The level of Hydrocarbon is higher than the biodiesel compared to the diesel fuel. Level of hydrocarbon in diesel 6 ppm and jatropha biodiesel 19.33 ppm, karanja 14.66 ppm, mahua biodiesel 22 ppm. Biodiesel is a fuel made from organic oils & chemically known as free fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) depending on the general characteristic value of the common vegetable oil found in the market it is found that vegetable oil is the best alternative to produce the biodiesel due to its high carbon content, kinetic viscosity & relative density. . Moreover, it is the relatively cheaper in the market. The CO emissions slightly varied compared to the traditional diesel fuel. Where the co emission in diesel fuel 0.03% and biodiesel fuel 0.03 to 0.08%. Due to larger fatty acid carbon chain of raw material the produced biodiesel contains high carbon content. But high flash point & high viscosity indicate a high level of safety for biodiesel. The flash point of jatropha biodiesel 65 o C and
petroleum-based automotive fuels. Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils (edible or inedible), animal fats or used cooking oils. Edible vegetable oils are mainly used for human consumption; can lead to an increase in the price of biodiesel. Available quantities of used oils and animal fats are not sufficient to meet current biodiesel demands. For these reasons, the uses of inexpensive inedible vegetable oils are preferred for the production of biodiesel. The actual raw material supply of any vegetable oil is not sufficient to meet current demand. Competition for biodiesel is mainly related to the cost of raw materials, which is high since the production process uses only a favorable raw material for the oils. The cost of producing biodiesel can be reduced by mixing two different biodiesels. To meet the current demand for adequate alternative fuels with a reasonable market price, biodiesel must be derived by blending two or more biodiesels from different feed stocks. The properties of the different biodiesels vary in a very small proportion, which gives more possibilities to combine different biodiesels between them. In the dual blend of biodiesel, we blended two different biodiesels that combine 50% Mahua oil and 50% biodiesel derived from Jatropha oil. Biodiesel has been blended with additives in various proportions to prepare a series of test fuels that are tested in a diesel engine to study various parameters. In this research, we study the performance characteristics of the CI engine fueled with Mahua oil and single and double biodiesel blends derived from Jatropha oil.
Abstract: Depletion of fossil fuels and continuous increment of petroleum prices have prompted the interest towards the use of inedible vegetable oils as alternate source of fuel for diesel engines. Increased viscosity and poor volatility is a major problem related to the use of straight vegetable oils (SVOs) which may cause a number of operational and durability problems. Preheating is a simple technique to lower the density and viscosity of vegetable oil before utilizing in an engine for getting better results. Exhaust gas can be used as the heat source for this purpose. In this paper, a comparative study has been conducted to review the performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine fuelled with preheated oil of Jatropha, Mahua and Rice Bran. Diesel is taken as the baseline fuel for comparison of performance and emission characteristics for all the three cases . A single cylinder, four stoke, constant speed, water cooled, direct injection diesel engine is used for the experiments. The acquired data were analyzed for various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), exhaust gas temperature (EGT), smoke opacity, CO and HC emissions.
reasons the alternative energy resources are becoming more attractive as they are renewable, sustainable and produce less or no emissions as compared to conventional fuel. Biodiesel is easily renewable, eco-friendly, non-toxic, and has wide availability compared to conventional used diesel fuel, . It is an alternate fuel derived from the vegetable oil which could be first or second generation or animal fats, . Biodiesel is produced through different methods like Blending, Emulsification, Pyrolysis and Trans-esterification. The common approach to produced biodiesel is through a simple process called transesterification, as it is the easiest way to produce biodiesel. Lots of work have been done on Jatropha, Palm and other oils which are mostly based on one oil biodiesel, i.e. just blending single biodiesel into diesel. Fewer work has been reported by combining two separate biodiesel blends with mineral diesel . Hass et al. have reported that using a blend of soybean soap stick biodiesel with mineral diesel in 20:80 ratio by volume could reduce CO, HC, and PM emissions by 2.40%, 27.70%, and 19.70 % respectively when comparing to standard diesel. Hifjur Rahman et al. found a good fuel combustion emission and 21% fewer soot deposits by using B10 blends of Simarouba oils and Mahua oil in the ratio of 50:50 with mineral diesel oil. Srithar et al. 
As the stock of fossil fuels diminishing throughout the world and demands for energy based comforts and mobility ever increasing, so there is a need to increase biodiesel production. Bio diesel is an alternative diesel fuel prepared from renewable resources and is most popular as an alternative energy sources because it is non toxic and biodegradable . India has great potential for production of biodiesel from non-edible oil seeds. From about 100 varieties of oil seeds, only 10-12 varieties have been tapped so far. The promising non-edible sources in India are Madhuca Indica (Mahua) ,Jatropha curcas(Ratan Jyot), Pongamia pinnata (Karanja) and Melia azadirachta (Neem). This review paper assesses and integrates the biological, chemical and genetic attributes of the plant and describes about the different tree borne oilseeds in India, Extraction of oil from tree borne oilseeds , properties ,composition and future potential of bio diesel If the developed process is scaled up to commercial levels then excellent business opportunity will be offered by the biodiesel and it could be a major step towards the creation of an eco-friendly transportation fuel that is relatively clean on combustion and provides farmers with substantial income.
As a result, it has brought us to the era where biodiesel has to replace the conventional fuel party or wholly.The aim of this paper is to study the various options available for biodiesel production. The paper lists the various methodologies used for production of biodiesel out of which it focuses on biodiesel from algae, jatropha, mahua, and from used cooking oil. The paper also focuses on the usage, advantages and disadvantages of the various methodologies of biodiesel generation. Apart from this biodiesel has various other advantages such as it helps to clean oil spills, acts as a lubricant.
Sustainable production of renewable energy is being hotly debated globally since it is increasingly understood that first generation biofuels, primarily produced from food crops and mostly oil seeds are limited in their ability to achieve targets for biofuel production, climate change mitigation and economic growth. These concerns have increased the interest in developing second generation biofuels produced from non-food feedstocks such as non- edible oils which potentially offer greatest opportunities in the longer term. A large variety of plants that produce non-edible oils can be considered for biodiesel production such as Madhuca Indica (Mahua) ,Jatropha curcas(Ratan Jyot), Pongamia pinnata (Karanja), Soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) and Melia azadirachta (Neem) etc., are easily available in developing countries and are very economical comparable to edible oils. This review paper assesses and integrates about the different tree borne oilseeds, extraction of oil, biodiesel processing and effect of different parameters on production of biodiesel. If the developed process is scaled up to commercial levels then excellent business opportunity will be offered by the biodiesel and it could be a major step towards the creation of an eco-friendly transportation fuel that is relatively clean on combustion.
energy demands has increased tremendously since last two decades. These energy demands are not fulfilled by the depleting fossil fuel sources. So as to meet the current needs of energy demand and minimize pollution researchers are working on finding alternative fuels for internal combustion engine.These concerns have increased the interest in developing second generation biofuels produced from non- food feedstocks such as nonedible oils which potentially offer greatest opportunities in the longer term. A large variety of plants that produce non-edible oils can be considered for biodiesel production such as Madhuca Indica (Mahua) ,Jatropha curcas(Ratan Jyot), Pongamia pinnata (Karanja), Soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) and Melia azadirachta (Neem) etc., are easily available in developing countries and are very economical comparable to edible oils.In the present research an experimental work is conducted to obtain the performance and emission characteristics of Thumba Oil Biodiesel on Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engine run on various blends of biodiesel, compression ratios and load conditions. From the comparison of results, it is inferred that the engine performance is improved with significant reduction in emissions for the chosen oils without any engine modification. Key Words: Biodiesel, Citrullus Colosynthis Oil, Transesterification, Fuel Blends, Compression Ratio, Engine Load, Performance and Emissions, VCR CI Engine. 1. INTRODUCTION
Abstract: The change in industrialisation and the increase in usage of automobile divesting the natural reserves of the fossil fuels which has driven the world towards alternative fuels especially renewable sources. One of the most prominent replaceable alternatives to the diesel is biodiesel. The research on usage of this biodiesel and modification of engines to suit these biodiesels started during the period of World War-II and the change in environmental conditions and decreasing reserves of the existing petroleum reserves formed as catalyst to accelerate this research to find better alternative biodiesel. Wide research is being done on many of the alternative biodiesels. This work mainly focuses on review of performance, emission and combustion characteristics of five most prominent biodiesels namely Jatropha, Cotton seed oil, Rubber seed oil, Mahua oil and Rapeseed oil. It is found that the brake specific fuel consumption is high for all the biodiesels because of less energy content in them in comparison with diesel. The variation of brake thermal efficiency depends on the percentage of fuel combustion and the percentage of blends used. From the review it was observed that. Even though the report of emission characteristics shows that the emissions of HC, smoke and CO by Rapeseed oil is little more comparative to that of other biodiesel blends but the performance of Rapeseed oil is superior and almost similar to that of diesel when compared with other biodiesel blends. Hence forth Rapeseed oil can be suggested as better alternative biodiesel to the diesel with certain modifications like Al 2 O 3 coatings to
Suggestions available as to how to establish and manage Jatropha plantations range from spacing of 2.5m × 2.5m to 4m × 4m or even wider spacing, diﬀerent planting hole depths, diﬀerent application doses of start up fertilizer, and the choice of using either cuttings, seedlings or direct seeding. A study carried out by GEXSI (2008) provided a ﬁrst overview on J. curcas L. projects on a global scale. Their results 3 show that according to the diﬀerent planting techniques nurseries were used in 85%, direct seeding in 45%, cuttings in 40% of the projects, and in about 20% of the projects even two or all three methods were used simultaneously. Since planting shortly before a rainy season will provide the needed water supply for enhanced plant growth, the local climatic and soil conditions need to be carefully considered. Pruning of Jatropha in the ﬁrst years leads to a more bushy structure supporting a higher ﬂowering rate and thus increasing yields. Within the sample of 90 projects 80% used pruning, 67% used fertilizer and 49% irrigated their plantations ( GEXSI , 2008).
The study employs a five point scale measuring tool, in order to estimate labour availability in all households visited. This exercise reveals that Jatropha production has increased labouring hours for all family members in these households. This occurs at different periods during the production. For example, men are usually busy during the time of planting and pruning, whilst women and children are normally involved during weeding, harvesting, shelling (removing of husks) and drying. Table 6 below shows results obtained from the interviewed farmers who grow Jatropha regarding the labour changes on members of their households. It is evident that Jatropha growing has increased labouring hours for all family members. However, women seem to be the most affected as 11 interviewed farmers indicated that women workload has increased a lot. This may have a negative impact considering the women have to work more hours in the farm and still do their household chores as required. Children as well may be affected despite not missing school spending much of their time on farming activities may negatively impact on their education.
In this test Harisankar Bendu  suggested the production, characterization and possible utilization of a Bio-oil obtained from Mahua Oil Seed, which is potentially available in India. The Combustion, Performance, and Emission Behavior of the Diesel Engine operated with the different MPO-Diesel Blends were assessed and compared with those of Diesel operation at different loads. The results indicated that the Engine Thermal Efficiency was dropped by about 2% for MPO-Diesel Operation from no load to Full load Operation in comparison to Diesel. As the MPO-Diesel Blend Ratio increases, the NO Emission decreases from 4.5 to 2.8%, and the Smoke Emission increased from 10 to 75% from no load to Full load respectively. From the obtained results, it is suggested that the 30% MPO Blend can be considered as a Potential
The use of biodiesel as an alternative fuel has been proved to be a good choice. The conversion of different feedstock to biodiesel has been carried out and quite significant change in fuel properties were observed, especially soyabean biodiesel has shown the best properties as per ASTM D6751-12 standards and very close to mineral diesel. Beef tallow and mahua biodiesel although showing decent properties still they require some secondary treatment process in order to enhance their properties. WFO biodiesel also show quite satisfactory results as per ASTM standards and can be used as a diesel substitute.
The overall average flash point value of the Ethiopian Jatropha population biodiesel was 110 o C and ranged from 27-170 o C. The minimum flash point of biodiesel is 101 o C according to EN 14214 and 120 o C according to US ASTM D6751. Majority of the samples demonstrated higher values of flash point within the range of US ASTM and European standards indicating these biodiesels are non-inflamable and safer for handling. Higher values indicate materials that are less likely to ignite accidentally. On the other hand, few samples demonstrated a flash point value of lower than the two standard values, which is happened due to the presence of residual methanol, implying that improper washing of biodiesel results risk of fire even below room temperature. Is a measure of the lowest temperature at which application of the flame causes the vapor above the sample to ignite, i.e., it is a measure of the tendency of a sample to form a flammable mixture with air (Van Gerpen et al., 2004). Flash point is used in safety regulations to define “flammable” and “combustible” materials.
This study was conducted to obtain appropriate response time to produce biodiesel from jatropha curcas oil (JCO) by ultrasonic method. In this study, jatropha curcas oil (JCO) was chosen to be converted to biodiesel because this oil does not disturb the food chain and suitable for soil conservation. To produce biodiesel from jatropha curcas oil (JCO), it must go through a two-stage process. The first stage is the esterification process; in this process free fatty acids in jatropha oil is lowered to 0.402% with a ratio of 18:1 methanol to jatropha oil and 1% catalyst sulphuric acid (H2SO4) at temperature of 65⁰C with 20 minutes reaction time. The next stage is transesterification conducted with 6:1, 9;1 and 12:1 molar ratio methanol to jatropha for reaction times of 3, 5 and 7 minutes for 1% catalyst sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at temperature of 65⁰C. The standard physical properties test to determine the biodiesel qualities are flash point, water content, acid value, density and dynamic viscosity. From the test 89% yield biodiesel was obtained with molar ratio methanol to oil 6:1 at 7 minutes reaction time. Ultrasonic process has potential to improve the biodiesel production time. It reduces the processing time from 38 hour to 4 to 5 hours.
S. Savariraj, T. Ganapathy and C. G. Saravanan presented the results of investigation of performance and emissions characteristics of diesel engine using Mahua biodiesel and found that, the blends of varying proportions of Mahua biodiesel and diesel were prepared, analyzed compared with the performance of diesel fuel, and studied using a single cylinder diesel engine. The tests showed decrease in the brake thermal efficiencies of the engine as the amount of Mahua biodiesel in the blend increased. The maximum percentage of reduction in BTE (14.3%) was observed for B- 100 at full load. The exhaust gas temperature with the blends decreased as the proportion of Mahua increases in the blend. The smoke, Co, and No emissions of the engine were increased with the blends at all loads. However, Hc emissions of Mahua biodiesels were less than that of diesel.
varying proportions of Mahua oil are B10, B25, B50, B75, B100 with diesel were prepared analysed and their emission compared with emission of diesel fuel. In same way the blends of Neem oil are B10, B20, B40, B60, B80, B100 with Diesel were prepared analysed and their emission compared with emission of diesel fuel. Finally we compared the emissions analysis of Mahua and Neem oils.
 Z.H. Nazria, M.Z.M., Rodya, Mond Fadzli Bin Abdollah, “Elastohyrodynamics Lubrication for Bio Based Lubricants” Elsevier Procedia Engineering 68 (2013)  M. Shahabuddin, H.H. Masjuki, M.A. Kalam, “Experimental investigation into tribological characteristics of biolubricant formulated from jatropha oil”5th BSME International Conference on Thermal Eng., Proceda Eng. (2013)
Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a perennial treethat belongs to the family Euphorbiaceaenative to Africa, North America and Caribbean regions (Nzikou et al., 2009). It assumed that originating from Caribbean and spread as a valuable hedge plant to Africa and Asia by Portuguese traders (Waghmare and Naik, 2015; Heller, 1996). Now it thrives in many parts of the tropics and sub-tropics in Africa/Asia (Gubitz et al., 1999; Openshaw, 2000; Martinez-Herrera et al., 2006). It can grow almost on any type of soil whether gravelly, sandy or saline and thrives even on the poorest stony soils and crevices. It is a perennial plant which does not require much care and produces well for over 40 years after establishment (Musa et al., 2011). Jatrophahas capability to grow on marginal and it has ability to reclaim problematic lands and restore eroded areas. It is known to aid the plants grown under condition where phosphate is limiting, as has mycorrhizal association (Jones and Miller, 1992).