If studies of jihad, Su ﬁ orders, and reform have implicitly and often inadvertently gener- ated a teleological view of Islam in Africa over time, this is not to deny the importance of these themes in Islamic and African history. But it does show limits to their value in helping us to understand the complexity of Islamic history in Africa. Studies about how Islam arrived in West Africa – via traders, scholars, Su ﬁ s – and about how Islam developed in situ often have quite similar limitations. The two most frequently invoked models of the spread of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa are J. Spencer Trimingham ’ s minority, court, and majority model and Humphrey Fisher ’ s model of quarantine, mixture, and reform. Both models are teleological in that Islam is posited as always and necessarily disposed toward reform and greater purity. More recent histories of Muslim reformists, which seem to have drawn from such models, have tended to suggest that such reform with its rejection of Su ﬁ sm and its modernizing af ﬁ nities constitutes an ineluctable process. For example, in her study of reformists in Côte d ’ Ivoire, Marie Miran even seems to equate Ivoirian Muslim reformists with modernity and suggests that the movement toward Islamic reform is almost inevitable. However, such a teleological view neglects other poss- ible ways of being Muslim and modern.
This bibliography on Islam in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa has been prepared as part of the African Studies Centre/Centre d’Etude d’Afrique Noire project entitled “Islam, the Disengagement of the State, and Globalization in Sub-Saharan Africa” that was funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The present bibliography lists over 4,000 references to secondary literature in European languages about Islam in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa. It supplements and updates two existing biblio- graphies, Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Partially Annotated Guide by Samir Zoghby and Islam in Africa South of the Sahara: A Select Bibliographic Guide by Patrick Ofori, both of which were compiled in the 1970s. 1 Since then, there has been consider- able academic interest in Islam in Africa and publications such as the Paris-based journal Islam et Sociétés au Sud du Sahara have regularly informed readers about new publications on Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa. The main objective of the present work is to bring together bibliographical information that has been published in different publications and to provide individuals interested in the topic with a simple and practi- cal research tool.
“Another factor that prompted the formation of Nukem was the concern that the government of independent Kenya would accede to the demands of some parliamentarians and public figures and repeal customary laws and religious laws, imposing one secular law on all citizens.” 10 Knowing that they were a minority and the law making organ of the government will be responsible in making new laws or repealing the existing laws with their democratic power, Nukem had to play a role in safeguarding Muslims rights, in particular the personal status law. Nukem was to check any attempt by other religious faith as what was seen as interference with Islam. “In January 1993, for example, Amin al Hinawi, Nukem’s chairman in the Coastal province, sharply criticized a statement by the Catholic archbishop Otunga warning against the expansion of Islam in Africa” 11
[...] Islamic Orientalists never saw their estrangement from Islam either as salutary or as an attitude with implications for the better understanding of their own culture. Rather, their estrangement from Islam simply intensified their feelings of superiority about European culture, even as their antipathy spread to include the entire Orient, of which Islam was considered a degraded (and usually, a virulently dangerous) representative. Such tendencies [...] became built into the very traditions of Orientalist study throughout the nineteenth century, and in time became a standard component of most Orientalist training, handed on from generation to generation. (Emphasis added; 1978, p. 260)
Di dalam artikel ini, penulis telah merungkaikan lima jenis salah faham orang bukan Islam terhadap Islam yang disifatkan sebagai ekstrimis iaitu salah faham Islam tersebar dengan ketajaman mata pedang, salah faham Islam menggalakkan peperangan dengan menyarankan jihad menentang orang bukan Islam, salah faham Islam melakukan kekejaman dengan mengenakan hukuman bunuh terhadap orang Islam yang murtad, salah faham Islam melakukan penindasan dengan memerintahkan hukuman potong tangan terhadap pencuri lelaki dan wanita dan salah faham orang Islam suka berperang sesama sendiri. Sumber yang digunakan untuk menyusun kelima-lima jenis salah faham terhadap Islam yang disifatkan sebagai ekstrimis adalah melalui kaedah persampelan. Penulis telah membuat persampelan untuk kajian yang dilakukan ini kerana terlalu banyak jenis salah faham orang bukan Islam terhadap Islam. Penyelidik tidak perlu menuju kepada semua subjeknya kerana ini akan melibatkan kos, masa dan tenaga yang banyak. Menurut (Mohd Majid Konting, h.73) daripada ciri-ciri yang telah ditetapkan, jenis-jenis salah faham ini akan dipilih menggunakan persampelan rawak mudah, yang memberi peluang sama-rata kepada semua jenis salah faham yang dipilih.
The exhibition "Islam, Heritage for all" has been designed and implemented altruisti- cally by the Islamic Culture Foundation in cooperation with a great number of intellec- tuals and professional people. The exhibition came into being thanks to the financing provided by several organizations both public and private. It was conceived so that the costs for the host organizations could be minimal.
As a follow up from the above verse, Al-Futiy (N.D., pp. 29–30) and Abubakar (N.D., pp. 222–226) have both said in their commentaries on Mukhtasar al –Akhdariy fi al- ‘Ibaadaat, a book of Islamic jurisprudence written by one of the famous Maliki Jurists of North and West Africa, Ash-Sheikh ‘Abdurrahman al-Akhdariy, that: “It is unlawful for him (a matured Muslim — male or female) to do or say anything be it obligatory, recommended, prohibited, undesirable, or permissible; until he/she knows the injunction of Allah on that particular thing. He/she should ask Muslim scholars if he/she doesn’t know — the injunction of Allah on anything (Qur’an, Chapter 21, Verse 7), and emulate only those scholars who follow the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH) as they are the only ones who guide people to be obedient to Allah and warn them against following the footsteps of satan (Qur’an, Chapter 4, Verse 115). It is, therefore, important that Muslim Urologists and Gynecologists should endeavor to have an intellectual forum where they can rub minds, brain-storm, share and cross-fertilize ideas with Muslim Jurists on contemporary issues so that at the end of the day, the Muslim Ummah will have concrete, correct and proper Islamic rulings on any contemporary issue that comes up.
kedudukan dan kebebasan pendapat dan bersuara. Nilai-nilai ini juga diperjuangkan dalam ajaran Islam. Demokrasi adalah satu kaedah dan metodologi dan ia bukan satu akidah yang bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam. Ia merupakan satu bentuk dalam proses mempratikkan perlembagaan dan kaedah untuk membuat keputusan. Satu manhaj yang diperlukan oleh setiap individu dan masyarakat untuk membolehkan setiap individu dan parti politik menyertai dan berbeza pendapat untuk kemaslahatan bangsa dan negara dalam bentuk perdamaian dan aman. Ia mengelakkan masyarakat tersebut terjebak dalam bentuk keganasan, fitnah dan perkelahian etnik dan perkauman. Oleh itu, apabila prinsip dan kaedah demokrasi ini dipratikkan secara secara baik, malah ia adalah selari dengan nilai-nlai ajaran Islam seperti hak penubuhan persatuan, hak berhimpun, hak bersuara dan hak syura dalam melantik ketua. Demokrasi menghendaki rakyat memilih seorang yang akan memerintah serta mengatur urusan mereka dan rakyat tidak dipaksa untuk menerima seorang pemerintah yang tidak mereka sukai atau sistem yang mereka benci. Rakyat juga mempunyai hak untuk menyingkirkan pemerintah yang menyeleweng, hak minoriti untuk membangkang, kebebasan media, kemerdekaan kehakiman dan sebagainya.
are on the outside looking in, knowing that they do not have equal access to the same opportunities as their white peers or that their contributions to society are deemed insignificant? What happens when one is made to feel ashamed of their cultural heritage, when the actions or comments of others do not match one’s self-conception, and when one’s culture and values are completely devalued? While Du Bois is exploring the plight of black people in America, his analysis can be applied to other groups such as American Muslims or Muslims in Europe whose voices are overshadowed by the stereotypes, fears, and prejudices that pervade society about Islam, transforming their religion into a “thing” or a set of beliefs that is so far removed from Muslims’ actual experience with Islam. Du Bois started to recognize his “otherness” when he was a child at school and a fellow classmate, refused to accept his holiday card that all the children had bought for each other. It was at this moment, Du Bois recalls, this small act of discrimination, that he started to feel as if he was different from white students and shut out of their privileged world “by a vast veil” (Du Bois, 255). According to Du Bois, one is made to feel different from others through small, and sometimes not so small, daily acts of prejudice and discrimination that reinforce the feeling that he or she is on the outside, a spectator watching a game that he or she cannot play.
marriage (Jaspal, 2014a). While these strategies buffer identity from threat in the short-term, none of them are conducive to a positive self-concept in the long-term.
Social psychology has long acknowledged that social support is the most promising means of coping with social and psychological distress, including identity threat, partly because it can lead to forms of self-acceptance. However, there are few social support mechanisms in place for gay Muslims – many feel unable to disclose their sexuality to significant others due to fear of ostracization, and there are few LGBT-affirmative Islamic organizations that can provide the social and psychological conditions for identity coherence (Jaspal, in press). However, there have been some moves towards the theological accommodation of homosexuality. The US-based Al- Fatiha Foundation was established in 1997 in order to advocate rights for LGBTQ Muslims and to foster the acceptance of homosexuality in Islam. Al-Fatiha was disbanded in 2011, but in 2013 the Muslim Alliance for Sexual and Gender Diversity took on the mission to “support, empower and connect LGBTQ Muslims” and to “increase the acceptance of gender and sexual diversity within Muslim communities”. In 1999, Al-Fatiha UK (later renamed Imaan) became the first UK-based support group organization for LGBT Muslims and remains active in promoting the reconciliation of homosexuality and Islam. As Breakwell (1986, p. 130) notes, “[i]ndividuals experiencing threat can come together with others who share their predicament or who are sympathetic to their cause to create a new group.” Clearly, consciousness-raising and self-help groups focused on
Islam occupies the middle ground between Christianity and Judaism with respect to divorce. It has taken all possible measures to make marriage a happy and lasting relationship. Marriage in Islam is a civil contract between a man and a woman to live together as husband and wife. It automatically confers mutual rights and duties upon the parties which both must remain mindful of. The Qur‟an and the holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) have stressed that both partners should act kindly and fairly with each other. However, for all married couples to have disagreements now and then is quite natural. In case a serious disagreement occurs a procedure is recommended in Islam to help reconcile the situation before a divorce.
Solid organ xenograft transplantation is currently not performed, though the use of specific ani- mal tissues to replace their malfunctioning human equivalent is common (e.g. using a pig’s heart valve to replace a damaged human heart valve)²³. Many Muslim scholars say that xenografts are permitted in Islam if they come from permissible animals and if the animal is slaughtered accord- ing to Islamic standards. Even if these two conditions are not fulfilled, the Islamic Fiqh Academy of India holds it permissible to retrieve and use xenografts if there is no alternative and if the per- son’s life is in danger or their organ is at risk of being completely damaged.
Terdapat banyak faktor yang menyumbang kepada empayar ini untuk mencapai zaman kegemilangannya. Antaranya, Akbar merupakan seorang pemerintah yang menggunakan konsep mentadbir kerajaan pusat sebagai tentera di bawah arahan daripada sultan (Armstrong K., 2002). Beliau tidak menggunakan sebarang penindasan dan penganiayaan terhadap orang lain, dan juga tidak memaksa mereka untuk mengikut kepercayaan beliau. Walaupun pada waktu itu Islam hanya merupakan sebuah kuasa minoriti disebabkan oleh wujudnya agama Hindu yang mempunyai pelbagai kasta, Buddha, Kristian dan banyak lagi agama-agama yang lain, beliau mengamalkan pemerintahan birokrasi yang berkesan. Tambahan pula, dengan kekuatan tentera yang dimiliki, beliau melebarkan empayar melebihi empayar pemerintah Islam yang lain.
God and the laws laid down by Him; the West has replaced divine laws with a man-made social system and moral values. This religious analysis of modern society, which takes as its point of departure the contemporary social and moral crisis of advanced industrial Western societies, was of great significance for those social groups which had reason to fear the consequences of 'progress'. The image of modern society that Qutb created as a social system lacking any sacred and moral elements helped to restore the self-confidence of many Muslim believers and encouraged them to go on the offensive to shed their inferiority complex towards the 'culture of the stronger'. Instead, they retained confidence in their own culture as superior because of its divinity. In effect, the notion of a modern jahiliyyah provides the anti-modernity campaign with a powerful ideological tool against those groups who present modernity as an ideal leading to progress, civilization and economic prosperity. On the contrary, the Muslim revivalists argue that modernity with its evident social, economic and spiritual crises is not something to be aspired towards; modernists who advocate imitation of Western ways are mere fools, if not also traitors. In addition, modernity is not only a failure, it is the culture of imperialists and religious opponents, whose ultimate goal is the erosion and elimination of Islam as a social system.
Faced with the painful realities of the Muslim world, contemporary Muslim intellectuals have little choice but to reinvent new categories, ideas and formu- lae of their own. We need to invent new theoretical and discursive tools for the new age in which we find ourselves. Traditional theology as espoused by the conservative ulama cannot provide us with the solutions we need, for the sim- ple reason that their way of looking at the world as a battleground between ‘good’ Muslims and ‘bad’ outsiders is both useless and morally repugnant to us. F a r i s h: So you are basically saying that if Islam and Muslim identity are to be defended today we need to find a way out of the trap of oppositional dialectics that continues to set us apart from the Other. The same concerns have been raised by many Western intellectuals—Jacques Derrida, Emmanuel Levinas and Julia Kristeva come to mind—who have argued that the West also needs to re- evaluate its understanding of itself and its relationship with the non-West. The bottom line is that our very notion of identity, along with the categories and hierarchies of differentiation that support it, needs to be radically questioned and reformulated.
Organ transplants are performed to replace non-functional or diseased organs in order to cure patients. This medical procedure, like many other medical prodecures, are permissible in Islam, because it is a form of treatment for a medical condition. Thus, in the opinion of Islamic scholars, organ transplants are permissible. This is consistent with the objectives of the Syari’ah (maqasid Syari’ah) that privileges human welfare and interest, as well as the preservation of human life. Allah S.W.T. has said:
jumlahnya terbesar di seluruh dunia. Sayangnya, sebagian besar elite umatnya sedang digerogoti penyakit kronis berupa korupsi yang serius dan degradasi akhlak yang memprihatinkan. Selain itu, sebagian besar umatnya perlu memiliki paham keagamaan yang representatif dan memadai, bukan paham konvensional, konser- vatif dan sangat simbolik. Kenyataan itu seolah-olah mem- perlihatkan bahwa umat Islam bukan lagi umat yang dipersatukan oleh nilai-nilai Islam melalui semangat tauhid, yang menyebabkan umat Islam menjadi komunitas marginal di negerinya sendiri, serta menjadi umat yang terkebelakang dalam sisi peran yang seharusnya dapat dimainkan. 6
During the First World War, mobilizing Muslim soldiers and Islamic institutions became an important international concern for Austria-Hungary. This article looks at how the Habsburg Monarchy tried to regulate Muslim populations in Bosnia-Herzegovina after 1878 before considering a series of wartime Austro-Hungarian measures aimed at incorporating Muslim subjects.These ranged from recognizing Islam as a state religion to conscripting Muslim soldiers to fight on behalf of the Ottoman, Habsburg, and German empires.
As to political problems, the West’s “demonizing” of Islam has put the Muslim population in the West on the defensive. Although this demonizing may have turned some individuals more radical, it has convinced most Muslims living in the West to adopt a clearer attitude and to advocate a greater integra- tion into Western societies. European authorities have con- tributed to isolating the radicals by responding positively, at least in terms of rhetoric, to that quest for recognition and integration. Isolation among and alienation from the Euro- pean Muslim population is now one of the radicals’ main chal- lenges.
Finally, it must be pointed out the differences between the pillars of faith and the pillars of Islam. The six pillars of faith are required forever to be believed by every Muslim while he is in ill or healthy, travel or residence and rich or poor condition. They are a grade higher than pillars of Islam. The pillars of Islam; however, are compulsory but with flexibility under specific conditions depending on circumstances.