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The Study of Lineage and Privacy of the Child Resulting from Gamete and Embryo Donation in Islamic Jurisprudence and Iranian Law

The Study of Lineage and Privacy of the Child Resulting from Gamete and Embryo Donation in Islamic Jurisprudence and Iranian Law

Abstract: The embryo donation has been studied by many scientists and practitioners after the approval of the act of the embryo donation to infertile couples in 1382. The main question posed here is concerned with the lineage and intimacy status of this donation for the child and also “to whom does the child belong”? To answer this question this result was obtained that in Iranian law, the complete assignment of the child to the applicant couple has not been accepted. Iranian law is also silent on lineage field. But from jurisprudents point of view and regarding verses and traditions, the child’s original parents are the owners of ovule and sperm and also about the lineage of the owner of uterus, she is the child’s “consented” mother. If the child is a girl as she is served as the father’s stepdaughter, he would be confident to the child. The objective of this study was to clarify the child lineage induced by embryo donation with donors and receivers in Iranian law. To write this thesis, a library method has been used. At the end of the writing some recommendations have been proposed that are useful to solve some of the present and future problems.
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The position of counsel for the accused in the preliminary investigation in criminal law and procedure and Iranian Law

The position of counsel for the accused in the preliminary investigation in criminal law and procedure and Iranian Law

that in the event of non-compliance accused only in the courts and in criminal proceedings included is unfortunately associated with the intervention of lawyers in the preliminary investigation to silence stop it. With Alkali the value of the intervention of counsel for the accused in the preliminary investigation on everyone not wearing though the right to counsel by the accused is also in the court in difficulty and later accepted that the root principles of systems audit of the Ages 18 and 19 the result is. Now, thanks to the almost adversarial latest preliminary investigation on the one hand and the inability of the accused innocent to equipment and facilities appropriate defensive in court and lack of fairness and equality by prosecutors and rights obvious human and accused of triggering the consequent Washday the cause prolongation of proceedings and the prolongation dropping the criminal proceedings. Therefore attention and regard the drafters of criminal law consequences of a lawyer in the court a little more than before it. Note the Additional Article 112 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the former permit counsel during the preliminary investigation on the order of Iran's Penal limited issue raised. However, the mere presence of a lawyer at this stage is a positive step and appropriate. But the lack of appropriate defense and lack of authority in this regard seems to be that the principle of equality of opportunity defense or defense fits very well have been served.
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Sanctions and Their Effects on Contractual Obligations: From the Perspective of International Instruments and Iranian Law

Sanctions and Their Effects on Contractual Obligations: From the Perspective of International Instruments and Iranian Law

8 In fact, hardship is at stake where the performance of the disadvantaged party has become much more burdensome, but not impossible, while force majeure means that the performance of the party concerned has become impossible, at least temporarily. Moreover, there seems to be a functional difference between the two concepts. Hardship constitutes a reason for a change in the contractual program of the parties. The aim of the parties remains to implement the contract. Force majeure, however, is situated in the context of non-performance, and deals with the suspension or termination of the contract. (Joern Rimke, Force majeure and hardship: Application in International Trade Practice with Specific Regard to The CISG and The UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts, 202 (Kluwer 1999-2000). In fact, the effects of applying of hardship are less drastic. Rather than immediate exemption from damages and then possible termination, for example, Article 6.2.3 of UNIDROIT principles allows the affected party first to request negotiations and then to obtain either termination or adjustment of contract (Luke Nottage (2007), Changing Contract Lenses: Unexpected Supervening Events in English, New Zealand, U.S., Japanese, and International Sales Law and Practice, 405 (Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies: Vol. 14: Iss. 2, Article 9), Available at: http://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/ijgls/vol14/iss2/9 ).
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Does Engaging with Other Disciplines Work in EAP?  Scaffolding L2 Reading Comprehension of Iranian Law Students through Team Teaching

Does Engaging with Other Disciplines Work in EAP? Scaffolding L2 Reading Comprehension of Iranian Law Students through Team Teaching

In reality, as Davison and Williams (2001) maintain, EAP programs integrate subject matter (i.e. content) with general/common core language teaching. Such integration is highly motivating since the learners can apply the linguistic information and skills they acquire in the EAP context to particular purposes dressed in an academic coloring. As an illustration, students studying Law are able to learn the reading, writing, and speaking skills as well as the grammar and vocabulary needed for property functioning in these skills (Jabbour, 2001).

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Study of Victimization؛Causation and Explanation About Efficiency of Codes of the Elderlies in Iranian Criminal Law

Study of Victimization؛Causation and Explanation About Efficiency of Codes of the Elderlies in Iranian Criminal Law

Unfortunately elderly abuse is not a well- known phenomenon in Iran; if the situation of this crime becomes obvious, it will show a significant number. This is a very bitter reality that we are viewers of an apathy to elderly abuse cases. A glance to the current law of Iran indicates its incorrect and inefficient situation regarding elderly abuse. Even in some cases elderly abuse is supported through other subjects of criminal law. According to special needs and condition of senility, the presence of special elderly social workers seems essential, and it is in a situation that there is no special social worker for the elderly in clinics as it is clear that the presence of elderly special social worker helps them in social and mental aspects of their life. Paying attention to the shortcomings of Iranian law regarding the elderly is a common criminal policy and this shortcoming is obvious in Iran current law. Using cultural tactics and finding best ways of respect them and proposing methods to prevent elderly abuse case can be very helpful. “Prohibitive supports” regarding the
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The Right to Clean Air and Related Sanctions in Iranian and French Law

The Right to Clean Air and Related Sanctions in Iranian and French Law

directly or indirectly into the air or closed environments which has detrimental consequences and dangerous effects on human health, biological resources and ecosystems which may result in climate change, damage to properties and objects and excessive smell (4). This article also states: "... When an industrial, commercial or agricultural organization emits polluting substances into the air according to the definition of air pollution violation stated in Article L. 220-2, and violates the rules and regulations pronounced in Article L. 226-8, the person in charge will be sentenced to six months imprisonment and a 7,500 Euro fine. The operator also incurs the additional penalties mentioned in parts 10 and 11 of Article 131-6 of the Penal Code as well as the penalty of public posting or publication of the decision pronounced either in the written press, or in the media in accordance with Article 131-35 of the same Code (Ibid). Titles of crimes as classified under the relevant Iranian law are as follows.
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Oil Exports and the Iranian Economy

Oil Exports and the Iranian Economy

This paper makes a theoretical contribution by showing the conditions under which income from a resource can have a lasting impact on growth and per capita income. Using this theoretical insight, it provides a small quarterly model of the Iranian economy, as an example of a major oil exporting economy, where the long run implications of oil exports for real output, in‡ation, real money balances, and the real exchange rate are tested. The results are generally supportive of the long run theory, although they point to certain ine¢ ciencies in the demand management of the economy that manifest themselves as a signi…cantly negative e¤ect of in‡ation on real output, even in the long run. The estimates also suggest a rather rapid response of the economy to shocks, which could be due to the relatively underdeveloped nature of the money and capital markets in Iran. Such markets tend to act as shock absorbers in developed economies during normal conditions, although as we have seen recently, they can also act as shock magni…ers during crisis periods.
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Stigma in Iranian Down Syndrome

Stigma in Iranian Down Syndrome

(9) Since 1970s with changes have occurred in the Philosophy of care for children withDS. (10) And destigmatization program was induced in developing countries. (11) According this, taking special attention to DS was performed and for having educational, vocational and other opportunities for better life, at first information is needed. . (12) Now disability and special needs is a normal part of life and is not a stigma. (13) Hence degree and type of stigmatization varies according to prevailing cultural norms, (14) therefore we decided to determine causes of stigma in iranian Down Syndromes. Material & Methods:
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Analysis of Indo - Iranian Trade

Analysis of Indo - Iranian Trade

Conventional political and economic relations between India and Iran and ever increasing energy requirement of consistently growing Indian economy have made Iran an important trade partner of India than ever before. It is observed that Iran’s pattern and structure of trade with India and rest of the world continues to be governed and guided by its natural resources, especially fuels/energy. Consequently, Iran’s economic structure and exports are dominated by oil. As against Iran, India has advantage in the production of several goods. India is rich in such mineral resources as iron ore, coal, mica, copper, zinc etc. India exports pallets of iron ore to Iran to keep the Iranian steel industry working. India imports approximately 12% of its total oil requirement from Iran annually. Iran is the second largest supplier of oil to India (The Times of India, 6 April, 2012). The sanctions imposed by US and European Union against trade with Iran have put lot of pressure on Indian Government which along with Russia, China, South Africa and Brazil decided to navigate an independent course in their politico-economic relations with Iran. But oil and its products are not the only good in the basket of Indo-Iranian trade. India and Iran are now important trade partners and the trade between the two countries goes much beyond crude oil and petroleum products.
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Iranian Nurses Professional Socialization

Iranian Nurses Professional Socialization

Jafaraghaie et al. showed that the characteristics of pro- fessional commitment are acceptable goals and values of the profession. The intention of making significant efforts for career, loyalty, membership in professional organizations and institutes, having pride, and eagerly working in the profession are recognized (Jafaragaee et al. 2012). Iranian nurses’ high professional commitment demonstrated in this research might be explained by the fact that they are Muslim. According to Rahemaghae et al., Muslim nurses pay attention to their inner commit- ment to nursing and care and to God who observes their performance (Flora Rahimaghaee, Dehghan Nayeri & Eesa Mohammadi 2010).
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Spiritual development in Iranian nurses

Spiritual development in Iranian nurses

Iranian culture is religious, which affects the professional behavior of Iranians. The participants in this study said that they loved to serve humans as ‘‘servants of God on earth.’’ They do not consider treatment and caring sufficient for restoration or promotion of health in patients, but maintain an abiding faith in God in their work. These participants not only look at their job as a professional task but also regard it as a religious duty. They believe that negligence when working with patients is a sin and optimal care of a patient will be rewarded by God. Their religious beliefs motivate them to seek justice and try to put it into practice. Previous studies have shown that ethics is an important factor to achieve organizational commitment and that looking at spirituality is a characteristic of the ethical climate. 35
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Oil Exports and the Iranian Economy

Oil Exports and the Iranian Economy

The empirical validity of the long run output equation for the Iranian economy is exam- ined by incorporating it into a vector autoregressive error correction model augmented with foreign output. The resultant VARX* model is estimated using quarterly observations over the period 1979Q1-2006Q4. The domestic variables included in the model are real GDP, the rate of in‡ation based on consumer price index (CPI), the o¢ cial and ‘free’market exchange rates, and money and quasi money. Unlike most other macro models, ours does not include the interest rate as an explicit variable because the domestic credit markets in Iran operate under tight controls and the interest rate is not market-determined. But assuming that the Fisher equation holds in the long run, the in‡ation rate can be used as a proxy for the interest rate. The foreign output variable is constructed as a weighted average of the log output of Iran’s trading partners with the weights based on the relative size of their trade with Iran (exports plus imports).
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The Iranian Communists and The Soviet Union

The Iranian Communists and The Soviet Union

Abstract: Iran's relation with one of the largest countries, that is, Russia (The Soviet Un- ion) has under gone many changes. One of the brilliant examples of the changing policies of Russia towards Iran is, no doubt, the years 1941 to 1953. In this period, most of graceful communist parties' rise and fall is making relations between Iran and Russia. Tudeh party, Ferghe Democrate Azerbaijan and Ferghe Democrate Kurdestan are some of the communist movements in Iran which are noticeable and researchable. However, this essay tries to an- swer the following questions: 1. was not the Soviet Union policy towards Iran neo- colonialist? 2. To what extent were the relations between Iran and the Soviet Union ad- justed in accordance with the communist ideology? 3. were the communist parties of Iran in harmony with the needs of Iranian peasants, workers, or were they the chief protectors of soviet interests? It is remind able that in Iran there have been several powerful levels such as a: Army, b: Majlis, c: Royal Court, d: Political parties, e: People and religious Leaders and f: Foreign Embassies. These levels, sometimes in group of two, Three or more and sometimes in loneliness effected the political Social –Economical, religion, militarily and culturally lives of Iran. In the era of 1949-1953 this is the role of Russian Embassy which brought about many changes.
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Iranian Arms Transfers: The Facts

Iranian Arms Transfers: The Facts

• Russian entities continued to supply a variety of ballistic missile-related goods and technical know-how to Iran and were expanding missile-related assistance to Syria and India. For example, Iran’s earlier success in gaining technology and materials from Russian companies accelerated Iranian development of the Shahab-3 MRBM, which was first flight-tested in July 1998. Russian entities during the first six months of 1999 have provided substantial missile-related technology, training, and expertise to Iran that almost certainly will continue to accelerate Iranian efforts to build new indigenous ballistic missile systems… the government’s commitment, willingness, and ability to curb proliferation-related transfers remain uncertain. Moreover, economic conditions in Russia continued to deteriorate, putting more pressure on Russian entities to circumvent export controls. Despite some examples of restraint, Russian businesses continue to be major suppliers of WMD equipment, materials, and technology to Iran. Monitoring Russian proliferation behavior, therefore, will remain a very high priority.
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A review on Iranian nuclear deal

A review on Iranian nuclear deal

Iran always denied any link between its ballistic missiles and its disputed nuclear program, which is quite doubtful. Prophecy of Israel’s prime minister seems to come true as Iran launched two missiles with phrase- ISRAEL MUST BE WIPED OUT. Though it is not seldom Iran has done this, but carrying out such tests despite agreement has created a lot of political tension amongst US, Iran and Israel. Israelites fear the danger they are in. However, Iranian officials quoted the test as to show that Iran could hit Israel. Iran neither agrees the violation of the deal.

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Improvisation in Iranian and Indian Music

Improvisation in Iranian and Indian Music

forbidden even to listen to performers from other traditions (Silver 1976), though these traditional attitudes are now more relaxed. Traditional teaching methods might therefore be thought to promote imitation and memorization rather than improvisation. Yet alongside formal training, students regularly hear their teachers perform, and thus learn how far an accomplished artist can spontaneously transform memorized material in performance. In vocal music, a variety of teaching methods has been documented, some again based on extensive memorization, others allowing more freedom to the pupil to recreate in his own way what he has learned (Sanyal and Widdess 2004:129–135). In general, Indian music resembles Iranian music in the extent to which imitation and memorization are the fundamental learning processes, even though it does not have a universally recognized, memorized and notated repertoire like the radif.
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Evaluation of Iranian automotive industries

Evaluation of Iranian automotive industries

automotive industry and many more in the industries related to this industry. Approximately 75% of the total vehicle manufacturing in the country is related to passenger cars and around 15% belongs to small trucks [1]. There is no certain classification for automotive industries globally. But some classifications collected and embedded this class with machinery, tools, equipment, and metal products industries. Current study includes around 71 active Iranian automotive industries and their belongings, such as a cluster study besetting flasher of automatives, automotive rubber parts, brake pads, car camshaft, car shatton, car coil, car gas condenser, car glass pump, car odometer, car oil filter, car oil sprayer, car sealant, car seat, car tire disc, combined tap of gas fueled vehicles, crankshaft, disc-shape brake pads, dynam fan, full car fly wheel, grease pump of car, insulated foil car sunshade, lock of car, rubbing clutch, safety glass (car bend), seat belt, snow sweeper engine, steering wheel, car water nozzle, water pump, car wire, automatic starter, automatic of signal light, automotive starter, complete exhaust, oil pump, car antenna, mirrors of car, car heater, lightweight cars heater, car wiper, car brake booster, car horn, car pedal, propeller motor (fan radiator), hydraulic brake pump, car pump (auto gas station), crankshaft covering, car bolts and nuts, trans burner torch and fuel sprayer, hand brake, car thermostat, car strap, car light, car hazard light warning, delco capacitor, car dashboard, car fuel grade and gasoline tank, car oil barometer, gear knob of gearbox, signal rod, delco, brass gear of car gearbox, car brake disc, car clutch disc, bike and motorcycles rims, car wheel rims, car wheel chains (non-metallic), car bumper, bike and motorcycle speedometer, sibak, and car alarm system [2].
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Determinants of Iranian bank profitability

Determinants of Iranian bank profitability

Banks are the most important tool for preparing and supplying money in each country. In recent years, by institution of the new private banks and privatization of the governmental banks, banking competition has become very complex. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors on return on assets and return on equities on 18 selected Iranian firms over the period 2002-2011. Using different regression models, the study studies the effects of total assets, debt ratio, etc. on return of assets (ROA) and return on equities (ROE) on selected eighteen Iranian banks as statistical community. The study considers total assets, ownership ratio, deposits to assets ratio, and loans to assets ratio as independent variables, and ROE and ROA as dependent variables. The results indicate that the private banks returns were better than governmental banks and the commercial banks’ returns were better than special banks. There is a reverse relationship between logarithm of total assets and ownership ratio with profitability based on return of assets.
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Crossing the threshold of Iranian TEFL

Crossing the threshold of Iranian TEFL

It is therefore suggested that ELT professionals in Iran not lose sight of the real localities of the Iranian culture. It may be implied that a shift from seeing learners as followers of Western norms and values, which is seemingly the current practice of TEFL in Iran, to seeing them as socially, culturally, religiously and historically located individuals, which is the future direction that TEFL in Iran should take, needs to be a mandate for Iranian English teachers, materials developers and policy makers. As is clear from recent research on teaching English in Iran, we need to take a look beyond the current state of TEFL in Iran and into the future, with an emphasis on the importance of including the local specificities of the Iranian culture and religion, coming up with a new notion, i.e. Iranian TEFL, which reflects not only the Iranian people’s Islamic thesaurus, as part of their religious identity, but also their cultural, social, and historical perspectives.
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On the Systematic Classification of Iranian Toponyms

On the Systematic Classification of Iranian Toponyms

It has been with this presupposition that the author started a thorough research on the Iranian toponmy as of 2008. Using the series of volumes entitled Farhang-e joγrāfyāyīī-e Īrān (Iranian Geographical Encyclopedia), published by the Persian Army Survey (1949-53), and several locally published sources from local private libraries, articles from patriotic scholars like Ahmad Kasravi, etc. a database of over 12,000 Iranian place names was prepared. A field study, including the Iranian provinces of Azarbaijan, Kurdistan, Gilan, Mazandaran and Khorasan were also added to enrich and update the corpus.
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