, 1998). Zucker et al. (2009) argue that children who lack proficiency in decoding have to allocate more of their cognitive resources to this process, and this comes at a ‘cost’ as fewer cognitive resources are available for comprehension
Texts Reading materials of appropriate complexity must be readily available. Lower-achieving students in particular require books they can successfully read. Motivation to read is nurtured by prior success in reading.
Teaching Exemplary instructors provide ample doses of direct, explicit teaching. They model the cognitive processes, such as how to decode words, that skilled readers must master. The best reading teachers model and demonstrate frequently throughout their lessons.
Rule 4: Choice of text and task . The third rule that will apply to my study notes the
importance of offering students the ability to choose the text as well as how to interact with that text. This idea is often ignored within classroom settings due to many factors such as learning targets, curriculum mandates, and time restraints. However, this idea of text and task choice is one that has been finely researched with observed success for readers. Gambrell (2011) notes that: “studies indicate that motivation increases when students have opportunities to make choices about what they learn and when they believe they have some autonomy or control over their own learning” (p.175). By offering students choice in text and task, teachers are also
direct instruction to teach students how to use each type of strategy. Working with Jared has given my
insight into the minds of my strugglingreaders. As a teacher you cannot assume that your students
understand a strategy, even if you know that it is one that they have learned in previous years. For
example predicting, students begin taking picture walks and making predictions at their early stages of