Im Laufe des vergangenen Jahrzehnts war in der US-amerikanischen Luftverkehrsindustrie ein substanzieller Konsolidierungstrend zu beobachten. Dieser spiegelt sich nicht nur in drei größeren Fusionen wider, sondern auch im Marktaustritt einiger kleinerer Fluggesellschaften wie ATA Airlines oder National Airlines. Als einzige nennenswerte gegenläufige Entwicklung ist der Markteintritt und das Wachstum von JetBlueAirways anzusehen. Im Zeitraum von ihrem ersten Streckeneintritt im Februar 2000 bis zum Ende des Jahres 2009 schaffte es die junge Niedrigpreis-Fluggesellschaft, ein Streckennetz mit 60 Zielen in 21 US- Bundesstaaten aufzubauen und zuletzt (im Jahr 2009) ungefähr 20 Millionen Passagiere zu befördern. Sie ist damit die neuntgrößte Fluggesellschaft in den Vereinigten Staaten. Trotz ihres schnellen Wachstums hat es JetBlue dennoch geschafft, im Laufe ihrer Existenz einen Gewinn von insgesamt rund 201 Million US-Dollar zu erwirtschaften und gehört damit zum kleinen Kreis der insgesamt profitablen Fluggesellschaften.
From a policy perspective, the appearance and growth of JetBlueAirways is a clear sign that competition in the U.S. airline industry is alive and well. Although the recent mega- mergers between Delta Air Lines and Northwest Airlines (2009) and United Airlines and Continental Airlines (2010) will certainly increase concentration in a significant number of routes, the existence and further growth of low-cost carriers such as Southwest Airlines or JetBlueAirways alone will constrain the market power of these mega-airlines and will secure at least a significant fraction of the benefits of deregulation and competition in the U.S. airline industry. Nevertheless, the antitrust authority should be aware of the substantial value of low- cost carriers for competition in the domestic U.S. airline industry. As a consequence, it is crucial to constantly monitor the industry and to foreclose serious attempts of network carriers to reduce or even eliminate competitive pressure. Such an active antitrust policy is especially necessary for both proposed acquisitions of 'maverick' low-cost carriers by network carriers as well as attempts by network carriers to apply instruments out of the tool box of anticompetitive behavior.
However, one issue that JetBlue didn’t emphasize enough on was waiting time for passengers on airplanes. The current statement reads that the maximum time they will let passengers wait is five hours due to unavailable gates or waiting for passengers. A more reasonable time limit needs to be established One solution to the problem would be to park incoming flights near the gate and send a bus out to pick up the passengers. This way they wouldn’t have to wait in the plane until a gate is available or call other airlines and see if they can use there gates if one is available no passenger should wait in a idle airplane for more than a hour. For outgoing flights, the airline should not load the passengers until the weather is clear or air traffic is clear enough to depart (JetBlueAirways, n.d.).
subsided? Timing is only one of the many dimensions of mortification that merits additional study. What if the CEO had declined to make public apologies on the company’s behalf, leaving the responsibility solely to JetBlue spokespersons? What role does the nature of the crisis play in determining whether mortification is an appropriate image restoration strategy? Similar research could be conducted on the use of corrective action. How quickly must a company publicly commit to taking corrective action for the action to be sufficiently compelling to stakeholder groups? To what extent should an organization publicize and market its decisions to take corrective action? Researchers could also delve deeper into how corrective action (e.g., the JetBlueAirways Customer Bill of Rights) is perceived by new hires versus employees who experienced a previous crisis firsthand. Armed with a more
A. If a Passenger holding a Confirmed Reservation presents him or herself for carriage at the appropriate time and place, having complied fully with Carrier's requirements as to reservations and check-in, and if the flight for which the Passenger holds a Confirmed Reservation is oversold and due to oversales, JetBlue is unable to accommodate the Passenger and departs without him or her, the Passenger shall be entitled to the denied boarding compensation described in Section 27B immediately below unless (i) the Passenger responds to Carrier’s request for volunteers and who willingly accepts Carriers’ offer of compensation, in any amount; or (ii) one of the exceptions to eligibility for denied boarding compensation in Section 27D below applies. For the sake of clarity, a Passenger who responds to Carrier’s request for volunteers and who willingly accepts Carrier’s offer of compensation shall not be considered to be involuntarily denied boarding and shall not be entitled to denied boarding compensation.
Managing fuel expenses is the most pressing cost issue for all the airlines. The spike in crude prices over the past five years eroded the operating margins of all carriers and continues to dampen bottom line prospects. The geopolitical environment in the Middle East coupled with the rapidly escalating demand from China and India continues to drive up prices. Refining capacity, while operating slightly below peak levels, will be stretched in the near future to keep up with rising crude input. Simply, the airlines cannot rest their hopes on this being a momentary imbalance in supply and demand, and they must hedge accordingly. JetBlue witnessed at 25% year‐over‐year increase in fourth quarter fuel expenses with the average unit cost coming out to $2.34 per gallon, ten cents higher than management’s forecasts. Going forward in fiscal year 2008, JetBlue has hedged fuel 39% in the first quarter, expecting prices at $2.50 per gallon in the quarter and $2.55 per gallon on the year. Rising fuel prices should affect all airlines fairly symmetrically. While some carriers still enjoy lower fuel expenses due to previous hedging, they will have to purchase new futures contracts at current levels once the existing contracts expire. JetBlue will need to come up with an effective hedging program and try to cut fuel use wherever possible. The company says they have implemented fuel conservation techniques such as single‐engine taxi and rapid deployment of ground power units. Another area in which to improve will be to minimize unnecessary delays, such as gate congestion. Fuel expenses will be a going concern not only for JetBlue but also for the airline industry as a whole.
The perfused airways were intact and therefore remained embedded in the mass of connective tissue and air filled alveoli that normally surround the bronchi in vivo. The surrounding parenchymal tissue effectively prevented changing the solution in contact with the serosal surfaces of the airway epithelium, which in vivo is the extracellular fluid and in the intact preparation could not be readily removed. NaCl Ringer solution is designed to mimic mammalian extracellular fluid. Therefore, we used NaCl Ringer in the bath to establish electrical continuity with the serosal surface of the bronchiolar epithelium during the entire experimental period. The Ringer solution con- tained in (mM): Na + (~155), K + (4.5), Mg 2+ (1.2), Ca 2+
Abstract: This study sought to establish the influence of strategic alliances on performance of Kenya Airways. Specifically, the study sought to determine the influence of marketing and financial alliances on the performance of Kenya Airways. The study adopted a case study research design. The target population of the study was 600 staff of Kenya Airways. The study sample size was 60 respondents. The study was based on primary data which was collected using a questionnaire and an interview guide and secondary data which was obtained from the financial and management reports of Kenya Airways through a document analysis guide. Study data was analyzed through content analysis for the qualitative aspects and descriptive statistics for the quantitative aspects using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) and presented through percentages, frequencies, mean and standard deviation. The study established that Kenya Airways had entered into various marketing and financial alliances aimed at helping it gain quicker access into new markets and broadening its present product line and markets and financing of its capital intensive projects including modernization and expansion of its fleet, product line and markets and meeting of its operational costs. The study concluded that Kenya Airways’ marketing and financial alliances had helped the airline enhance customer experience and satisfaction, increase customer service efficiency and effectiveness, meet its operational costs, gain quicker access into new markets and broaden its present product line and expand and modernize its fleet.
Demographic characteristics of both groups (those who demonstrated anthracosis on their airways, and those without black deposits in their bronchi), are shown in Table 1. Although both groups were referred for diagnostic problems, the following features could characterize those with anthracotic lesions: First, these patients, male or female, were older, mainly middle-aged and elderly, who lived under the care of their offspring. Second, while all the patients without anthracosis happened to be town-dwellers, almost half the males and all females in the anthracotic group came from the country. Third, all female patients with anthracosis were full- time housewives; only 6.6% of them were engaged in additional outdoor jobs while 40% of the control females were in civil service. With the males also, the contrast was significant because those with anthracosis were less educated compared with their counterparts who were mainly white-colored. However, regarding tobacco smoking habits, there was almost no difference between the two groups. Finally, the anthracotic patients were physically smaller and thinner (Table 2) as could be characterized by body mass index (BMI).
The results of the present study show that airway wall remod- eling affects not only peripheral but also central airways in COPD patients. We actually demonstrated an abnormal deposition of ECM proteins such as collagen I and versican in the subepithelial layer as well as an increase in ASM mass in the large airways of COPD patients compared to control smoker subjects, which partly contributes to their airflow obstruction.
Airway inflammation is a major contributing factor in both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and represents an important target for treatment. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) as monotherapy or in combination therapy with long-acting β 2 -agonists or long-acting muscarinic antagonists are used extensively in the treatment of asthma and COPD. The development of ICS for their anti-inflammatory properties progressed through efforts to increase topical potency and minimise systemic potency and through advances in inhaled delivery technology. Budesonide is a potent, non-halogenated ICS that was developed in the early 1970s and is now one of the most widely used lung medicines worldwide. Inhaled bude- sonide’s physiochemical and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties allow it to reach a rapid and high airway efficacy due to its more balanced relationship between water solubility and lipophilicity. When absorbed from the airways and lung tissue, its moderate lipophilicity shortens systemic exposure, and its unique property of intracellular esterification acts like a sustained release mechanism within airway tissues, contributing to its airway selectivity and a low risk of adverse events. There is a large volume of clinical evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of budesonide, both alone and in combination with the fast- and long-acting β 2 -agonist formoterol, as maintenance therapy in patients with asthma and with COPD. The combination of budesonide/formoterol can also be used as an as-needed reliever with anti-inflammatory properties, with or without regular maintenance for asthma, a novel approach that is already approved by some country-specific regulatory authorities and currently recommended in the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines. Budesonide remains one of the most well-established and versatile of the inhaled anti-inflammatory drugs. This narrative review provides a clinical reappraisal of the benefit:risk profile of budesonide in the management of asthma and COPD.
In agreement with the possibility that lymphocytes are eliminated by transepithelial migration  Lommatzsch et al  have demonstrated peak numbers of lympho- cytes in the airway lumen during the resolution phase several hours post allergen challenge in asthmatics. Also dendritic cells may in part be eliminated by exit into the airway lumen. When sampling inhaled allergens dendritic cells must extend processes through the epithelial tight junction barrier while maintaining the tight seal . However, following allergen exposure there is also a marked increase in fully transmigrated dendritic cells in the airway lumen in animals and man [77-79]. The exit into the lumen is not immediate but is evident several hours post challenge in patients with allergic asthma . It is as yet unclear what role these cells may play in the airway lumen. It has been speculated that some lumen dendritic cells may sample allergen and migrate back into the mucosa and to regional lymph nodes and that some may maintain local secondary immune responses for pro- longed times after allergen exposure. Although the possi- bility may not have been discussed previously, even when relatively marked increases in lumen dendritic cells have occurred, it cannot be excluded that exit of mature and immature dendritic cells into the airway lumen in asthma and COPD [79,80] represents a mode of elimination of these cells from the airways.
that is diagnostic of COPD. This led to the concept of small airways representing the “silent zone” of lung disease (the site of early lung damage without recognized airflow obstruction or, necessarily, symptoms), which, in turn, led to the development and validation of new physiological tests aimed at detecting abnormalities in peripheral airways and the associated resistance to airflow. Such tests were developed to explore the concept of “early disease”, and it was argued that they could identify subjects at risk of future development of COPD. Indeed, some studies provided evidence sup- porting this concept, 4 whereas others reported the opposite. 5,6 These results, therefore,
Patients with severe COPD thus have proximal and distal changes in the airways that are sequential or almost simultaneous, but may certainly occur earlier in the proxi- mal airways. The reason why only a few smokers develop COPD is still unknown. However, it can be speculated that the structure of the bronchial tree may be one of many fac- tors that favor the onset of the disease. Simplification of the bronchial tree branching, either congenital or acquired in the postnatal period as a result of an infection in childhood, may facilitate the action of toxic substances from cigarettes, allowing them to reach further down the airways.
Since the aerosol evolves in an ambient fluid (the air), there may be some interactions between them. A common assumption is that the aerosol has no effect on the air, in the context of the airways. Hence, the aerosol may be considered as a thin or a very thin spray. The difference between these two kinds of spray lies in the action of the aerosol on the air. We can assume, as in , that the aerosol is thin, i.e. it does globally act on the air. The numerical context of  mimics O’Rourke’s  and uses the Kiva-3V code . Note that if we assumed that the aerosol was very thin, we would not eventually need a specific equation for the particles, for they would instantaneously get the air velocity. Hence we get a strongly coupled Vlasov-Navier-Stokes system, which is further detailed in Subsectn. 2.1.
Background: Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel.
collectively support the use of IS for inferring lower airway microbial community composition in asthmatic individ- uals, recognizing that IS microbiota may provide an in- complete picture of the bronchial microbiota, and inaccurately bias the microbiota composition to reflect oral taxa enrichment, especially in very mild airway dis- ease, as in our cohort. However, our analyses by multiple approaches consistently found evidence in asthmatic sub- jects of greater similarity in IS and BB bacterial micro- biota compared to non-asthmatic subjects. Further, while the bacterial communities found in the nasal mucosa were distinct from those in the bronchial mucosa, their com- position was associated with markers of systemic and bronchial inflammation clinically relevant to asthma. An- other novel observation we report in this study is that nasal airways are a potential source of distinct bacterial taxa for lower airways in adults, and that this inoculum is richer in atopic asthmatic subjects.
which is thought to occur with respiratory infections as a con- sequence of reduced airway calibre from birth, and which dis- appears as the airways grow and catch up in size. Hence, we speculate that the association between frequent aspirin use in pregnancy and this pattern of wheezing might indicate that aspirin has a detrimental effect on airway growth in utero which is not sustained postnatally. However, our interpret- ation is limited by a lack of information on dosage, and because we are not aware of possible mechanisms to explain such an effect.