A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanesemedicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as “ tailor-made medicine ” and has properties similar to “ mind and body ” or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients ’ lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans.
Effects of yokukansan, a traditional Japanesemedicine, on proliferation and differentiation of oli- godendrocytes were examined using purified mouse cortical oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). OPCs were cultured for four days, and proliferation was evaluated by counting A2B5 (a specific antibody to OPC)-reactive cells on the second day of cell culture. Differentiation from OPC to oligodendrocyte was evaluated by counting O4 (a specific antibody to detect differentiated cells in various stages)-reactive cells on the fourth day of culture. The effects of yokukansan (final con- centration: 100 or 200 µg/ml) on proliferation and differentiation were examined by adding it to the medium for four days. Yokukansan increased not only the number of A2B5-positive cells on the second day but also the number of O4-positive cells on the fourth day compared to those in the corresponding controls. A WST-8 assay was used to identify active components from seven com- ponents of Uncaria Hook (UH), one of the constituent galenicals of yokukansan. Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM: 0.1 - 3.0 μM) was identified by this screening assay and increased the number of A2B5-positive cells on the second day and O4-positive cells on the fourth day as yokukansan did. These results suggest that yokukansan promotes the proliferation and differentiation of oli- godendrocytes, and also that GM contained in UH is one of active components responsible for this effect of yokukansan.
In this study, we evaluated for the effects of a traditional Japanesemedicine (kampo) on the on warm and cold sense threshold using thermostimulator. The thermal threshold measurement has many advantages. It is not af- fected by the skin temperature of the subjects. It enables the accurate evaluation of thermal sensation in a short period of time and separate measurement of warm and cold sense threshold. The latter was impossible with conventional methods that used temperature itself as an index  . Therefore, it is important to establish a new method for allodynia, hyperesthesia of patients with neuropathic pain and the warm and cool susceptibility.
TJ107, a traditional Japanesemedicine, can rescue asper- matogenesis after busulfan treatment in mice . In this study, we evaluated the TJ107efficacy on recovery aspermatogenesis by irradiation. The results showed that disruption of spermatogenesis with a decrease in inter- Sertoli tight junction mRNA levels and a loss of BTB function was induced by 6Gy of TBI which might be re- lated to the production of anti-germ cell antibodies. However, the spermatogenesis was recovered from TBI- induced injuries with TJ107 administration, based on the enhanced expression of tight junction genes and sup- pression of anti-germ cell antibody production.
For example, Salviae miltiorrhizae radix, a Korean herbal medicine, increases dopamine release from PC12 cells . On the other hand, hirsuteine, a compound isolated from a Japanese herb of the Uncaria genus, antagonizes the nicotine-evoked secretion of dopamine . In addition, extracts of ginseng, a component of rikkunshito, suppress the gene expression of enzymes involved in dopamine and norepinephrine synthesis in PC12 cells . However, in spite of extensive studies utilizing PC12 cells, the effects of rikkunshito itself on the synthesis and/ or release of catecholamines have never before been docu- mented. We have been interested in the influences of Japanese herbal medicine on the endocrine system and ex- amined the effects of rikkunshito on endocrine cells. We now report that rikkunshito stimulates the release of nor- epinephrine and dopamine from PC12 cells via a novel mechanism involving cAMP.
sclerotium 4.0 g, JP Jujube 2.0 g, JP Citrus unshiu peel 2.0 g, JP Glycyrrhiza 1.0 g, and JP Ginger 0.5 g. Rikkunshito has been approved for medicinal use by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare, although the mechanism by which Rikkunshito alleviates upper gastrointestinal symptoms has not been clarified. Recently, Rikkunshito was used in combination with granisetron to alleviate the side effects of anticancer drugs, without affecting their efficacy. 12
Many of the patients suffering from somatization in this study, regardless of their age and sex, had been re- ferred to us by doctors from other hospitals. We can conclude that the Department of Psychosomatic Medi- cine of Japanese university hospitals is the proper place to treat patients, regardless of age and sex, who have been difficult to diagnose or to handle and that they play a major role in preventing mistaken diagnoses by con- ducting intensive psychological treatment and providing detailed medical examinations.
Development of a Core Curriculum for Behavioral Medicine (* indicates the Chairperson): Marie Amitani (Department of Community-Based Medicine, Education Center for Doctors in Remote Islands and Rural Areas, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University); Yoshiki Ishikawa (Innovation Department, Cancer Scan Co., Ltd); Akio Inui (Department of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University); Shigeru Inoue (Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Tokyo Medical University); Akihito Shimazu (Department of Mental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo); Shigeki Suwa (Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Nursing, Tokyo Women ’ s Medical University); Koji Tsuboi (Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University School of Medicine); Akira Tsuda (Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature, Kurume University); Akizumi Tsutsumi* (Department of Public Health, Kitasato University School of Medicine); Mutsuhiro Nakao (Graduate School of Public Health, Teikyo University & Division of Psychosomatic Medicine, Teikyo University Hospital); Takeo Nakayama (Department of Health Informatics, Division of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University); Masahiro Hashizume (Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University School of Medicine); Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi (Department of Stress Sciences and Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo).
into Japanese and its broad use was attempted by the ICPC working team of the Japan Primary Care Association, because ICPC coding was thought to be useful for understanding the medical needs in the primary care setting. The role of general practitioners (GPs) in mental health care has been increasing because of the rising burden of mental disorders. 18–20 GPs are
Until now, Japanese doctors tended to learn, imple- ment and practice method used by more experienced senior doctors . However, the facts found in this study suggest that they are also beginning to welcome the concept of EBM positively. Thus, it is implied that on one side there is a welcome acceptance of EBM while at the same time maintaining a practice previously established among physicians in Japan.
The pharmacy students were assigned two required readings related to the role-play regarding the clinical literature of valsartan  and candesartan . A thera- peutic guideline created by the Japanese Circulation Society for patients with chronic heart failure in Japan was also assigned as a suggested reading . These materials were given to the pharmacy students during orientation before the EBM workshop. Based on these readings, the students had to make a decision during the role-play regarding which drug was better for the patient.
We purchased benfluorex, orlistat, and aristolochic acid (mixture of I and II) from Sigma–Aldrich Co. LLC (Saint Louis, MO, USA). Lovastatin was purchased from To- ronto Research Chemicals (Toronto, ON, Canada). We bought rimonabant from Cayman Chemical Company (Ann Arbor, MI, USA), and sibutramine hydrochloride from Tocris Bioscience (Minneapolis, MN, USA). We purchased fenfluramine and N-nitroso-fenfluramine from Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd. (Osaka, Japan). These compounds were the reference standards of the compounds that were not listed on the package or insert. To verify that rhubarb rhizome was present, sen- noside A (one of the anthraquinone glycosides in rhu- barb and a compound used for identification of rhubarb rhizome according to the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 16) and authentic rhubarb rhizome were purchased from Nacalai Tesque, Inc. (Kyoto, Japan) and Tochimoto Ten- kaido Co., Ltd. (Osaka, Japan), respectively. The refer- ence standards of the other anthraquinone glycosides, aloe-emodin and emodin were purchased, respectively, from Toronto Research Chemicals and Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan). Rhein and chrysophanol were bought from Extrasynthese S.A. (Genay, France). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-grade reagents of acetonitrile, 2-propanol, methanol, and tri- fluoroacetic acid were purchased from Wako Pure Chem- ical Industries, Ltd. All other chemicals were available commercially and of analytic grade. A membrane filter (Millex®-LG; pore size, 0.20 μm; Merck Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA) was used for filtration treatment for HPLC analyses. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC; silica gel 60 F254; 20 × 20 cm, Merck, Billerica, MA, USA) was employed for analyses.
Hachimijiogan (HJG), which is also called Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan in Chinese, is one of the most popular herbal medicines in Japanese Kampo. HJG is prescribed for the treatment of “kidney deficiency”, which is a concept in traditional Chinese medi- cine. This concept refers to aging pathophysiology, such as lack of energy, eyesight, hearing, and muscle/skeletal function. HJG is often prescribed for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. It has been reported that HJG stimulates the production of testosterone in rats. 6 HJG could also be effective in the treatment and
can cause PONV, a single administration of Goreisan is insufficient in preventing PONV in a high-risk population. We randomized patients without considering the water disturbance score. As the efficacy of Kampo medi- cines depends on the patient’s individual constitution, diagnostic Kampo medicine-specific examination is very important [12, 22]. In this study, around 30% of patients were identified as being in a state of water disturbance (water disturbance score more than 13). Even if we focused on patients with water disturbance, Goreisan still had no significant effect on PONV.
Currently, about 45,000 species are found in the Indian subcontinent: 3,500 species of plants are of medicinal value; 500 medicinal plant species are used by the contemporary Ayurvedic industry; 80% of the medicinal plant species are procured from wild areas; and 10% of medicinal plants involved in active trade are obtained from cultivation in farms . The western Himalayan region provides about 80% of herbal drugs in Ayurveda, 46% of Unani, and 33% of allopathic systems ; 50% of drugs recorded in the British Pharmacopoeia are related to medicinal plants growing in this region . In India, approximately 25,000 plant-based formulations are used in traditional and folk medicines . The number of plant species used in various IM is as follows: Ayurveda, 2,000; Siddha, 1,300; Unani 1,000; homeopathy, 800; Tibetan, 500; modern, 200, and folk, 4,500 . More than 7,500 plant species are currently used in IM, including tonics, antimalarials, antipyretics, aphrodisiacs, expectorants, hepatoprotectants, antirheumatics, and diuretics [9, 10], as well as for the therapy of certain central nervous system disorders [11, 12]. There are 45,000 plant species in India, 15000-20000 plants have medicinal value in India, only 7000-7500 species are used, 700 species in Ayurvedic medicine, 600 species in Siddha medicine, 700 species in Unani medicine, and 30 species in Modern medicine. In Indian Herbal Medicines, Indian pharmacopoeia (2010 version) listed about 88 IMMs/products, Formulae up to 25,000, Registered formulae around 3,000 Registered single herb up to 1,000 species Ayurvedic medicine about 2,000 species, Siddha medicine around 1,300 species, Unani medicine about 1,000 species, Homeopathic medicine around 800 species, Folk medicine 4,500 species, Tibetan medicine 500 species and Modern medicine 200 species. Usage of TCAM in developed & developing countries is represented in Fig 2. Total global herbal market in billion dollars is shown in Fig 3. The trends in the global nutrition products, is represented in Fig 4. Fig 5. Represents the global nutrition products, including herbal and botanical products.
(rather than objectively scientific) is inherent in this approach. It has revealed that submerged WWII site management takes it cue from Cultural Resource Management (CRM) approaches that privilege archaeological values of sites that are then used to prescribe site management. The Chuuk Lagoon submerged World War II sites are currently managed and promoted according to the dominant Euro-American values, that is, as significant sites associated with the U.S. conquering the Japanese during World War II, and as a focus for international tourism. Chuukese values have not been acknowledged , and while Japanese values are acknowledged, they are ignored. These values can be complex, they can conflict, perhaps especially in relation to those of the Euro-American approach. However, I argue that the lack of Chuukese and Japanese values in this approach is indicative of neo-colonialism, and the continued contested nature of World War II and its
According to Table 3 and Table 4, 45% (16/35) of findings are objective, 14 of them are well defined and can be quantified by available tools like sonography, laboratory techniques or image processing, however it seems there is a lack of attention to this finding in conventional medicine, Even though some of them were approved in researches of last decade like correlation between Body Mass (and body composition) with ED [28–31] or it can be a new hypothesis for research based on current medical knowledge of physiology like
By re-examining theories of linguistic politeness in Japanese and carefully analysing the data collected from re- cent Japanese TV dramas, this study confirms that, as a general principle, B & L’s (1978, 1987) theory of face does apply to Japanese language and culture and forms the basic factor of linguistic politeness. The actual face- work and face redressive strategies in Japanese, however, show some unique features. By the word “unique”, we do not simply mean that Japanese speakers need to act appropriately according to the social norm and their un- derstanding or discernment of the social norm in order for an interaction to be successful, as this is in common with other cultures. We see the uniqueness of the Japanese as that their discernment (wakimae) and recognition of the social position and relationship (tachiba) of the participants, which form the second layer of the deter- mining factors of politeness, make speakers of Japanese always attend to and try to fulfil the other participant’s face wants including both positive and negative face, and, at the same time, maintain their own positive face but rarely claim their own negative face, especially when being the one with less power and a lower social position in an interaction. The data set of this study also suggests a model of face redressing strategies co-occurring with face threatening acts (FTA) in Japanese. That is, a pre-FTA hedge and/or a post-FTA excuse is needed almost all the time. In some extreme examples, the FTA itself can be omitted and implied by a pre-FTA hedge and/or a post-FTA excuse. This study holds that none of the existing theories alone can explicate Japanese linguistic po- liteness, as linguistic politeness is a very complicated issue influenced by multiple factors including general face want of participants, the participants’ societal positions and social relationships (tachiba), social norm that the interactants share, the interactants’ discernment or interpretation of the social rules (wakimae), immediate con- text of the interaction, and possible strategies for the interactants to choose under the constrains of the other si- multaneously functioning factors. That is, linguistic politeness cannot be explicated from the viewpoint of any of these factors alone. All the factors need to be taken into consideration at the same time, and they must be seen as issues at different levels.
Number of Japanese senses The total number of senses for Japanese words was taken from MeikyoKokugoJiten (Meikyo Japanese Dictionary , 2008 edition). In four cases, the Japanese loanword was not listed as a single entry (i.e., only as a compound entry) in the selected dictionary; therefore, the number of senses for these items was taken from a second dictionary—Koujien, 6th edition (2008)—in which the items were listed as single entries. Similar to the number of English senses, there was no difference between cognates and noncognates in terms of the number of Japanese senses. Japanese word length Japanese word length was calculated as the total number of morae in each word. A mora is the basic phonemic unit in Japanese, roughly corresponding to a sylla- ble. For example, 魚 /sakana/ “fish” is written in kanji (Sino- Japanese characters) and contains three morae, which can be visualized by transcribing the word using the phonetic script, hiragana: さかな , /sa/, /ka/, /na/. On the other hand, カンガル ー /kangaruu/ “ kangaroo, ” is written in katakana, which is used for writing loanwords, and contains five morae in Japanese (/ ka/, /n/, /ga/, /ru/, and /u/) , even though the English word contains only three syllables. This exemplifies how the Japanese phonemic system determines the resulting phonetic constitution of the borrowed word, while also briefly illustrat- ing the use of the three scripts of the Japanese language. The Bayes factor (BF = 0.02) provides very strong evidence for a difference in the numbers of morae in cognate and noncognate words, such that the former were longer on average. This is not surprising given that loanwords, which are rephonalized into Japanese from English, tend to be longer than native Japanese words, which typically contain 2 – 4 morae.
Here, we investigate the possibility of whether the similarity calculated in the mapped space can be used to detect the loanwords that are very differ- ent from or close to the original English words. We show the 20 words with the lowest cosine sim- ilarities and the 20 words with highest cosine sim- ilarities in Table 4. First, let us take a look at the words on the right, which have high similarities. Most of them are technical terms (e.g., hexade- cane and propylene), and domain-specific terms such as musical instruments (e.g., piano and vi- olin) and computer-related terms (computer and software). This result is consistent with the fact that the meanings of technical terms tend not to change, at least for Japanese (Nishiyama, 1995). Next, let us take a look at the words on the left, which have low similarities. Many of them are ac- tually ambiguous, and this ambiguity is often due to the Japanese phonetic system. For example, lighter and writer are assigned to the same loan- word in Japanese, because the Japanese language does not distinguish the consonants l and r. The words clause, close and clothe are also assigned to the same loanword also because of the Japanese phonetic system. Other words are used as parts of named entities, also resulting in low similarity. For example, the Japanese loanword for refer is more often used as Rifaa, the name of a city in Bahrain, but hardly as refer. The loanword for irregular is often used as part of a video game title Irregular Hunter. However, we can also find words with sig-