Although early Italianart was popularly marginalised in British visual cul- ture throughout the long eighteenth century - a consequence in part of the broader understanding of medieval culture and history, as detailed above, which identified it with Catholic superstition, lack of educational and commercial attainment and feudal oppressiveness - from the mid nineteenth century onwards there was a dis- tinct reversal of attitudes and the Italian primitives played a leading role in British taste. This is not to say, however, that there was categorically no interest shown by artists, collectors or critics in them prior to the birth of the Pre-Raphaelite Broth- erhood, and the excerpt with which this introduction began also foregrounds this historiographical theme. As the French artist Jean-Dominique Ingres (who evinced a strong interest in the primitives early in his career) stated simply, “You don’t get anything from nothing”. 23 According to Ingres’ maxim, addressed to his fel- low painters, every artwork has a precedent (defined, in this context, as an earlier painting, or sculpture, acting as an example to be followed or from which to derive inspiration). This general precept can also be widened in scope to encompass artis- tic movements; that of the Renaissance was, by definition, classical antiquity. The study, re-use, reinterpretation and transformation of motifs, attitudes and iconogra- phy of earlier artworks was institutionalised in the form of a young artist’s training from an early stage, which was initiated by copying casts and Old Master paint- ings. 24 The complex interplay of ideas that such practices gave rise to has led to a contemporary art-historical vocabulary that accordingly embraces a wide spectrum of terms to signify and define such relations, such as ‘influence’, ‘appropriation’, ‘emulation’ and ‘reception’. 25
The Italian cultural industry is now marching on an innovative supply chain, whose main pattern consists in a new utility perception and consumption behaviours on the demand side and a strong vocation to invest in communication and public relations on the supply side. The content of this paper is an attempt to justify the emerging relevance of marketing strategies and investments in the Italianart market, referring to new incubators like art fairs – as concerns 2004’s interviews with art galleries - and to a modern and consistent approach to communication instruments evaluation for key competitors like auction houses.
and in the Risen Christ (in the only extant photograph with the added draperies removed ). We see it in paint, too, in the Creation of Adam and other Sistine Chapel paintings. But this was not just a foible of Michangelo’s, it was universal. See, for example, Benvenuto Cellini’s Perseus, made some 40 years after David (Figure 4(a))—a muscular, fit man with a distinctly small penis and what looks like a phimotic prepuce. Or, in paint, there is Perugino’s Apollo and Marsyas—wherever you see an adult penis in Italianart from 1440 to 1640, there is (almost) always just one penis you will see.
The authors deal with the scientific debate on homosexual parenthood, emphasizing the social and situated character of the scien- tific discourse. Quoting Macdougall and colleagues (2007) they seem to recognize the complex nature of parenthood when donor gametes are used, which is constructed through technical as well as narrative elements for accountability. Moreover, they acknowledge the ‘scientific’ arguments illustrating that there are no substantive differences in the psycho- affective development of children raised by homosexual parents. Howev- er, they root their biomedical scepticism about the inclusion of homosex- ual couples in ART referring to the fear of “social reactions to these events and the inevitable repercussions on the child of people hostility and critique” (Flamigni and Borini 2012, 65). Authors are not unaware of some of the links among biomedicine, rhetorical devices and social phe- nomena in ART. However, the heterogeneous elements that shape the range of individuals’ and couples’ reproductive choices (whether assisted or not) are only partially addressed. Although the authors recognize the social elements embedded in reproductive choices, they use naive catego- ries to explain the heterogeneous aspects of these choices. For instance, discussing the tendency to postpone parenthood they introduce bizarre analytical categories, such as “the age shown in the mirror”, which is sup- posed to affect the delay in parental choice.
Mediterranee, 106/2, (1994), 383-432; ‘The Portrait, the Individual and the Singular: Remarks on the Legacy of Aby Warburg’ in The Image of the Individual : portraits in the Renaissance, eds Nicholas Mann and Luke Syson (London : British Museum, 1998), 165-185) proposing that the erstwhile existence of highly-realistic wax votive statues in Santissima Annunziata in Florence challenges mainstream (ie. Vasarian) art-historical models. The votives do this partly through their non-humanistic associations with ‘fetishistic magic’ (Warburg’s term, and probably a correct assertion); partly through the low social standing of their artisan makers (again, a valid challenge at least to Vasarian notions of the artist); partly because they were mechanically produced using facial casts in wax. This last assertion is more problematic, and most relevant to explore in relation to the concerns of this article. Although Didi-Huberman rightly notes the influence of Vasari’s inherent disdain for mechanical processes (effectively categorized as ‘non-art’ because lacking the artist’s creative input) he wrongly assumes (p.412 ff.‘Ressemblance...’) that the Santissima Annunziata wax ex votos directly
Abstract. The paper will describe the challenges of creating and delivering Italian for Art Historians, a bespoke content-integrated language course created for ab-initio Italian language students in History of Art (the majority of whom first-time language learners), and The Role of Art in Italian Society, a second-year language module part of the Italian degree programme at the University of York. Main topic will be the illustration of experimental initiatives aimed to facilitate the acquisition of bespoke specialist language skills essential to the History of Art discipline (beginner level students), and the use of ItalianArt as a tool to develop critical thinking skills in a much broader language learning context (advanced level students). The first part will illustrate the challenges faced by the language teacher when planning and delivering an interdisciplinary content-based language module that has to be fully integrated into an undergraduate degree programme. Particular focus will be given to the collaboration between an art historian and a language teacher and its vital role in the creation of bespoke Art-related language teaching material and how this plays a pivoting role in the module planning. A number of case-studies will illustrate the impact that the interdisciplinary nature of these courses had in the applied teaching practice, students’ engagement and classroom activities. In particular, how the integration between the module syllabus and other components of the respective undergraduate degree programmes has led students to experience a deeper engagement in the learning process. The paper will also present examples of technology-enhanced teaching (e.g. online personal portfolios, audio and video material) and data analysis on how these were deployed to enhance the quality of the student engagement with pertinent art-related assessment activities, student-teacher interaction and monitoring of student progress.
Clinical and laboratory files on paper or computer were retrospectively consulted in order to retrieve information concerning searches for anti-HCV, HBeAg/anti-HBe and anti-HDV antibodies (respectively searched with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: HCV 3.0 ELISA Test, ORTHO, Raritan, USA; ETI-EBK PLUS, ETI-AB-EBK PLUS and ETI-AB- DELTAK-2, DiaSorin, Saluggia, Italy), the type of infection (chronic or acute), the clinical diagnosis, and possible risk factors. Whenever possible, and as previously described in the literature [31-33], the subjects were divided into "incident cases" (those diagnosed as having chronic hepatitis for the first time during the study) and "prevalent cases" (those diagnosed as having chronic hepatitis before the study period). The clinical diagnosis was based on liver biopsy data if a biopsy had been performed; if not, the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis was based on the presence of fluctuating or persistently (>6 months) high aminotransferase levels (upper normal limit: 40 U/L for aspartate aminotransferase [AST, determined for both Italian and non-Italian subjects with IFCC/p-5-P COBAS method, Roche, Mannheim, Germany] and 45 U/L for alanine aminotransferase [ALT, determined with IFCC/p-5-P COBAS method, Roche, Mannheim, Germany]) in the absence of clinical, biochemical or ultrasound markers of cirrhosis; the diagnosis of cirrhosis was based on the presence of clinical, biochemical or ultrasound signs ; and the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was based on two imaging techniques showing a typical vascular pattern .The patients included in the group of inactive HBsAg carriers had to be HBeAg negative and anti-HBe positive, and have persistently normal transaminase (ALT and AST) levels, and HBV DNA levels of <2000 IU/mL (COBAS TaqMan HBV test, Roche, Mannheim, Germany) . The diagnosis of acute HBV hepatitis was based on clinical, biochemical, and serological criteria, including the occurrence of an acute illness compatible with hepatitis together with an increase in serum ALT levels (>25 times the upper normal limit) and the presence of IgM hepatitis B core antibody (ETI-CORE-IGMK PLUS, DiaSorin, Saluggia, Italy) and HBsAg. Methods and kits for virological, biochemical and clinical markers determinations are the same for both Italian and non-Italian subjects. The findings were statistically analysed using the χ 2 test, Fisher's exact test and Student’s t test. An adjustment for age and gender was made using logistic regression by MacAnova where possible.
language. There are SD dependency relations which were excluded from the Italian localization of the standard scheme, either because not ap- propriate given the syntactic peculiarities of this language (this is the case e.g. of the prt re- lation) or because they could not be recovered from the CoNLL–compliant versions of the re- sources we started from (see e.g. the relations ref or xsubj). The SD tagset was also extended with new dependency types: this is the case of the clit relation used for dealing with clitics in pronominal verbs, or of the nnp relation specifi- cally defined for compound proper nouns. Other specializations are concerned with the use of un- derspecified categories: rather than resorting to the most generic relation, i.e. dep used when it is im- possible to determine a more precise dependency relation, we exploited the hierarchical organiza- tion of SD typed dependencies, i.e. we used the comp and mod relations when we could not find an appropriate relation within the set of their de- pendency subtypes.
ARH 5907 Directed Studies (1-6). A group of students, with the approval of the art faculty may select a master teacher of theory, research or criticism in selected areas of film, painting, sculpture, architecture, crafts, art history, multi-media art, etc. Arrangements must be made at least a semester before course is offered. May be repeated. For graduate students.
Milan-based socially engaged artist, Biancoshock (a pseudonym the artist prefers to use), was kind enough to take time out of his schedule to answer some questions for SAH Journal. We wanted to know more about his diverse, and often provocative urban art projects; as well his time spent travelling and creating in different parts of the world. So far in his career, Biancoshock has realised more than 800 “interventions” on the streets of Italy, Albania, Belgium, Croatia, France, England, Malaysia, Malta, Norway and Singapore, to name but a few. While he exhibits widely, he has also participated in numerous urban art festivals (Citileaks, Memorie Urbane, Stencibility). In 2014, he presented his work at TEDx Oporto, Portugal. 1 Biancoshock places social activism high on his list of
the most important broad-coverage class-based online verb lexicon developed for English. It is hierarchically organized, giving rise to a "tree" structure, and the relationship between parent-class and child-class is strictly monotonic. Its verb classes are crucially based on Levin (1993) and its extensions, especially Korhonen and Briscoe (2004). Original classes have been extended and refined in order to achieve a higher (syntactic and semantic) coherence among members of a class (see Kipper et al. 2006a and 2006b; Kipper et al. 2008;). Numerous attempts have been made to translate or adapt such a useful resource in other languages, the main assumption of most approaches being that the basic meaning components shared by classes can be applied cross ‐ linguistically (Jackendoff,1990). For example, Merlo et al. (2002) have used cross-linguistic similarities to convert 20 Levin classes to Italian, obtaining high accuracy (86.3%). Recent direct translations of VerbNet are the ones of Estonian VerbNet (Jentson, 2014) and Brazilian Portuguese (Scarton & Aluısio, 2012). Other studies comparable to VerbNet were also done for Spanish (Ferrer, 2004), German (Schulte ImWalde, 2006), and Japanese (Suzuki &Fukumoto, 2009).
For 5 proceedings the association requested and obtained the possibility to bring civil action as stakeholders of those interests injured by the sexual exploitation done by the offenders. Victims of labour exploitation had legal assistance both in civil and penal processes (the target was composed of Pakistani, Indian, Egyptian, Chinese and Bulgarian citizens who had access to the program ex art. 13 of the law 228/2003 and art. 18 of Immigration law).
The first thing that might come to your mind is "I'd teach it the most important Italian words". This is fine, of course, but you'd probably end up with a robot saying things like "buongiorno grazie arrivederci pizza spaghetti tiramisù!" (more or less like the tourist conversation that you often hear over there). Then you would conclude that you need something else, more elaborate than a simple list of words. You would soon enough come to the conclusion that you need to teach the robot grammar. Ok then. Let us teach this robot a grammar. How do we do this? Do we feed the robot 'Teach yourself Italian' books? Do we expose the robot to endless recordings of people speaking Italian? Do we simply talk to the robot?
I have suggested that the use of reference material, taking breaks and handling mistakes are all done in relation to an artist’s intention. This intention does not emerge from nothing. Rather, it is developed early on, in the ideation stages of art-making, and this is done through questioning. In this study, most of the artists engaged with the ti esti of the self-portrait—that is, the question of what it is for something to be a self-portrait. Several of the artists also asked what it meant to be themselves, and to be a person. Different artists answered these questions differently, and their answers guided their art-making. That is, the artists depicted themselves in their self-portraits according to how they conceptualized themselves as people. Brian, for instance, described his self-portrait as the story of his whole life “collapsed into this one thing,” while Jeannie focused on how “my existence is on the border. . . the interface between inside and outside,” and for Emily her self was about “connections and relationships.”
Following the unbridled success of Marsyas and The Weather Project subsequent Turbine Hall commissions took evermore socially orientated slants. The site of the Turbine Hall and the commission were increasingly understood for the way they facilitated “the rise of the network as a socio-spatial model.” 164 The spectacular monumentality of the Turbine Hall and the art with in it made participant aware of societal behaviours, as Thomas Schelling would say, this self-consciousness made manifest the relationships “between the behaviour characteristics of the individuals who comprise some social aggregate, and the characteristics of the aggregate.” 165 Subsequent commissions built from the socially forthright example of The Weather Project to produce ever more politically pointed interactions. These subsequent works saw art as a “site that produces a specific sociability” 166 and ultimately the artwork was understood as “the transformation of actions rather than of things.“ 167 The social narrative within the commissions seems to have operated in synchronistic relation to the Tate Modern’s own strategic ambitions for the Turbine Hall to be a major socialising force. The Turbine Hall narrative reciprocates a desire for the museum itself to become a proactively cultural actor. It is then no surprise that Tate commissioned artists who increasingly envisioned their monumental “artwork’s form as spreading out from its material form” as “a linking element, a principle of dynamic agglutination.“ 168