The results of the exploratory factor analysis sug- gested a five-factor structure consistent with the original scale (26). Except for item 7 in the third factor (acceptance subscale) all other items were loaded in the hypothesized scale, consistent with the original version. This item had the same sta- tus in both the original and also Chinese versions of the social well-being scale (5, 26). In addition, this was probably due to negative meaning of the item mentioned that confused participant. Keyes justified the low acceptance value with the added new item for balancing the positive and negative item (26). Regarding which, combination of posi- tive and negative items decreased the question- naire homogeneity (5). The current results of the confirmatory factor analysis revealed acceptable fit indices for the Iranianversion of social well- being scale as the original and the Chinese ver- sions (5, 26).
Recently Jones et al. developed the Endometriosis Health Profile-30 (EHP-30) that is the first standar- dized, new disease-specific instrument evaluating the health-related quality of life in women with endome- triosis . The EHP-30 questionnaire contains a core questionnaire with 30 items and five scales: pain, feel- ing of control and powerlessness, emotional well-being, social support, and self-image. Six modular parts including 23 questions were also provided to measure the areas of sexual intercourse, work, and relationship with children, feelings about medical profession, treat- ment and infertility . The authors of EHP-30 decided to produce a shorter form of the question- naire. It might be less time consuming and more prac- tical, easy to interpret information obtained by instrument, easier for respondents to complete short questionnaire than EHP-30. The Endometriosis Health Profile-5 (EHP-5) was developed as a short version of the original questionnaire . The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Iranianversion of EHP-5. There was no such an instrument available in Iran.
In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of this questionnaire to identify people with hyperventilation were adequate. In this study, there was no ceiling and floor effect for the NQ, which indicates good content validity of the questionnaire in the study population. Ceiling and floor effect was not calculated in other studies. Test-retest reliability of the Iranianversion of NQ showed acceptable results as well (r p =0.826). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was
The final draft of the Iranianversion was administered to a sample of newly diagnosed NC patients attending the neurosurgery clinic of a large teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran. There were no restrictions on patient se- lection with regard to severe, moderate and mild NC, age (to include all types of stenosis that are congenital and degenerative), other characteristics, and any grade stenosis as explained by Constantin and colleagues . They described a 7-grade (A: A1, A2, A3, A4, B, C and D) classification of severity of lumbar spinal stenosis based on the morphology of the dural sac as observed on T2 axial magnetic resonance images and based on the root- let/cerebrospinal fluid ratio. They defined grade A, as no or minor stenosis, B as moderate stenosis, C as severe stenosis, and D as extreme stenosis.
Method: Forward-backward procedure was applied to translate the questionnaire from English into Persian. After linguistic validation and pilot examination, a cross-sectional study was carried out and psychometric properties of the Iranianversion of questionnaire were tested. One hundred reproductive aged, married, healthy and sexually active women completed the questionnaire. Reliability was assessed by internal consistency (Cronbach ’ s alpha), and test-retest (intraclass correlation coefficient) analyses. In addition, content, and face validity were assessed and the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing exploratory factor analysis.
In the present study, interval reliability of FertiQoL was reported desirable and all dimensions had α>0.7. However, in a study conducted in Taiwan, Cronbach’s level was unfavorable in the domains of relational, social and environmental which suggests that in Taiwan and China, perhaps due to the cultural differences with the English version of FertiQoL, it may be better to removed Q13 and T5 questions so that internal consistency is improved (18). The results of Boivin and co- worker indicated a desirable reliability with Cronbach’s’ alpha greater than 0.7 for all dimensions of FertiQoL (7). The reliability of Iranianversion of FertiQoL was desirable (0.72-0.91).
Results: Exploratory factor analyses showed a six-factor model of the Iranianversion of PSEEQ. The fit of the proposed models examined. The internal consistency of PSEEQ (31 items) was high (Cronbach's α =0.936). PSEEQ correlated with the scores of final exam (r=0.50). Conclusion: The results of confirmatory factor analysis do not support the nine-factor framework of the SEEQ with Iranian students on the basis of Marsh model, but it supports that educational quality is a multidimensional construct, as Marsh stated. Taken together, the data suggest that PSEEQ should be interpreted with caution when used to assess educational quality of instructors.
Consistent with findings of the previous studies (9,19-20), a positive weak-to-moderate correlation was detected between the eHealth scores and education, computer knowledge,internet knowledge and the use of Internet for health-related purposes and use of search strategies which is predictable The tool seemed to be unable to distinguish the differences between themales' and females' eHealth literacy. Thus, predictive validity of the questionnaire showed a moderate validity. Furthermore, the final version of Iranianversion of eHEAL Squestionnaireis recommended to be revised in the future. Limitations
Using an English questionnaire for those patients who are not native speakers of English leads to a misunderstanding and failure in treatment. Therefore, for using the OABSS in each country of the world, it is crucial to translate the OABSS questionnaire into the native language of that country and to validate it using the local data (14). For this reason, the researchers translated and validated the OABSS in Persian language using the backward-forward method (See online Supplementary data). The aim of this study was to assess the translation and psychometric properties of Persian version of OABSS questionnaire.
The experience of labour and childbirth are multidi- mensional concepts, therefore, the Childbirth Experi- ences Questionnaire version 2.0 (CEQ 2.0) measures the multidimensional childbirth experience of primiparous women. The CEQ was developed by Dencker et al. (2010) and included 22 items with four domains (‘Pro- fessional Support’, ‘Participation’, ‘Own Capacity’ and ‘Perceived Safety’). Nineteen items are scored based on the 4-point Likert Scale and 3 items are scored between 0 to 100 using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results of psychometric properties of the original study showed that CEQ is a valid and reliable tool. The CEQ has been validated in the UK population  and used in several research papers [22–24]. The revised edition of this tool (CEQ 2.0) included 23 items. Some items from the CEQ have been removed (including questions from the ‘Pro- fessional Support ’ and ‘ Participation ’ domains) and new items have been added. Some items have been reworded and some items are entirely new. CEQ 2.0 covers four areas, namely ‘ Own Capacity ’ (items 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 21, and 22), ‘Professional Support’ (items 11, 13, 14, 15, and 16), ‘Perceived Safety’ (items 3, 17, 18, 19, 20, and 23), and ‘Participation’ (items 8, 9, 10, and 12). Twenty items are scored based on the 4-point Likert Scale (“totally agree”, “mostly agree”, “mostly disagree”, “totally dis- agree”) and 3 items are scored between 0 to 100 [(0– 40 = 1); (41–60 = 2); (61–80 = 3); (81–100 = 4)] using a visual analogue scale (VAS) (Additional file 1). The
After asking for permission the recommended process of forward-backward translation method was used to translate the questionnaire from English into Persian. Hence, first two experts who were fluent in both English and Persian translated the items to Per- sian. Then the two Persian translations were com- pared and mixed together to form a single forward version. The forward translation was re-translated into English by two other experts. Then, the back- ward English version was compared to the original questionnaire in order to insure that the main con- cepts were maintained. In order to verify content validity, a panel of experts evaluated the question- naire. The panel was consisted of 5 experts on Per- sian language, gerontology, public health, health education and health psychology. They were asked to make necessary revisions in terms of grammar, using the right words and placing the items in the best order. Accordingly the experts made no changes to the questionnaire. Then, the questionnaire was pre-tested among 10 elderly in order to assess face validity. They were asked to indicate if they had any difficulty to complete the questionnaire. They were also asked if there were any ambiguous word or phrases and if items were relevant to themselves. Al- most all elderly reported no difficulty in responding to questionnaire and found the questionnaire easy to understand and very relevant. Next, the provisional Persian version of the questionnaire was prepared and was subjected to psychometric evaluation.
abuse-induced to sexually transmitted in recent years. Despite the magnitude of the HIV- induced health, little has been done concerning their health-related QOL to add life to years. Main reasons for this gap include the nature of highly stigmatized and isolated, priority given to treatment and preventive related issues, and lack of an appropriate and easy-to-useinstrument to measure their QOL for Iranian patients. This study aims at reporting the psychometric properties of Farsi version of WHOQOL-HIV BREF in Iranian HIV/AIDS population.
Our study had several limitations. We did not examine results from the post-treatment ISI. This was because the treated patients did not return to the clinic to complete the questionnaire. Second, the PSG was not done on the healthy control group as we considered it acceptable and not different from previously published studies (5,10,19,21). Third, only one PSG recording was conducted for insomniac participants, indicating that the information gathered could be subject to a first-night effect. This means that in the sleep laboratory setting, disturbed sleep is experienced on the first night even in adults with normal sleep (25). Due to the high cost of overnight polysomnography, it was impossible to perform two night PSG exams for each participant. Future researchers can evaluate results from the Persian version of the ISI questionnaire before and after treatment in patients suffering from insomnia. In addition, the reliability of this questionnaire can be studied in other populations with sleep disorders such as shift workers.
Impact score was calculated to examine quantitative face validity. The results revealed that almost all the items had an impact score ≥ 1.5. These items were important in the target group but nationality (being Iranian), race, and alcohol consumption items had the Impact sore < 1.5. In the qualitative stage, some minor wording changes were done according to women’s suggestion.
Objective: Despite the fact that the mobile phone has become a pervasive technology of our time, little research has been done on mobile dependency. Therefore, a valid and reliable instrument, conforming to Iranian culture seems essential. The aim of our study was to validate the Iranianversion of MPPUS (Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale). Methods: This was a cross-sectional research, in which data were collected from 600 students studying at Tehran universities. Stratified sampling method was used to collect data. All participants completed Demographic Questionnaire, Cellular Phone Dependency Questionnaire (CPDQ) anonymously. Finally, a clinical interview (based on DSM-IV-TR) was conducted with 100 participants. Data were analyzed using concurrent validity, factor analysis, internal consistency (Cronbach's’α), split half, test-retest and ROC Curve by SPSS18 Software.
Guillemin ’ s guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of health related questionnaires was used [31,32]. Two official translators translated the SF-MPQ to Farsi, then it was dis- cussed in a committee of translators and physicians expert in pain management, including physical medicine and rehabilitation, anesthesiology, neurology and oncology. Moreover, we consulted with other physicians managing patient’s pain in gynecology, orthopedics and neurosurgery; they were ethnically heterogeneous self-identifying as Per- sians, Turks, Kurds, Arabs and Baluchs. After reaching consensus on translated words, two other English-speaking translators, who were totally blind to the original question- naire, translated the Iranianversion back to English. The divergence between the translations was discussed and resolved in the expert committee of physicians and consul- tants. As a preliminary test, the pre-final version of the questionnaire was administered to 30 chronic pain patients. If we observed, during this preliminary testing, that some words were difficult for patients to comprehend, we pro- vided short descriptions to help better describe the pain qualities.
Emotional intelligence (EI) is being recognized as a correlate of success in various domains of personal and professional life. The aim of this study is to generate and evaluate a shortened Iranianversion of the Emotional Skills based on bar-on instrument for salespeople in Iran.This research examines how sales professionals use emotions in marketing exchanges to facilitate positive outcomes for their firms, themselves, and their customers.The authors conduct this study to examine the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) in marketing exchanges on key marketing exchange variables:Customer orientation and manifest influence and adaptive selling.Finally, results indicate a positive relationship between EIME and key marketing exchange variables.
Methods: Five hundred and seventy-nine children aged 3–6 years were randomly recruited from 15 kindergartens in the city of Qazvin in Iran. The Iranianversion of BEARS (Bedtime problems, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Awakenings during the night, Regularity and duration of sleep and Snoring) and the Children’s Sleep Habits questionnaire (CSHQ) were completed by interviewers. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 19. The data were analysed with a Student’s t-test, chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant.