Issue Salience

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Comparing issue salience in EU Profiler statements to issue salience in election manifestos and European citizenry

Comparing issue salience in EU Profiler statements to issue salience in election manifestos and European citizenry

In order to measure salience across European citizens, the present thesis draws on the so-called ‘most important problem’ (MIP) questions of the 2009 EES Voter Study. According to Wlezien (2005, p. 556), such questions confuse two different character- istics of salience, namely the importance of issues and the extent to which an issue is a problem. For example, environment might be a permanently important issue to vot- ers, but it is a problem only if, for example, air pollution affects public health. Re- sponses to MIP questions usually tell us about the perceived importance of a prob- lem, but not about the importance of an issue (see section 2.1. for the difference be- tween a problem and an issue). In other words, MIP responses contain little infor- mation about the respondents’ issue salience. The fact that the present thesis draws on the MIP questions of the Voter Study can therefore be regarded as a limitation.
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Verba volant, scripta manent? Intra-party politics, party conferences and issue salience in France

Verba volant, scripta manent? Intra-party politics, party conferences and issue salience in France

The salience of issues and their impact on parties’ policy messages has been understudied in this context. This is an important omission as theories of issue competition and issue focused theories of policy-making often continue to treat parties’ policy messages as devoid of intra-party content (Greene 2016; Hellwig 2012; Petrocik 1996; van Heck 2018), although some scholars have offered factional based explanations for the rise to prominence of specific issues within parties (Meguid 2008; Spoon 2011; Harmel et al. 2018). From this perspective, the existence of agenda- setting powers inside the party has been overlooked. To the contrary, party leaders (and the party leadership at large), as well as factional leaders of minority factions exert influence on the party’s agenda in many ways. For example, leaders exploit not only direct voting procedures (Bergounioux and Grunberg 2005), but they also constrain the content of factional motions presented and
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Manifestos, salience and junior ministerial appointments

Manifestos, salience and junior ministerial appointments

We present the results of our analysis in Table 2. In Model 1, we begin with a base model. Model 1 provides limited support for our first hypothesis that parties will be more likely to assign junior ministers to portfolios that correspond to activist issues. The activist issue variable has the expected sign, but is not quite statistically significant at conventional levels. This result is consistent with Bӓck et al.’s (2011) finding that issue salience influences portfolio allocations. This initial finding weakly supports Hypothesis 1. However, past research showing a major role for ideological disagreement suggests a more complex relationship.
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A Choice Set Modeling Approach to EU Issue Voting

A Choice Set Modeling Approach to EU Issue Voting

In keeping with Evans' work, recent studies also provide evidence of EU issue voting. This research shows that the degree to which voters' positions on European matters inuence their vote choice varies cross-nationally depending on the level of EU issue salience among the electorate, the choices oered by political parties regarding European issues as well as specic EU events such as an EU Treaty referendum or (Turkish) accession. In his examination of Austria, Finland, and Sweden, for example, Tillman (2004) nds evidence of EU issue voting at the time of accession, a period in which EU membership can be assumed to have been salient and at least somewhat divisive. Simi- larly, De Vries (2007) nds evidence of EU issue voting in Denmark and the United Kingdom, two countries characterized by high levels of partisan conict over Europe, yet fails to nd such evidence in Germany or the Netherlands, where partisan conict over the EU is far more limited. Looking at the 2005 German elections, Schoen (2008) argues that attitudes towards Turkey's po- tential accession to the EU played an important role, with voters being more likely to support parties that held closer positions to their own on the Turkish question. Taken together, these ndings suggest that European issues can inuence domestic elections in situations where there are signicant elite and public disagreements over European integration. Finally, in a recent study De Vries (2009) highlights the importance of EU referenda for the development of EU issue voting. By means of a quasi-experiment which compares two Dutch elections (one before and one after the EU referendum on the Constitutional Treaty in 2005), she demonstrates that the EU referendum induced EU issue voting in Dutch elections by raising the degree of party conict as well as voter salience regarding Europe. However, these EU eects in the 2006 par- liamentary elections are relatively modest. European integration is still merely of secondary concern to Dutch voters, though the EU referendum did bring the issue closer to home.
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Measurement issues in the comparative manifesto project data set and effectiveness of representative democracy

Measurement issues in the comparative manifesto project data set and effectiveness of representative democracy

Key Words: Comparative Manifesto Project, policy position, issue salience, saliency theory, scaling models... 1.1 Positions and salience in the CMP.[r]

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Non-Destructive Determination of Magnetic Audio Tape Degradation for Various Tape Chemistries Using Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

Non-Destructive Determination of Magnetic Audio Tape Degradation for Various Tape Chemistries Using Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

environmental issue salience and issue proximity as two manipulated variables, this study conducted an experiment to examine the mechanism of the problem chain recognition (PCR) effect, which suggested that the perception of a more salient issue (climate change) will be transferred to related less salient issues (air pollution/land degradation). Thus, through a 2 (issue salience: salient vs. non-salient) × 2 (issue proximity: local vs. global) experimental design, this study suggested that if individuals have high motivation for climate change problem, they are more likely to perceive and talk about other related lesser known environmental issues, and are also likely to have environmental CSR supportive behavioral intentions. Notably, the location of the environmental issue has an important impact only on individuals’ problem recognition for environmental issues and it leads to only passive communicative behavior. Whereas, involvement recognition leads to both active as well as passive communicative behavior. Theoretical implications related to the STOPS are explained. Practical implications are discussed for
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Influence of personality traits in self evaluative salience, motivational salience and self consciousness of appearance

Influence of personality traits in self evaluative salience, motivational salience and self consciousness of appearance

There were statistically significant differences between sexual orientation and self-awareness of appearance and self-evaluative salience. These differences can be related to the fact that gays are particularly vulnerable to dis- satisfaction with their bodies (Jankowski, Diedrichs, & Halliwell, 2014). Jankowski, Fawkner, Slater, and Tiggemann (2014) verified that the magazines aimed at gay men have more "appearance potent" male photos than the magazines aimed at heterosexual men by presenting more images of men with an ideal appearance.

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Texture features for object salience

Texture features for object salience

Segregation and recognition are also related to at- tention. Early work on Focus-of-Attention (FoA) was based on the idea that some complexity maps, for ex- ample salience maps based on colour contrast, provided peaks for modelling saccadic eye movements with inhi- bition of return to already “visited” peaks (see below). Taking into account that the fusion of colour and dis- parity information often su ffi ces to obtain the contour of an entire object which can then be employed for a first object categorisation [40], in this paper we did not address saccadic eye movements but exogeneous atten- tion to entire objects for object segregation. Instead of employing a filling-in process by neural di ff usion or Ullman’s “colouring,” see e.g. [34], a process rem- iniscent of boundary-filling in computer graphics, seg- regation is done by building a Gaussian tree such that DoG (Di ff erence-of-Gaussians) filter kernels can be ap- plied. The idea is that the tree can be built in the V1- up hierarchy with increasing kernel size and concurrent loss of spatial localisation, after which feedback down to V1 serves to restore precision. In computer vision, the state-of-the-art VOCUS2 colour salience algorithm already employs blob detection by DoG kernels [14]. Therefore, by using the VOCUS2 algorithm we could focus on texture and easily experiment with colour and texture information.
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A salience theory of choice errors

A salience theory of choice errors

We now imagine that alternatives can choose, possibly at a cost, the salience they pos- sess. This is natural in several contexts. For example, a minor politician can make an outrageous statement to get noticed by the media and enter the voters’ consideration set, but he will likely incur a cost in terms of credibility. One can increase expenditure on hairdressing to get noticed by potential partners. And …rms, of course, have huge advertising budgets.

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PP 2012 01: 
  Complexity judgments as a measure of event salience in musical rhythms

PP 2012 01: Complexity judgments as a measure of event salience in musical rhythms

6, Steps 2 and 3). They were treated as weights of each subbeat cluster within the whole measure, but leave the internal structure of each subbeat cluster intact. The resulting values were rescaled to values between 0 and 1. This was done because the judgments of stimulus set 7 indicated that participants perceived a violation of regularity on the beat level as more complex than a violation on the subbeat level. To account for this, the lowest beat position values had to be made higher than the highest subbeat position value (see Figure 6, Step 3). The average judgments to stimuli 13-15 werel taken directly as salience values for each beat position (see Figure 6, Step 4). In a last step, subbeats and beats were combined (see Figure 6, Step 5). The resulting values per position (excluding the downbeat) are 2-0.78; 3-0.96; 4-0.83; 5-1.86; 6-0.77; 7-0.92; 8-0.8; 9-1.69; 10-0.68; 11-0.83; 12-0.70; 13-1.33; 14-0.79; 15-1; 16-0.79.
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Validation of the Italian Version of the Aberrant Salience Inventory (ASI): a New Measure of Psychosis Proneness

Validation of the Italian Version of the Aberrant Salience Inventory (ASI): a New Measure of Psychosis Proneness

One limitation of the study is that the total sample size was small, but data on reliability provided good results. Ac- cordingly, a wider follow-up study should be performed in the future to evaluate if salience changes across time and different clinical stages of the disorders. Moreover, validity of the scale was not addressed in the present pa- per, as it was previously demonstrated by Cicero et al.  16 .

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Priority congruence between European voters and political groups of the European Parliament on policy related valence issues at the time of the 2009 European Parliament elections

Priority congruence between European voters and political groups of the European Parliament on policy related valence issues at the time of the 2009 European Parliament elections

The first part of the analysis was to divide items from the coded data of the Euromanifestos into different issue areas. As mentioned above the issue areas that were specified by Spoon and Kluver (2014) were used to provide orientation in order to do this (See Appendix, Table A1). For example items like ‘Environmental Protection’ and ‘Anti-Growth Economy’ were put in the ‘Environment’ issue area and items like ‘Multiculturalism’ and ‘National Way of Life’ were put in the ‘Multiculturalism’ issue area (hence there is as well a ‘Multiculturalism’ item and a ‘Multiculturalism’ issue area). After doing this, fifteen (15) different issue areas had been identified for the coded Euromanifesto data. These issue areas were (A) International politics, (B) European Union, (C) Civil Rights, (D) Institutional and Administrative Reform, (E) Economy, (F) Technology and Infrastructure, (G) Environment, (H) Culture, (I) Social Welfare, (J) Education, (K) Multiculturalism, (L) Law and Order, (M) Immigration, (N) Cyprus Issue and (O) Agriculture. See Table A2 in the appendix for a complete list of all items and the respective issue areas 8 .
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How to Change the Weight of Rare Events in Decisions from Experience

How to Change the Weight of Rare Events in Decisions from Experience

The bottom panel of Figure 3 shows that in the No Salience condition, the effect of value information on risky choice was relatively large and reliable when there was no salience manipul[r]

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Interpretable feature maps for robot attention

Interpretable feature maps for robot attention

Our algorithm accomplishes two tasks. First, it creates a salience map based on several low-level features: colour, texture, disparity, motion, complex cells and shape. All of these processes are based on biological models, including colour op- ponency, cortical keypoints and disparity-tuned binocular cells. The salience map is very fast to compute and our experiments show that it is useful for detect- ing objects in indoor robotic scenarios. Second, it provides a rich description of the image by representing local image content in terms of interpretable feature stacks. Once attention has been focused on a particular region of the image, the local features can be trivially extracted at no extra cost. This software therefore serves both as an early attention cue and as local context for more complex tasks, including object recognition, pose estimation, top-down attention and grasping. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the EU under the FP-7 grant ICT-2009.2.1-270247 NeuralDynamics.
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Aesthetic and incentive salience of cute infant faces : studies of observer sex, oral contraception and menstrual cycle

Aesthetic and incentive salience of cute infant faces : studies of observer sex, oral contraception and menstrual cycle

Infant cuteness can influence adult-infant interaction and has been shown to activate reward centres in the brain. In a previous study, we found men and women to be differentially sensitive to small differences in infant facial cuteness, with reproductive hormone status as the potential underlying cause. It is unclear, however, whether reproductive hormone status impacts on the aesthetic and incentive salience of infant faces. To address this question, we conducted two interlinked studies. We used static images of the same smiling and neutral-looking infant faces in both a rating task, in which participants had to rate the cuteness of infant faces (aesthetic salience - ‘liking’), and a key-press task, in which participants could prolong or shorten viewing time of infant faces by rapid alternating key-presses (incentive salience - ‘wanting’). In a first study, we compared the performance of men, women who are taking oral contraceptives, and regularly cycling women. In this study, we found a significant correlation between cuteness ratings within and between groups, which implies that participants had the same concept of cuteness. Cuteness ratings and effort to look at faces was linked regardless of sex and reproductive hormone status, in that cute faces were looked at for longer than less cute faces. A happy facial expression contributed only marginally to the incentive salience of the face. To explore the potential impact of reproductive hormone status in more detail, we followed a subset of regularly cycling women during the menstrual, follicular and luteal phases of their cycle. The aesthetic and incentive salience of infant faces did not change across the menstrual cycle. Our findings suggest that reproductive hormone status does not modulate the aesthetic and incentive value of infant faces.
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Attentional interference is modulated by salience not sentience

Attentional interference is modulated by salience not sentience

Following from the previous experiment, to isolate any unique contribution of social pronouns to the 1PP-interference effect, Experiment 4 replicated Experiment 2 but the prompts used in[r]

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Learning Neural Word Salience Scores

Learning Neural Word Salience Scores

It is difficult to evaluate the accuracy of word salience scores by direct manual inspection. More- over, there does not exist any datasets where human annotators have manually rated words for their salience. Therefore, we resort to extrinsic evaluations, where, we first use (1) to create the sentence embedding for a given sentence using pre-trained word embeddings and the NWS scores computed using the proposed method. Next, we measure the semantic textual similarity (STS) between two sentences by the cosine similarity between the corresponding sentence embeddings. Finally, we compute the correlation between human similarity ratings for sentence pairs in benchmark datasets for STS and the similarity scores computed following the above-mentioned procedure. If there ex- ists a high degree of correlation between the sentence similarity scores computed using the NWS
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Essays on the political economy of development

Essays on the political economy of development

By using a Digitised Thesis, I accept that Trinity College Dublin bears no legal responsibility for the accuracy, legality or comprehensiveness of materials contained within the thesis, and that Trinity College Dublin accepts no liability for indirect, consequential, or incidental, damages or losses arising from use of the thesis for whatever reason. Information located in a thesis may be subject to specific use constraints, details of which may not be explicitly described. It is the responsibility of potential and actual users to be aware of such constraints and to abide by them. By making use of material from a digitised thesis, you accept these copyright and disclaimer provisions. Where it is brought to the attention of Trinity College Library that there may be a breach of copyright or other restraint, it is the policy to withdraw or take down access to a thesis while the issue is being resolved.
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Pubertal maturation and sex effects on the default mode network connectivity implicated in mood dysregulation

Pubertal maturation and sex effects on the default mode network connectivity implicated in mood dysregulation

Highly relevant to this question is the Triple-Network Model 55 . This model proposes that dysfunction or imbalance among three core canonical networks of resting-state fMRI might contribute to a number of psy- chiatric disorders. These networks consist of the DMN, the central-executive network and the salience network (SN). The DMN serves self-referential-related functions and comprises regions in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), posterior cingulate cortex, middle temporal cortex, and hippocampus 47,48 . The central-executive net- work supports working memory, decision-making, and cognitive control. This latter network is particularly important for the regulation of emotion processing, which itself depends largely on subcortical regions (e.g., amyg- dala). The central-executive network encompasses the dorsolateral PFC and dorsomedial PFC 56–58 . Finally, the SN supports the integration of internal and external sti- muli into emotional and behavioral responses. The core nodes of the SN include the insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex 59 . The framework of the Triple-Network Model is used as a heuristic tool in the present work. This approach emulates the widely use of neural systems models to explain typical adolescent behaviors, such as increased risk-taking, emotional lability, or social trans- formation 60 – 64 .
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Visual attention and object categorization: from psychophysics to computational models

Visual attention and object categorization: from psychophysics to computational models

Table 6.1. Shown here is a summary of the fits between each model and the scanpaths recorded during the free-viewing task (Figure 6.2). Each number represents the average normalized scanpath salience (NSS) value, for a given model, across all of the fixation locations recorded while observers freely viewed images for 3000 ms each. The NSS val- ues were obtained by the method illustrated in Figure 6.7, in which salience maps were first normalized to have zero mean and unit standard deviation, and then for each scan- path the average normalized salience was computed for the fixation locations along the scanpath. Thus for the data shown here, a value of zero would indicate the absence of a correspondence between model predictions and observed fixation locations; a value of one would indicate that, on average, the model-predicted salience was one standard deviation above chance at each fixation location for all observers and all images in the given image category. The first three rows show these correspondences for salience maps predicted by a random model, the baseline salience model (Figure 6.6), and the control condition in which the “salience map” is derived from all observers’ scanpaths. This last condition quantifies how well the pooled fixation locations from all observers predict the specific fix- ation locations of individual observers; as such, it provides a theoretical upper limit for the performance of the models, since the models are not designed to account for inter- observer variability. Thus, the next three rows express the performance of each model as a percentage of the corresponding upper limit.
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