Various academic works have employed the TRA model into their model of studies. The reasons behind the wide empirical supports of the theory are particular because of three fundamental reasons. Firstly, the theory is well suited for the purpose of examining and predicting a particular behavior. As stated by Md6Taib et al. (2008), the fundamental constructs of the theory are essential in order to explain why people using musharakah mutanaqisah. Secondly, the theory has been praised for its flexibility to be applied into a different context of research. The TRA has been applied in online stock trading (Gopi and Ramayah; Ramayah et al., 2009), knowledge sharing (Ryu et al., 2003) and the marketing area. Thirdly, the TRA can be used to measure behavioral intention and actual of a particular situations, systems or even products. Previous researches have supported the importance of the TRA in predicting the behavioral intention and actual use (Ramayah et al, 2009). The present study used to measure behavioural intention to use Islamiccreditcard amongst Malaysian bank customers, thus using the TRA is of considerable relevant in the current study.
Since, it is clear that Islamic banking in Malaysia has evolved as a competitive component in the overall financial and monetary system, complementing the conventional financial system as a catalyst for development and economic growth, the scope of this research revolves around determining the factors that influence adoption of ICC which is offered by Islamic banks to bank customers. However, since this research will not have sufficient resources at its disposal to cover all Islamic banks and their customers, the study will only cover several selected Islamic banks and their branches that issue ICC in Kuala Lumpur. Accordingly, due to different advantages that enhances the process of data gathering to be more efficient, this study uses self-administered questionnaires to collect its relevant required data from different Islamic banks’ customers in various parts of Kuala Lumpur. Therefore, this study is a quantitative research in which the data will be analyzed in terms of numbers that can be quantified or summarized. Quantitative research methods are more precise and the results are more likely to be free of researcher’s biases and therefore usually have more credibility (Johnson and Onwuegbuzie, 2004). This research is a cross-sectional study, since it will collect the required data at a single point in time (Zikmund et al., 2010). Cross-sectional design permits the researcher to collect data at one point in time from large groups.
subjective norm and attitude. This theory explains that one’s behavioral intention be influenced by his subjective norm and attitude. Past empirical investigations extensively adopted the TRA model in several different contexts of Islamic banks. Amin et.al (2010) used TRA model in Islamic personal financing while Lada et.al (2009) employed this model in halal restaurant. Another study of Abdul Razak and Abduh(2012) extend this model in Islamic home financing. Based on the above discussion, this study also adopts the TRA model due to rich literature support is available. Moreover, this study extends the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and proposed a model by putting the another variable of perceived financial cost in the basic model of TRA. This factor is also used by Mathieson et.al (2001); Lauran and Lin (2005); Ramayah et.al (2005); Amin (2012) and Yu (2012) investigations. Based upon above empirical studies, research on the selection of Islamiccredit cards still lacking and are inconclusive which required further investigations. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no such studies have been conducted in the context of Pakistan to identify the factor affecting the selection of Islamiccredit cards. This study is an attempt to fill the gap that pertains with the intentions to select Islamiccreditcard in Pakistan. In a nut shell, this study investigate the impact of individual’s attitude, subjective norm and perceived financial cost on the behavior intention of customers to select the Islamiccredit cards. The main contribution of this study is to use the modified TRA model in the fast growing Islamic banking sector of Pakistan, which is the second most populated Ismalic country of world.
In recent years, the use credit cards have been vigorously increased. And, there is a huge responsibility on the heads of the creditcard risk managers. Their key task is to improve the fraud detection algorithms in an optimal way so that frauds can be discovered adequately. In this paper, the researcher has done a survey on five important fraud detection techniques i.e. CreditCard Fraud discovery through Decision Trees, Genetic Algorithms, Neural Networks, Hidden Markov Model and Support Vector Machines. Some of these techniques have been applied by different researchers to produce an efficient system which can easily detect and report creditcard frauds.
The reasons for low literacy rate includes poverty, population expansion, political instability and low allocation of budget for education. According to are pot only 2.2%of GDP was allocated for education but UNICCO recommend minimum five percent. In 2006, was decided to increase the budget for education sector (Bader Munir Khan, 2009). According to online fraud report2000 which is major source of creditcard payment get way; hereisaverage3.6%lossof sale due to stolen or fraud of creditcard. But this figure become down in 2007. Only 1.4% losses were recorded (Online fraud report, 2008).
Security is the state of being free from danger or threat. In information technology, security is the protection of information assets through the use of technology, processes, and training. The cyber space is increasingly used by organized criminal groups to target credit cards, bank account and other financial instruments for fraudulent transactions. There are various processes through which we can keep our assets secure but the thing that differentiates us from fraudster is the access to the key call password. We set up our password as complex as we can that consist of lowercase and uppercase characters along with special characters to make our account and various information secure, but what if someone knows this password, are we secure then? The different procedures and legal status involved also suggests that the fraudsters are keenly aware of the different risks, if banks are to protect themselves transactions that are irreversible must be made hard to repudiate. To achieve this we have come with a solution PASSTAB SYSTEM. PASSTAB is TABular PASSword based tracking and central user login control system within the browser where we can add up different accounts we want to access securely. PASSTAB SYSTEM will not only secure the login for the account ID’s we add, but will also maintain a log of user activities for the same. This web-app will act as an intermediate layer of security between user and site’s traditional login; allowing users to access the account securely. PASSTAB SYSTEM’s login system will be different from the existing one’s i.e Username and Password; it will allow the user to login to system via a unique concept of Table based password, eliminating the use of keyboard thus guarding against various key logger viruses, phishing etc. There are many more features such e-statement, OTP, IP address tracing, face recognition in the system. Securing the secured is the main aim of this system.
Due to rise and acceleration of E- Commerce, there has been a tremendous use of credit cards for online shopping which led to High amount of frauds related to credit cards. In the era of digitalization the need to identify creditcard frauds is necessary.
http://www.ijmr.net.in email id- firstname.lastname@example.org Page 465 ROLE OF KISAN CREDITCARD SYSTEM IN THE DISTRICUTION OF AGRICULTURAL CREDIT IN INDIA Agriculture contributes around 14 percent to the Gross Domestic Product of India. It proves employment to 50 percent of the work force. Farmers are in need of credit due to seasonal income. Various policy measures such as the nationalization of commercial banks, lead bank scheme, service area approach, administered interest rate etc. But the above policy measures did not bring equal distribution of credit among all categories of farmers. Hence Kisan Creditcard scheme was introduced in 1998. Only 0.78 million KCC could be issued in the initial year and it progressed consistently in subsequent years. Putting an emphasis on increasing credit flow to the agricultural sector, NABARD advised the banks to identify and cover all farmers including defaulters, oral lessees, tenant farmers and share croppers, who were left outside the hold of the KCC scheme for any reason so that all farmers are covered under the scheme by March 31, 2007. Further, banks were advised to issue KCCs in a hassle free manner, extend crop loans only through KCCs and renew them so as to ensure quality in operations. About 8.46 crore Kisan Credit Cards have been issued up to end of 2008-09 by the banks throughout the country. In this backdrop, an attempt was made to assess the impact of kisan creditcard system on the distribution of credit in agriculture in India.
From column (2) in Table 2, it is found that a male cardholder is 1.65 times more likely to pay his monthly creditcard bill in full (convenience user) than a female credit cardholder. A married credit cardholder is 0.44 times less likely to pay the monthly creditcard bill in full than an unmarried credit cardholder. The finding suggests that males are more careful when spending on credit than females, which differs from the existing empirical findings of Yieh (1996), Lyons (2003) and Yilmazer and DeVaney (2006). Lately, many retail outlets and creditcard issuers have jointly offered various shopping discounts to credit cardholders. The partnerships between the retail outlets and creditcard issuers aim to entice cardholders to shop at those advertised outlets and to spend using the credit cards issued by the respective creditcard issuers. Females who are generally known as ‘shopaholics’ pay more attention Table 2. Summary statistics for logit analysis for the determinants of credit cardholder’s monthly
Our second contribution stems from the fact that, compared to other dimensions of bank performance, the implications of Islamic banking on financial intermediation costs remain understudied. Arguably, Islamic banking presence can result in higher or lower bank margins. In the provision of banking services, Islamic banks face additional risk and requirements, such as Shari’ah non- compliant risk, Shari’ah governance requirement, and the complexity of contracts. This means that, at the outset, Islamic banking services involve higher costs. Accordingly, to account for the additional costs from adherence to Islamic law, or Shari’ah, Islamic banks can set larger margins. The increasing presence of Islamic banking, however, induces competitive pressure and can thus favorably influence pricing in the banking industry. In other words, indirectly, through bank competition, the presence of Islamic banks would lead to lower net margins in the banking sector. An analysis is therefore necessary to ascertain whether Islamic banking entails higher costs and whether Islamic banking presence shapes the intermediation costs of the banking sector. Such insight would be important for drawing policy initiatives to foster the efficient allocation of resources by the Islamic banking sector and the overall banking system.
The proper and efficient utilisation of the loan availed under KCC scheme by a vast majority of the agriculturists in Coimbatore District in Tamilnadu is an indicator of the level of awareness of the cultivators of this area about the functioning as well as the utilisation value of this peasant-friendly scheme. Hence they would like to utilize the services of this scheme rather than approaching the traditional money lenders (Dhanabhakyam and Malarvizhi, 2012). Both the farmers and bankers were found responsible for poor disbursement and poor recovery of loans under KCC in Jorhat, Sibsagar, and Golaghat districts in Assam (Thakur and Barman, 2013). The credit gap traceable between the KCC and non-KCC was positive for sugarcane cultivation which indicates that the credit sanctioned was inadequate in both the categories for the cultivation of this crop. The average credit gap in the non-KCC category was higher than that of KCC category. The average percentage of credit gap in the amount sanctioned was 0.19 per cent in the KCC as against 0.30 per cent under non-KCC (Bindage, et. al., 2014). The benefits like adequate and timely availability of credit, reduction in cost of credit and the like make more than three fourths of farmers acknowledge the KCC as farmer-friendly (Sudhakar and Sahu, 2010). There is a significant increase in the number of cards issued in each fiscal year by different agencies. The KCC has definitely made dent in the horizontal growth of credit, that is, in terms of coverage by the banking sector and the efficacy of KCC is an efficient, timely and hassle free credit delivery mechanism to agriculture (Sirisha and Malpadri, 2009). A close watch over the efficiency of KCC scheme in the Bellary district of Karnataka among the designated financial institutions shows that cost as percentage of loan amount was higher in borrowing from commercial banks (8.54 per cent) than from co-operative banks (2.81 per cent). There is not much difference in the number of KCCs renewed and the percentage of recovered amount in both of these financial institutions (Jainuddin et.al.,2015). Various constraints faced by the farmers as well as the banks eventually lead to the unimpressive performance of KCC scheme in Chamoria Block of Kamrup District in Assam which, in turn, has resulted in just 20 per cent of progress in the agrarian sector in this state even after the introduction of this scheme. Hence initiative should be taken by the Government as well as the financial institutions to simplify the documentations procedure for attracting more farmers towards this scheme (Sarkar and Barman, 2014).
The paper  “Fraud prediction for creditcard using classification method” has presented by author. In the digital world every day meets new innovations such as, (i) credit cards, (ii) debit cards, (iii) mobile banking, (iv) internet managing, and this all above features included innovations are based on bank account. These features are used to exchange the cash for many purposes like, online purchases, pay the current bill, transfers money and so on. The creditcard money is based on day by day which means online exchanges with expansion in online shopping, online charge payment, insurance premium and different charges, so this creditcard transaction is give more benefits like, save time, save traveling amount, and many. In this paper take this creditcard transaction problem and apply the data mining procedures are valuable. So it is to estimate and then, categorized the client’s credit risk score that is, normal or fraud. The existing system to include the clients from online based money transactions that money exchanges by utilizing particular data mining techniques or classification methods. In another method is to break down the fake, is called “Naïve Bayes”. This model provides great accuracy, recall more time and find out the precision.
The customer PIN is the primary security measure against fraud; forgery of the mag- netic stripe on cards is trivial in comparison to PIN acquisition. A street criminal can easily steal a cash card, but unless he observes the customer enter the PIN at an ATM, he can only have three guesses to match against a possible 10,000 PINs and would rarely strike it lucky. Even when successful, his theft still cannot exceed the daily withdrawal limit of around £300 . However, bank programmers have access to the computer systems tasked with the secure storage of PINs, which normally consist of a mainframe connected to a “Hardware Security Module” (HSM) which is tamper-resistant and has a restricted API such that it will only respond to with a YES/NO answer to a customer’s guess.
2) Unsupervised Methods: Some important studies with unsupervised learning with respect to fraud detection should be mentioned. For example, Bolton and Hand use Peer Group Analysis and Break Point Analysis applied on spending behavior in creditcard accounts. Peer Group Analysis detects individual objects that begin to behave in a way different from objects to which they had previously been similar. Another tool Bolton and Hand develop for behavioral fraud detection is Break Point Analysis. Unlike Peer Group Analysis, Break Point Analysis operates on the account level. A break point is an observation where anomalous behavior for a particular account is detected. Both the tools are applied on spending behavior in creditcard accounts. Also Murad and Pinkas (1999) focus on behavioral changes for the purpose of fraud detection and present three-level-profiling. As the Break Point Analysis from Bolton and Hand, the three-level-profiling method operates at the account level and it points any significant deviation from an account's normal behavior as a potential fraud. In order to do this, 'normal' profiles are created based on data without fraudulent records (semi supervised). To test the method, the three-level-profiling is applied in the area of telecommunication fraud. In the same field, also Burge and Shawe-Taylor (2001) use behavior profiling for the purpose of fraud detection. However, using a recurrent neural network for prototyping calling behavior, unsupervised learning is applied. ] Cox et al. (1997) combines human pattern recognition skills with automated data algorithms. In their work, information is presented visually by domain-specific interfaces, combining human pattern recognition skills with automated data algorithms.
Students most likely would have had some exposure to the concept of borrowing money through television ads, newspaper articles, or hearing conversations from family members. Although there are many options for borrowing money, this unit will focus mainly on credit cards and managing creditcard debts.
Fraud is as old as humanity itself and can take a vast range of different forms. The latest technologies provide some extra method where in criminals can also devot fraud. The use of credit cards is regularly occurring in cutting-edge day society and credit scorecard fraud has kept on developing in current years. Financial losses due to fraud problem affect the traders banks and person customers. Additionally Fraud may effect the reputation and image of merchant inflicting non-financial losses. For example, if a cardholder is sufferer of fraud with a certain enterprise, he may additionally not accept as true with their enterprise and select a competitor .
statistics revealed that CCCs are superior in terms of six aspects, namely higher credit limit, better bonus/rewards, low charges, easier requirement for approval, wider acceptance and the easiness in understanding the stipulated creditcard terms and conditions, as compared to only two aspects of prestige and religious satisfaction that favour ICCs. Further tests of chi- square show that four statements show significant difference with the holding type, namely ‘CCCs provide a higher credit limit than ICCs’, ‘Charges for CCCs are lower than ICCs’, ‘Requirements for approval of CCCs are easier than for ICCs’ and ‘Having CCCs are more prestigious than ICCs’, which revealed that ICC holders had a higher agreement level over the superiority of CCCs than the CCC holders. Further tests of the Mann-Whitney U have complemented the findings of the agreement directions of the chi-square tests.In general, the results suggest that the respondents perceive CCCs are superior to ICCs. However, the fact that ICC holder agreed more than the CCC holders over the superiority of CCCs, offers a marginal advantage to Islamic banking as the loyalists may be of those religious adherence, which explained why the respondents still hold ICCs despite their expressions on ICC inferiority. From another perspective, as the market of ICCs is still small compared to CCCs, this should trigger the Islamic banking to further improve the perception of the customers on the Islamic banking products. Perhaps there is still high suspicion exists over the level of religiosity of Islamic financial products, especially among Muslims who possess CCCs instead of ICCs. Therefore, aligning ICC structures to the Islamic moral aspiration to reduce the negative perception is necessary. Acknowledgement
Stolen cards can be accounted for rapidly via cardholders, yet a traded off record can be stored by a hoodlum for a considerable length of time or months before any fraudulent utilize, making it hard to distinguish the wellspring of the bargain. The cardholder may not find fraudulent use until accepting a charging articulation, which might be conveyed rarely. As per an A. C. Nielsen examine led in 2005 one-tenth of the total populace is shopping on the web. In same examination it is likewise said that credit cards are most well-known method of online instalment. In US, it is discovered that aggregate number of credit cards from the four creditcard organize (Master Card, VISA, Discover, and American Express) is 609 million and 1.28 billion credit cards from over four essential creditcard systems in addition to some different systems (Store, Oil Company and other). On the off chance that think about the insights of credit cards in India, it is discovered that aggregate number of credit cards In India toward the finish of December-31-2012 is around 18 to 18.9 million . If there should be an occurrence of multinational banks, the use or normal adjust, per borrower for creditcard holder has ascend from Rs. 61,758 out of 201 1 to Rs. 82,455 of every 2012. In a similar period, private bank clients' use ascend from Rs. 39,368 to Rs. 47,370 . As the quantity of creditcard client’s builds around the world, the open doors for fraudster to take creditcard points of interest and, in this way, submit fraud are additionally grew up.
stabilizers, and enablers. The case further demonstrated that actors’ role is not static and that the same actor can shift between these roles in response to changing context. While Visa’s efforts in developing security standards represent its enabler role, the company acted as a stabilizer when there was confusion in the market in the 1980s over whether smart card would replace magstripe or not. Actors thus do not only shift their security position such as levels of security investments and information sharing or preference towards a certain patch disclosure policy to fit contextual conditions (Cavusoglu et al., 2007; Hausken, 2007), but also their network position. The latter reflects the dynamic nature of security networks where actors move, enter, exit, or even threaten the network. It is crucial not to neglect such changes as they can impact security path as evident in the case of creditcard fraud. This can be further inferred from Cavusoglu et al. (2007) study that observed a change in optimal disclosure policies once their single-vendor model was extended to incorporate the presence of multiple vendors in the network. Hausken (2007) also notes that social planner’s interference in information sharing alliances should be carefully examined in order for it to result in collectively beneficial sharing conditions. This is because a social planner’s actions (e.g. controlling for security investment) can sometimes have a perverse effect and result in an increase in free-riding behaviour. Moreover, it is vital to recognize the heterogeneity of actors in security networks and the impact that has on security decisions. Actors in the network differ in their capabilities to accommodate solutions that lead to better security (Gal-Or & Ghose, 2005; Liu et al., 2014). Because small-size vendors need to be able to accept credit cards payment, security solutions adopted were not always the optimal ones. The fact that the network included small actors actually benefited larger ones in their negotiations and helped them in their mobilizing efforts. This runs contrary to what is frequently assumed that small actors tend to exploit larger ones (Gupta & Zhdanov, 2012).