The latent association between Joyce and illegitimacy in Carter’s characterization of the novel’s maternal line is reinforced by the way that Carter repeatedly evokes his fiction in relation to illicit sexual acts. The boyfriend of Nora’s who is bed-tricked into sleeping with Dora is described “a wee scrap of a lad pale as a lily, blond as a chick”, whose “heart is as pure as Epps’ Cocoa” (82-3), the brand of drinking chocolate that Bloom famously serves to the youthful, blue-eyed, blonde-haired Stephen in the “Ithaca” episode of Ulysses (17.355-6). This assignation, brought about by Shakespearean subterfuge, is deliberately tinted with Joycean allusion, indicating Carter’s desire to indulge her love of Joyce and Shakespeare simultaneously on a narrative level. The seduction of a Stephen Dedalus substitute prefigures the moment when Dora slips upstairs with her Joycean uncle Peregrine to have incestuous sex on Melchior’s bed during the centenary celebration of his life and career. Wayward incestuous desire is a major theme in Joyce’s work (for instance Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker’s interest in his daughter Issy in FinnegansWake), but what clinches the association with Joyce is Peregrine’s habit of singing the chorus of “Finnegan’s Wake” (the ballad that inspired the title of Joyce’s final book) at the top of his voice. The first rendition comes when Peregrine re-enacts Timothy Finnegan’s whisky-fuelled resurrection with his Hollywood co-writer, Ross “Irish” O’Flaherty (122). The ballad is then reprised when Peregrine, presumed deceased, re-appears
As literature has developed, particularly in the age of postmodernity, the fusion of rhetoric with the poetic seems obvious enough. For Kenneth Burke, this synthesis is compulsory, assuming that motives are reflected in the dramatic aspects of human contact. He defines this theory with the use of what he terms the dramatic pentad, a tool for analysis which breaks down essential elements of all interaction: act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose. Each term contributes its own weight to the principles of Burke’s position and attempts to simplify questions of authorial motivation. Through these dramatic distinctions, Burke establishes not only a framework for answering the five questions of motivation–“what was done (act), when or where it was done (scene), who did it (agent), how he did it (agency), and why (purpose)” (A Grammar of Motives 1298)–but also for analyzing how rhetoric and relationships intersect and coalesce, both in “literature and non-literature… language and life” (Bizzell and Herzberg 1296). But what happens when the pentad is challenged, when the distinctions merge errantly and confuse rather than aid the interpreter? In applying James Joyce’s lexical quandary FinnegansWake to Burke’s dramatic pentad, I attempt to show how this method can be tested yet emerge rhetorically strengthened by authorial motives.
Certainly, Shem speaks with his mother’s voice, as when he ‘lifts the lifewand and the dumb speak’ (FW 195.5), thereby freeing the female voice curtailed following the Prankquean’s encounter with Jarl van Hoother. She regains her voice in the ‘annadominant’ act of sexual union in Book III.4, when ‘life wends and the dombs spake!’ (FW 595.1-2). As sexual/textual container, however, her voice is informed by the ‘tomb’, and at the potential conclusion to the age of humanity Book IV she contemplates relinquishing her voice of difference once more to be ‘dumb’, to be eclipsed once more by the masculine logos of a new age of gods: ‘I sink I’d die down over his feet, humbly dumbly, only to washup’ (FW 628.10-11). In an earlier age the younger ALP/Issy reacts similarly to the dominant HCE: ‘She thought she’s sankh neathe the ground with nymphant shame when he gave her the tigris eye!’ (FW 202.32-34). HCE’s power for domination is quite clear, and the desire for HCE, whether as man or deity, appears to be ALP’s Achilles’ heel. ALP’s speechlessness mirrors the ambiguous and wordless image of the picture: ‘It scenes like a landescape from Wildu Picturescu or some seem on some dimb Arras, dumb as Mum’s mutyness’ (FW 53.1-3). Like the picture, her textuality is variously interpreted as the viewer/reader adduces the masculine significance from her feminine form. In contrast with the form/content relationship of some mainstream texts, where textuality is crafted to be almost invisible in the focus upon content, the Wake’s explicit emphasis upon female textuality, as frustrating and pleasurable as it can at times be, balances what is ‘twain’ against what is ‘main’. What is explicit in the language of the Wake is the diminished potence of an omniscient HCE which allows freeplay in the signifier. Rather than bisexual, Joyce’s language is heterosexual, consisting of a blend of female form and its differences with the uncertain singularity of its masculine logos. Moreover, as both participation and non-participation, a union of signified with an equal emphasis upon signifier, reading the language of the Wake duplicates the original sin of heterosexual reproduction. While reading involves a union of signified and signifier, or
In James Joyce's Finneganswake, the political and sexual mores placed upon Irish culture by the presence of the British Empire and the Catholic Church during the late colonial and early post colonial period of modern Irish history, are extirpated in a re-telling of the Biblical fall from grace. From a historical perspective, the political fall of Charles Stewart Parnell, the Protestant Irish Home Rule leader, in the late nineteenth century, which is echoed in Joyce's text, presaged the return of violence as a means to achieve independence from Britain. But Joyce sensed that despite the achievement of an Irish state, personal liberation in the terms that would later be defined by Frantz Fanon in his chapter 'On National Consciousness' in Les damnes de la terre (1961), did not accompany the emergence of Irish nationhood. Finneganswake published in 1939, can be read as Joyce's mapping of the damaged terrain of a national consciousness, psychologically dominated by the Irish Free State polity and censoriousness of the Catholic Church of the 1930s. A brief exposition of the Parnell affair and its link to the emergence of a modern Irish consciousness expressed in the violence and literature of the fin de siecle, will presage a discussion of Joyce's last work.
environment, and of character and landscape, in the real-encompassing feat of literature that is FinnegansWake, and even in aspects of the everyday of James Joyce’s life. From the investigations into (only the beginnings of) the latter work conducted above, and through taking Žižek’s guiding reflections seriously, we should at least begin to recognise that we might yet be able to achieve ecological change ‘beyond human possibility’, through commitment to what may come about through this envisaged new abstract materialism. Indeed, an ecology beyond human possibility might become achievable through such a philosophy, and its resultant praxis, as it falls precisely in the realm of the real where humanity is not simply separated off, but essentially included in, and integrated into, its picture. To put another twist on Žižek’s haiku: through realisation of this, we might thus begin to face the responsibility of asking ourselves how we, in this very realm, can, and do, make a splash…
Writing in 1922, Lenin took stock of the revolutionary project’s gains before turning to the magnitude of material and intellectual effort that the construction of a functioning socialist economy still required, adding that “Communists who have no illusions, who do not give way to despondency, and who preserve their strength and flexibility ‘to begin from the beginning’ over and over again in approaching an extremely difficult task, are not doomed (and in all probability will not perish).” (quoted in Žižek 2009: 86) This rejection of piecemeal correction and unspectacular consolidation in favour of an orderly retreat, argues Žižek, is “Lenin at his Beckettian best, foreshadowing the line from Worstward Ho!: ‘Try again. Fail again. Fail better.’” (Žižek 2009: 86) If for Beckett the imperative was always to begin again, to reduce the subject to a nothing not in order to produce a pessimistic theatre of the absurd but to provide the groundless ground of a true act, a decision that is “purely formal”, “a decision to decide”, a “non-psychological” and “totally free act” (Žižek 2012a: 219), the task for Joyce was always to fin again, to end (or succeed) better – precisely by never ending. Confessing his dissatisfaction with the repeated affirmative “yes” with which Ulysses ends, Joyce states that he ‘tried to do better’ when writing FinnegansWake: “This time, I have found the word which is the most slippery, the least accented, the weakest word in English, a word which is not even a word, which is scarcely sounded between the teeth, a breath, a nothing, the article the” (quoted in Ellman 1982: 712). With this word, the very antithesis of a firm point de capiton, we continue to slide along what Lacan refers to as Joyce’s Viconian “eturnity” (Lacan 2016b: 141), turning in an endless loop in which commencement and fin are indistinguishable.
Enlightenment is another big project of modernism that aims at finding an answer to such questions as “What is there to be known?”, and “How could one know it and with what degree of certainty?”. In short, Enlightenment wants to rationalize everything. Enlightenment flourished in German academies of which narrative assumes "a consensus between the sender and addressee of a statement with truth-value … if it is cast in terms of a possible unanimity between rational minds" (Lyotard, 1984, p. xxiii). On the contrary, "postmodern existence is a continual process of trying to find meaning in the face of the knowledge that meaning is always relative and contingent" (Nicol, 1999, p. 46). Now, under postmodern condition, Enlightenment is finally at an end and its tenets are regarded as "exhausted", "dangerous", and "redundant" (Waugh, 1992, p. 1): the ultimate faith in rationality characteristic of the modernist project of Enlightenment has been replaced by an understanding that the world, as we see it in FinnegansWake, is unknowable. FinnegansWake "undermines the university's traditional practice of taking for granted that one is able to see through language [reason] to the truth. This novel is particularly subversive of university pedagogies because it presents a problem [that the university] cannot solve" (McGee, 2001, p. 23). In contrast to Enlightenment's emphasis on reason FinnegansWake "dislocate[s]" (Joyce, 1942, p. 189) it. In this way, Joyce shows his incredulity towards Enlightenment of which the motto is "have courage to exercise your understanding" (Kant, 1992, p. 87) that is your reason.
The Cultural materialist has some kind of idealistic motives, like as pure, unselfish devotion to humankind, rightly or wrongly, a large segment of world opinion. The Anthropological thinkers Marx has given right responsible for all the people. Likewise Joyce demonstrated in Dubliners, materialist as an elite people. They were ruling like a cruel and dominated to other. perception of the dominant culture is never the only one in the cultural field, although it is the most powerful, there are always residual and emergent strains within a culture that offer alternatives to hegemony. In other words, the dominant culture is always under pressure from alternative views and beliefs. The people dominating to other; they were losing all these ruling system one day. The people are not given response to them. It was happened in the global world. Now-a-days everyone has followed the government rules. Sometimes, it is changed occasionally. The materialist exploited some strategy and given right responsibility for all. Every part or group of people is called as a materialist.
The very scrutiny was entrenched on the novel A portrait of an artist as a young man (1982) which is the great work of JamesJoyce. The efficacy of this probe was that it took a concept, alienation, that is basically considered as a pessimistic phenomena, and analyzed that how this notion led towards self-realization in the novel A portrait, which is the optimistic outcome of estrangement. Therefore, it did not merely ponder upon the negative, but also the positive facet of alienation. It focused on the brutal effects of alienation which perturbed Stephen’s self and how that disturbance was changed into solace and eventually he realized his true self. Moreover, it also gave the very importance of self-realization in Stephen’s life. The whole investigation was backed up by Hegel’s theory of alienation since he takes alienation as a process that leads towards self-realization. For this study qualitative paradigm was being opted and through content analysis the novel was being examined and the researcher inferred that being indulged in the murky depths of estrangement, Stephen encountered separation but then afterwards his surrender assisted him to embrace his own self.
In his novels, Faulkner associates creativity to the blurring of the sexes. The only way to find creativity is to adapt to the new cultural and social conditions of the modern society. He declares his poetic development to be the result of double-sex imagination (male-female). He like Joyce “envisioned an androgyny consciousness, infinitely dynamized by an incessant process of exchange” (Cixous, 1980, p.254). He possesses a “bisexual’ artistic consciousness” (Gwin, 1990, p.4), in which his male consciousness interrelates with the “subversive deconstructive” (Gwin, 1990, p.25). Including elements of the female in his awareness, produces apprehension, typically of the modern period, that intimidates the mind of his heroes and heroines. Whereas Joyce releases the sublime, as a masochistic element, Faulkner emphasizes elusiveness. This conception of the androgyny exposes the cultural anxieties that suffered all the intellectuals of his period of writing.
The two main characters, Leopold Bloom and Stephen Dedalus, exist both in the domesticity of the kitchen and plotted on the celestial map. In ‘Ithaca’ the entire world is strung together, from the most banal human event to its cosmic-physical analogue. Through such objectivity, myth enters, as Bloom and Stephen become the very stars they observe. But this is not astrology it is scientific in the most fantastical way, for it proposes an inkling of something that is about to become known. Just a couple of years after Joyce wrote Ulysses, Harlow Shapley, in January 1925, broadcast the discovery that we ‘are made out of the same materials that constitute the stars’. 20
literature alone, which is my aim in the present piece, the list of authors who are influenced by Dante includes Yeats, Joyce, Beckett, and Heaney – that is to say, four of the major writers not only of Ireland, but of Europe and the entire West. To these should then be added other Irish poets of the first magnitude, such as Louis MacNeice, Ciaran Carson, Eiléan Ní Cuilleanáin, and Thomas Kinsella. I hope I will therefore be forgiven for treating this theme in a somewhat cursory manner, priv- ileging the episodes I consider most relevant and the themes which I think form a coherent and intricate pattern of literary history, where every author is not only metamorphosing Dante but also rewriting his predecessor, or predecessors, who had rewritten Dante. Distinct from the English and American Dante of Pound and Eliot, an ‘Irish Dante’, 2