interpersonal comparisons of utility

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The Historical Perspective of the Problem of Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility

The Historical Perspective of the Problem of Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility

The starting-point of the article is the inconsistency between the established practice of acceptance in many cases, of economic policy (i.e. progressive taxation, national insurance policies) and the theoretical rejection of interpersonal comparisons of utility who see it as an unscientific value judgement. The inconsistency is explained by identifying three groups of theorists: (1) those who thought of comparability as a value judgement and unacceptable for economic policy considerations (positivists), (2) those who agreed with the positivists, on the normative nature of comparability but accepted it as a basis for economic policy, and (3) those who thought of it as part of a scientific economics. The implication was that, despite the dominance of positivist methodology in other sub-fields, the historical experience points to the difficulty of applying positivist methodology to the issue of comparability. If the inconsistency is thus due to the inappropriateness of the positivist approach, the only possible solution is the explicit abandonment of this approach at least in matters related to the collective aspects of economics.

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Interpersonal comparisons of utility: The epistemological problem

Interpersonal comparisons of utility: The epistemological problem

In this framework, the problem of IUCs arises at the second stage. However, according to Davidson, the difficulties in finding a positive solution suggest that this theoretical framework is the source of the problem and should be rejected. There are at least two possibilities. The first consists in denying that IUCs are factual statements and maintaining that they are (part of) either normative or evaluative judgments. This means that the second and the third step are much more interdependent and difficult to distinguish than suggested by the ‘standard picture’, up to the point where they mesh together8. By contrast, Davidson emphasises the interdependence existing between the first and the second stage in the ‘standard picture’. Without rejecting the connection between IUCs and normative judgments, Davidson claims that the very attribution of preferences to another individual involves an interpersonal comparison between the interpreter’s and the agent’s preferences. As a consequence, according to Davidson, the basis for IUCs is provided by the principle that guides the ascription of preferences and other mental states to other individuals, namely, the Principle of Charity (PoC, for short). This is how Davidson expresses the point: “I think interpersonal comparisons have a basis in the following sense: in the process of attributing propositional attitudes like beliefs, desires, and preferences to others, interpersonal comparisons are necessarily made”. In the case of evaluative attitudes like preferences, this does not mean that “the attributer consciously or unconsciously makes a comparison, but that in the process of attribution the attributer necessarily uses his own values in a way that provides a basis for comparison; a comparison is implied in the attribution”9.

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Social choice with approximate interpersonal comparisons of well being

Social choice with approximate interpersonal comparisons of well being

Some social choice models assume that precise interpersonal comparisons of utility (either ordinal or cardinal) are possible, allowing a rich theory of distributive justice. Other models assume that absolutely no interpersonal comparisons are possible, or even meaningful; hence all Pareto-efficient outcomes are equally socially desirable. We compromise between these two extremes, by developing a model of ‘approximate’ interpersonal comparisons of well-being, in terms of an incomplete preorder on the space of psychophysical states. We then define and characterize ‘approximate’ ver- sions of the classical egalitarian and utilitarian social welfare orderings. We show that even very weak assumptions about interpersonal comparability can can yield preorders on the space of social alternatives which, while incomplete, are far more complete than the Pareto preorder. We also develop a variant of Harsanyi’s Social Aggregation Theorem.

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Interview of Peter J  Hammond

Interview of Peter J Hammond

Now, social choice theorists have generally invoked an assumption such as an unrestricted domain of finite decision trees, or at least a sufficiently unrestricted domain. This plays a crucial role in those old justifications of welfarism. My own arguments for utilitarianism also put no restrictions on the impartial benefactor’s judgements regarding the expected utility as- cribed to the different personal consequences faced by each individual in the original position. Fleurbaey and Maniquet (2011, 2017), however, consider restricted domains of social choice problems such as those that involve di- viding an aggregate bundle of several different commodities among a set of individuals. They consider social choice procedures which select allocations that maximize a Paretian welfare ordering which, as with Arrow social wel- fare functions, depends only on the individuals’ preference orderings. Unlike Arrow, however, they not only consider a restricted domain of social choice problems, but they also relax independence of (preferences for) irrelevant alternatives. This allows their procedure to generate fair rather than dic- tatorial allocations. The various notions of fairness that they consider do depend on interpersonal comparisons of utility levels, of course, and these comparisons can take irrelevant alternatives into account. It is an interesting alternative to welfarist rules like utilitarianism.

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Aggregation of incomplete ordinal preferences with approximate interpersonal comparisons

Aggregation of incomplete ordinal preferences with approximate interpersonal comparisons

Sections 2 and 3 only utilize (incomplete) preference orders, not utility functions. Section 4 illustrates the model in the special case of interpersonal utility comparisons, and Section 5 applies this special case to bilateral bargaining. Section 6 briefly inves- tigates other axioms which may be desirable for social preorders, such as separability and Arrovian independence. Finally, Section 7 turns to ‘metric’ social orders, which are defined using a ‘multiutility representation’ of the underlying system of incom- plete interpersonal preferences. The main result of this paper (Theorem 7.10) shows that the approximate maximin preorder is maximally decisive within the class of met- ric preorders which ensure ‘minimal equity’, while being decisive between all ‘fully comparable’ pairs of worlds (the smallest class for which one could reasonably require decisiveness). This can be seen as a generalization of a classic result of Roberts (1980). Appendix A provides some technical background on preorders. Appendix B contains the proofs of all results.

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Risky social choice with approximate interpersonal comparisons of well being

Risky social choice with approximate interpersonal comparisons of well being

The ‘stochastic utility’ model of §4 furnishes at least two rebuttals of this ‘vitiation’. The first is an argument originating with Mill (1859). Liberty is salutary because by making choices, i cultivates her ability to process and evaluate complex information and forecast the long-term consequences of her actions; she also develops her self- confidence and her sense of personal responsibility. Furthermore, there is a certain kind of satisfaction which she can achieve only by exercising personal autonomy. Formally, suppose X = Ψ×Φ as in Example 4.1(a), and individual i currently has psychophysical state (ψ i , φ i ). The ‘vitiation’ argument implicitly assumed that A ⊆ {ψ} × Φ. But in

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Interpersonal comparisons of well being

Interpersonal comparisons of well being

Pareto indifference demands that if, according to a utility profile U in the domain of the social-evaluation functional, the individual utilities for two alternatives x and y are the same, then x and y must be equally good according to the social ranking generated by U . This axiom is implied by a condition introduced by Goodin (1991). Goodin suggests that if an alternative x is socially better than an alternative y according to the ranking obtained for a profile U , then it must be the case that, in the given profile U , x is better than y for at least one individual—otherwise we run the risk of making empty gestures that benefit no-one and may make some worse off.

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Approximate interpersonal comparisons of well being

Approximate interpersonal comparisons of well being

❀ ψ} be ψ’s set of possible 12 past selves . If ψ has accurate memory of her own past emotions, she can correctly make judgements of the form, “I enjoy playing piano now more than I did as a teenager”, or “I became happier after I quit that job”. This means that she can make interpersonal comparisons between elements of P (ψ). On the other hand, to make optimal intertemporal choices, she must choose between various possible futures, perhaps involving different future selves; she therefore must make accurate comparisons between elements of F (ψ). This is especially clear in intertemporal wealth transfer: we save (borrow) money because we believe our future self will derive more (less) utility from it than our present self —this is an interpersonal comparison. Likewise, a person choosing whether to get an education, try a new experience, avoid ‘temptation’, undergo psychotherapy, meditate in search of ‘inner peace’, or take a psychoactive drug (especially an addictive one) is clearly choosing amongst possible ‘future selves’ in F (ψ). Also, the idea that people can be held partly ‘responsible’ for their preferences (e.g. for deliberately cultivating ‘expensive tastes’, for maintaining a more or less ‘cheerful’ disposition, or for immiserating themselves with unrealistic life-goals) implicitly presupposes some ability to choose over F (ψ). Finally, people often exhibit ‘metapreferences’ over their preferences (e.g. ‘I wish I could enjoy improvisational jazz music’ or ‘I wish I wasn’t addicted to cigarettes’) or ‘intrapersonal’ preferences (‘I wish I could become less anxious’); these can only be understood as preferences over F (ψ). However, once we recognize that people routinely make interpersonal comparisons across P (ξ) ∪ F (ξ), it seems plausible that they can make interpersonal comparisons involving at least some other elements of Ψ.

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Developmental Differences in Children’s Interpersonal Emotion Regulation

Developmental Differences in Children’s Interpersonal Emotion Regulation

Given the patterns obtained, future research could test whether positive engagement strategies (i.e., affective and cognitive engagement) are predominant in adulthood compared to attention strategies. We would expect this to be the case as positive engagement strategies require more complex cognitive functions, compared to the attention strategy. However, the use of a specific strategy may also depend on the emotional tone of the situation (see Web, Miles, & Sheeran, 2012) and this could be a potential area to be targeted. Future research may also investigate the different developmental achievements that may drive changes in the use of different interpersonal ER strategies across the lifespan. Finally, future research could look at whether helping and sharing, as forms of prosocial behaviour may appear early as they do not target an emotional need and therefore they may involve less complex social-cognitive skills.

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Cancer survivors’ social context in the return to work process: narrative accounts of social support and social comparison information

Cancer survivors’ social context in the return to work process: narrative accounts of social support and social comparison information

Social comparison information allows individuals to view themselves and their lives relative to others’ experiences (34). Social comparison mechanisms in cancer survivorship can impact on individuals’ self-esteem and self-evaluations (35-36). For example, cancer survivors that use downward comparisons, comparing themselves with others that are in a worse situation, may feel better about themselves (36), although evidence also suggests that downward comparisons may be even detrimental among cancer survivors with positive health expectations (37). However, social comparison information was also used by participants as a means to situate themselves and their work-capabilities in their work-context and job market, comparing themselves with their colleagues or other work contexts. The purpose of such comparisons is to gather relevant information from similar others that can allow individuals to ‘place’ themselves within their contexts (38). Examinations of social comparison information in the autobiographies of adult cancer survivors (39), among peers (40), and in cancer support group programs (33) have shown the significance of social comparison information in regulating survivors’ feelings and reactions.

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On ordinal utility, cardinal utility, and random utility  

On ordinal utility, cardinal utility, and random utility  

Though the Random Utility Model (RUM) was conceived entirely in terms of ordinal utility, the apparatus through which it is widely practised exhibits properties of cardinal utility. The adoption of cardinal utility as a working operation of ordinal is perfectly valid, provided interpretations drawn from that operation remain faithful to ordinal utility. The paper considers whether the latter requirement holds true for several measurements commonly derived from RUM. In particular it is found that measurements of consumer surplus change may depart from ordinal utility, and exploit the cardinality inherent in the practical apparatus.

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ORPHANHOOD EFFECT ON PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS’ INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS IN KENYA

ORPHANHOOD EFFECT ON PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS’ INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS IN KENYA

In Kenya, orphanhood has risen and affected many children among them primary school pupils. A parent’s death may affect children’s psychological well being. There is a close coherence between children’s psychological well-beings and their interpersonal relationships. Children who have poor psychological well-being are likely to be withdrawn, experience low self-esteem and have poor adaptations to human functioning and life experiences. These conditions affect their relations with others hence become deviants. A literature gap exists in Kenya on orphanhood’s effect children’s relations with other pupils thus motivating the authors to come up with such a study. Thus, the objective of the study was to establish the influence of orphanhood on pupils’ interpersonal relationships in public primary schools by comparing the mean scores in pupils’ interpersonal relationships between the orphaned and the non-orphaned pupils. Also, establish whether gender differences exist in interpersonal relationships between the orphaned pupils. Causal-Comparative research design was considered appropriate for the study because of the comparison of groups. A sample of 110 pupils (55 orphaned and 55 non-orphaned) drawn from 10 primary schools was involved in the study. The pupils were drawn from primary classes 6 and 7. The sample was selected by using purposive and stratified random sampling procedures. A questionnaire was used to collect data which was analyzed by use of independent sample t-test. The study established that orphanhood has a significant effect on interpersonal relationships among pupils in primary schools in Kenya. It was also established that significant gender differences exist in the effect that orphanhood exert on pupils; with boys being more affected than the girls. From the findings, it is evident that absence of parents negatively affect the interpersonal skills of children particularly the boy- child. Such children need counseling interventions to counter these effects. It is therefore recommended that school counselors, teachers and school administrators in Kenya should assist orphaned pupils cope with the loss of their parents by offering psychological and social support to them. This is because the poor interpersonal relationships of orphaned pupils may affect various aspects of their lives that include academics and discipline among others.

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CONSTRUCTION AND STANDARDISATION OF TEACHER INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP SCALE (TIRS)

CONSTRUCTION AND STANDARDISATION OF TEACHER INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP SCALE (TIRS)

Norms are the average scores or values determined by actual measurement of a group of individuals who are representative of a specified population. It is a criterion level against which the value of certain activity is compared against determined levels. Norms of a standardized test provides us a basis for the practical interpretation and analysis of results. A set of norms was prepared after collecting final data on the sample of 600 teachers on Teacher Interpersonal Relationship Scale constructed by investigator. Raw scores(X) obtained were tabulated in ascending order. Norms have been prepared in the form of Z- scores and T- scores. For establishing norms the investigator calculated the mean and standard deviation of the scores of 600 school teachers on Teacher Interpersonal Relationship Scale. Z-scores were calculated by using the formula Z= X-M/S.D. and T-scores were calculated by T-scores = 50+10Z. Repeated raw scores and their corresponding Z-scores and T-scores were not included in the Table 1.5.

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The Interpersonal Consequences Of Humor

The Interpersonal Consequences Of Humor

Humor has a profound impact on interpersonal perception and behavior. Humor can have vast benefits for individuals and teams within organizations (Avolio, Howell, & Sosik, 1999; Decker & Rotondo, 2001; Cooper, 2005, 2017; Cooper & Sosik, 2012; Hughes & Avey, 2009; Vecchio, Justin, & Pearce, 2009). Recent work on humor in organizations has found that the use of humor improves leader member exchange, leads to greater employee engagement, and enables the individuals who use it to achieve elevated status (Bitterly, Brooks, & Schweitzer, 2017; Cooper, 2017; Yam, Christian, Wu, Liao, & Nai, 2017). Although the use of humor can be extremely beneficial, no prior work has explored how frequently it occurs in organizations, nor has it explored which individuals are most likely to use it.

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Interpersonal Human Rights

Interpersonal Human Rights

that we all constitute our own distinctive personhoods against the back- ground of our peculiar circumstances— that law must not assign the sole responsibility to address our personal differences to public law; that pri- vate law cannot contend with the requirement that people respect each other as independent and formally equal individuals. Quite the contrary. Given personal differences and the significance of our interdependence, relational justice— the dimension of justice that focuses on the terms of our interactions as private persons— implies that private law must cast our interpersonal interactions in terms of relationships between self-determin- ing individuals who respect each other for the persons they actually are. For persons to relate as equals, private law must structure the terms of their interaction so that they consist of the conception of the person as a substantively, rather than formally, free and equal agent. Accordingly, pri- vate law must not specify these terms of interaction in complete disregard of circumstances as well as constitutive choices— choices which pertain to people’s ground projects (as opposed to their brute preferences)— insofar as they are crucial for the interacting parties’ ability to act as self-determining agents.

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Demographics' Differences in Social Networking Sites Use: What Communication Motives Does it Gratify?

Demographics' Differences in Social Networking Sites Use: What Communication Motives Does it Gratify?

High number of users practices Social Networking Sites to gratify there “pleasure” motives because in real life they have no time to gratify themselves, but when they come of such virtual networks they found, it contain fun, entertainment, enjoyment, excitement , a good time and stimulating. Female respondents went to SNS for relaxation more than males, whereas male respondents went to SNS for “control” and “inclusion” motives. A large number of students, females than males, go to SNS for “relaxation” when they are bored. A significant number of males and females students use SNS for “pleasure”, “affection” and “escape”. A small number of people operate SNS for “Control” Motive, more so male and younger respondents than female and older respondents. These finding strengthen what Althaus and Tewksbury suggested in 2000 that “pleasure” and “relaxation”-gratification generally associated with TV and newspaper prove to be significant predictors of using SNS. Parks and Floyd also reported similar finding in 1966, that females are more involved in interpersonal relationships than men. Young adults and females who interested in “pleasure: and “relaxations” through SNS have more friends than others. In 1996 parks and Floyd observed that who used SNS for “affection” motive had developed greater number of personal relationships. The data of this research also reflected that people did not go to SNS for “escape” from real world problem, but “affection”. Generally, the results of this study are similar with finding of Flaherty, Pearce and Rubin (1998). Finding of above researchers suggested that people use online communication to gratify needs fulfilled by traditional media (i.e. entertainment, Pleasure, fun and affection).( La Rose et al., 2001), arguments also support present study that people spend lot of time to do enjoyable activity.

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The SELF-DISS: A Comprehensive Measure of Self-Defeating Interpersonal Style

The SELF-DISS: A Comprehensive Measure of Self-Defeating Interpersonal Style

This research reports the development and validation of the Self-Defeating Interpersonal Style Scale (SELF-DISS), a measure for the assessment of the propensity to engage in the chronic tolerance of mistreatment in relationships. Studies 1 and 2 followed a strategical 7-step process for developing valid and reliable measures. Study 1 proposed a theoretical model and developed a reliable measure to tap the three proposed factors on three scales: Insecure Attachment, Undeserving Self-Image, and Self-Sacrificing Nature. Study 2 replicated Study 1 as well as refined the SELF-DISS model to 35 items that indicated an excellent fit. Study 2 tested construct validity via correlational and modelling analyses using the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI), the Hogan Development Survey (HDS), and the Motives, Values, Preferences Inventory (MVPI). Results showed strong support for the reliability and validity of the SELF-DISS as a second-order construct with three distinct factors.

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Vague comparisons

Vague comparisons

This, however, does not rule out the suggestion that non-quantifiability lies at the root of comparative vagueness. In this example, we were able to establish numerical measures for all the various dimensions contributing to baldness, but not for baldness itself. Although the subvening properties (hair number, density etc.) are precisely quantifiable, the supervening property of baldness is not—there is no single numerical measure that we could use to express the degree of one’s baldness, over and above the parameters established. At the level of each parameter, determinate comparisons can be made, precisely because there is complete quantifiability on each dimension: for instance, in this case we can say that the first person has more hair on his scalp than the second, whose hair is nevertheless thicker, etc. But we cannot say determinately whether the second person is balder than the first, because baldness and balder-than-ness supervene upon, but aren’t themselves, precisely quantifiable properties.

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User Service Rating Prediction System by Exploring Social Users Rating Behavior

User Service Rating Prediction System by Exploring Social Users Rating Behavior

With the advent and recognition of social network, additional and more users like to share their experiences, such as ratings, reviews, and blogs. The new factors of social network like interpersonal influence and interest primarily based on circles of friends bring opportunities and challenges for recommender system (RS) to unravel the cold begin and meagreness drawback of datasets. Some of the social factors are employed in RS, but have not been totally thought of. In this paper, three social factors, personal interest, interpersonal interest similarity, and interpersonal influence, fuse into a unified personalized recommendation model primarily based on probabilistic matrix factorization. The factor of personal interest will build the RS suggest things to fulfil users individualities, especially for skilled users. Moreover, for cold start users, the social interest similarity and interpersonal influence will enhance the intrinsic link among options in the latent area. We conduct a series of experiments on 3 rating datasets: Yelp, MovieLens, and Douban Movie. Experimental results show the proposed approach outperforms the existing RS approaches.

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Interpersonal comparisons of the good : epistemic not impossible

Interpersonal comparisons of the good : epistemic not impossible

good without interpersonal comparisons, a fact that is brutally unavoidable as there quite plausibly has never been a pareto-improving economic or political policy or institutional change undertaken by any state, at any time, at any point, in all of recorded history, and likely never will be. Indeed, I have a long-standing bet to this effect. No suggested pareto-improving policy has yet withstood scrutiny. Moreover, as a colleague Hakon Tretvoll pointed out, even if such an unlikely policy did exist, one final impact would be to cause me to lose the bet, which would leave me worse off, and entail it couldn't be a pareto improvement. (This delightfully ingenious result is not terribly important, but it does however highlight the sheer improbability of saying anything useful about social welfare without some sort of interpersonal comparisons).

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