While Betty’s fear may seem to have been extreme, it is not so much when one considers that the European Holocaust was occurring when Betty was a young mother to small children. She had never experienced a positive Jewish community; her sole encounters with her Jewishheritage were negative. My grandmother had once said that she did not feel Jewish; there was nothing from this identity that could resonate with her, given her experiences with anti-Semitism. To save her family from persecution, she simply chose to not tell them about a piece of their past, a piece she felt could only ever be detrimental.
The interest in the revival and exhibition of Jewish remnants has crossed the Pyrenees to Spain and Portugal. Several recent papers have been published regarding JHT in these two countries, highlighting certain aspects of the Jewishheritage product 2 . Leite (2007) analyzed the symbols of Jewish remnants engraved in stone in Portugal from an anthropological point of view. Like Gruber (2002), she came to the conclusion that the exhibits are "materializing the absence" of Jews. Flesler and Pérez Melgosa (2008; 2010) are attempting a comprehension of current 'convivencia' (co-existence). In the latter paper they analyze transformed interpretations introduced to a Judeo- Christian play staged in Hervas, Extremadura (one of RED's founding partners) during a three days Jewish festival held in town for more than a decade. Russo and Romagosa (2010) emphasized the potential of the Spanish network of Jewish quarters as a means for local and regional development, while Krakover (2012) pointed out shortcomings related to marketing in the network of Jewish quarters in Serra da Estrela, Portugal. None of these studies investigated the attributes of the Jewish product as they are presented to visitors by the local municipalities. This study intends to fill in this lacuna. Before doing so, the third and last section of the literature review presents literature considering the role of diversity in tourism development.
director of the Atlanta Art Glass Co.; and vice-president of the National Builders' Supply Association. Kriegshaber was born in Louisville, Kentucky, to Prussian immigrants and came to Atlanta in 1889. Having left his civil engineer's position with the Central of Georgia Railway to become a contractor, he was soon president of his own building material supply company. He was a director of the Chamber of Commerce and, in 1914, was part of the committee from the Chamber that spearheaded the new development at Lakewood for the Southeastern Fair. A charter member of the Rotary Club, Kriegshaber also served as director of the local council of the Boy Scouts of America; president of the Jewish Charities and of the Jewish Educational Alliance; and director of the Hebrew Orphan's Home. He was instrumental in establishing the city's first public playgrounds for children and was later vice-president of the Playground Association of America. In 1905 Kriegshaber was one of the organizers of the Standard Club, serving as its first vice-president. Kriegshaber served on the executive committee of the Atlanta Music Festival Association from its founding in 1909. The Atlanta Music Festival led to the establishment of the Atlanta Philharmonic Society, of which he was president until 1934. He advocated, along with Rabbi David Marx, for the creation of the Federation of Jewish Charities in 1906 to combine the activities of the Hebrew Relief Society, Free Kindergarten and Social Settlement, Council of Jewish Women, and the Central Immigration Committee. The Victor H. Kriegshaber House, the home he built in 1900 in the historic Inwood Park area of Atlanta, is now a designated landmark also known as “The Wrecking Bar.”
Generation I, a five-day Holocaust education program for young adults aged 18-26 from the FSU. Participants visit famous Jewish towns of Lithuania, such as Vilna, Ponary, Kaunas, Trakai, and other locations related to Jewish history and the Holocaust. In 2014, nearly 40 young Jewish people from the FSU took part in the program, which is carried out in partnership with the Claims Conference. History on Wheels is a year-long field-based project for young Jewish students and adults interested in in studying the Jewishheritage and Holocaust history of the western countries of the FSU. The project is implemented in the former Pale of Settlement (for example in Belarus and Latvia) over the course of one year. It bears a special educational focus on local context and history, specifically the Holocaust as it related to smaller communities of the respective countries. History on Wheels includes group educational sessions in each location, a seven- day expedition to former “shtetls” (with a focus on preserving the remains of the material culture of the communities), and development of local educational materials on Holocaust studies.
Lo Tishkach was established in 2006 as a joint project of the Conference of European Rabbis and the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany to guarantee the effective and lasting preservation and protection of Jewish cemeteries, Jewish sections of municipal cemeteries and mass graves throughout the European continent, estimated at more than 20,000 in 49 countries. One of the key aims of the project, identified by the Hebrew phrase Lo Tishkach (‘do not forget’), is to establish a comprehensive, publicly-accessible database of Jewish burial grounds in Europe. This is now available on the project’s website (www.lo-tishkach.org) and currently features data on over 9,500 Jewish burial grounds. Data collected will be used to both facilitate research into this fundamental aspect of Europe’s Jewishheritage, and to provide a starting point for local- level actions to protect and preserve Jewish burial grounds throughout Europe.
The use of British Jewry's communal records tends to promote a historiography that is, through their focus, male adult dominated with a focus on the synagogue or narrowly-defined communal politics. The social history material collected by the JewishHeritage Unit and later by the Manchester Jewish Museum enabled much greater inclusivity. For example, women's history and the experience of childhood became accessible through oral testimony and other sources as did otherwise unrecorded elements of the everyday lives of men in relation to work, leisure and politics. Bill Williams' approach, as exemplified by the Manchester Jewish Museum, was to provide the foundation for what has now become two successive generations of British Jewish social historians. It is this work, bridging the gap between social, economic, political and cultural history, that has, for the first time, made the study of British Jewry distinctive and of global historiographical significance. Furthermore, at a non- professional level, it inspired a series of local Jewish studies projects across Britain including in Scotland, Wales, Liverpool and Birmingham. It was perhaps in Birmingham and its Jewish History Research Group, under the skillful direction of Zoe Josephs, that the Manchester example was most successfully translated into a different urban context with a set of subtle publications in a three volume Jewish history of the city. 33 The final volume, a history of Jewish refugees in Birmingham during the
Satlow's insightful, lucid, and often daring account locates each period of Jewish history in its larger immediate context yet linked in complex, unforeseen ways to antecedent Jewish collective identities, sacred texts, and ritual practices. Judicious, erudite, and speaking in his own personal voice, Satlow adroitly describes how the Jewishheritage has repeatedly remolded itself—and what that flexibility signifies today. A book of great value to sophisticated novices and informed academics alike.
contention. The problem confronts the Palestine Solidarity Movement as well. Such a muting of Palestinian voices has many causes – Israel’s growing isolation of Palestinians in the Occupied Territories, fractured Palestinian leadership as a result of their fractured experiences – being subjected to sectarian Jewish rule in Israel, military occupation in the Occupied Territories and exile elsewhere (Said 1986). It is also the result of power imbalance between western solidarity activists and the objects of their solidarity (Goudge 2003; Johnston 2003). Jewish activists aren’t the only ones whose field of activism is less universal than first appears, more involved in combating and possibly unconsciously reproducing local and racial hegemonies than in coalition-building across borders.
All quotations from the Tanakh are from either the Judaica Press Online English Translation with Commentary by Rashi, (JP), or the Jewish Virtual Library online edition, (JVL), unless stated otherwise. It is acknowledged that the Tanakh in this form is a set of documents of the religion of ancient Israel, which were subject to progressive selection, additions, revision or editing and possibly deletions, and redaction throughout the First Epoch. Subsequently, from Roman times, with the rising influence of the Rabbinic Sages in Babylonia and Palestine in the late 1 st cent. BCE the Tanakh morphed smoothly from being the sole authority for teaching the faith into the principal historic documents of Rabbinic Judaism. Then, during the Second Epoch, (explained in section 4, following), in the wake of the destruction of the Temple and the Jewish Commonwealth, midrashic interpretation and exegesis of matters including covenant, and the evolution of Jewish religious law, halakhah, encompassed within the Talmud, complemented plain reading of those ancient documents which have provided the theological and cultural foundation for Jewish narrative and self-understanding. Thus the understanding of covenant within Judaism has been subject to circumstantial internal interpretation during the second and subsequent epochs just as it has been within Christianity and Islam. These matters are noted in parallel in the relevant chapters. 5
Due to the fact that we are located in a historical geoghrapy, there has always been debate as to which without disrupting the cultural texture. In order to provide those who live in a historical environment with the opportunities of contemporary life and to adapt the buildings and places into today’s needs and contemporary lifestyle, an interdisciplinary study is required. Today, unplanned urbanization and excessive increase in the heights of buildings with the recent development zoning rights have negatively affected historical buildings and even made them impossible to be perceived. Due to being d by extremely high constructions, the effects of historical spaces on the silhouette have considerably decreased. Likewise, density has been causing pressure on the extension of narrow streets in l integrity and harmony of historical environment has been fading away since the undesired technological elements got involved. Cumalıkızık Village, however, has been added to UNESCO World Heritage List by the year 2014. Established in Bursa in the of waqf (public endowment) by Ottoman Empire founder Osman Gazi, Cumalıkızık is one of other seven villages that are located between the foots of Uludağ Mountain and valleys. The villages were named Oghuz Turks. Besides having a strong cultural heritage and involving many natural beauties, Cumalıkızık is one of the most significant examples of Ottoman rural civil architecture. It still preserves its presence by carrying the past towards the future with its historical mosques and hamams, plane trees, organic street texture and characteristic houses. Made of rubble stone, wood and adobe, Cumalıkızık Houses are triplex buildings which involve iron-made doorknockers and ses have different colours ranging from white, yellow, red to purple. There are narrow, stony streets with no pavements where corner walls of the streets are beveled suitably for organic settlement. So far these asymmetric walls have changed depending on the stylistic features of different periods. The most prominent architectural style of Turkish Houses, “Exhedras”, which were used as living room and had a great importance on Turkish life, also reflect the characteristic features of these uses. In accordance with these criteria, traditionality must be protected in the architectural designs that will be made in Cumalıkızık in the future. Additionally, these designs should preserve the esponding against changing demands and functions of different periods. This study analyzes recently constructed sample buildings in terms of their accordance
Robert May: Fear. We lived in fear. The Jews in Birmingham had an anti-Semitism in Birmingham. It was rampant. In the medical community—in order to become staff members in some of the hospitals—there was real discrimination. To become—to be eligible to join surgical and medical societies—the Jews were essentially black-balled. There is a whole city in Birmingham where no houses could be sold to Jews. Two years after I came to Birmingham, I was ready to buy a house in Crest Line in Mountain Brook. Two blocks from where I live today. My wife was shown a house. When they found out we were Jewish, we were told the house could only be sold to Anglo-Saxons. So, this was 1955. There was a bomb placed in one of the temples that did not explode. Anti-Semitism in Birmingham was rampant. I knew people in the KKK and did not cross them. I stayed away from them. In 1960—this is 1967 or ’68—I am moving into my present house with my wife, right? This house is located maybe two blocks from where my wife was refused a house because of anti- Semitic laws. I came home one night and there was a huge swastika on my wall and on my window. So, did I feel anti-Semitism in Birmingham? Absolutely.
Strong system security: Keeping customer systems safe and secure is of prime importance to us. Heritage Cirqa hosted servers are located in a highly secured datacentre here in the UK. With heavily restricted physical access, strong firewall protection, IP address filtering and tight access policies, we offer a very high level of protection. We use Windows Server 2012R2 (Server Core Edition) for extra security, efficiency and with regular OS updates and active Virus Protection for complete peace of mind.
Gustav Pick, the son of a Jewish merchant, was born in Rechnitz on December 20, 1832. In 1845, his family moved to Vienna, and 40 years later he composed the famous ‘Fiakerlied’ (Coach- man‘s Song). Pick donated a sum of money for the renovation of the local monastery. He died in Vienna on April 29, 1921. Joachim Heitler was the principal of the Jewish school from 1870 to 1917. He wrote the folktale ‘Vom öden Schloss’ (‘The Castle Ruin’) and worked as a journalist for the German-langu- age ‘Volksblatt’, which was published in Szombathely. He was also on the board of directors of the Sparkasse, a bank founded in Rechnitz in 1873.
Shlomo Sand’s The Invention of the Jewish People, which appeared in Hebrew as Matai ve’ekh humtza ha’am hayehudi? [When and How Was the Jewish People Invented?] (1) elicited a thunderous response that has yet to abate. Beginning with an interesting and very personal introduction, Sand proceeds to engage, chronologically, the thought of Jews about their own character as a ‘people,’ ‘nation,’ and occasionally, ‘race’ (sic), largely by examining the published writings of figures known to scholars in Jewish Studies, but less familiar to historians generally – including Josephus, Isaak Markus Jost, Heinrich Graetz, Simon Dubnow, Yitzhak Baer, Ben-Zion Dinur, Hans Kohn, and Salo Baron. Sand’s preface to the English language edition states that ‘the disparity between what my research suggested about the history of the Jewish people and the way that history is commonly understood – not only within Israel but in the larger world – shocked me as it shocked my [Hebrew] readers’ (p. xi). Sand insinuates that this ‘shock’ accounts for the excitement surrounding the book – which is a more reasonable assessment regarding its reception in Israel than in the English-speaking world.
1. Ask the students if they know the Passover story that we read each year in the Haggadah. Guide them through a simple retelling or invite the students to tell the story. (A long, long time ago, the Israelite people—the name the Jewish people were called back then—were living in Egypt and the king, who was called Pharaoh, made them slaves. After hundreds of years of suffering in slavery, God sent Moses and his brother Aaron to tell the Pharaoh to let the Israelite slaves go free so they could worship God. When Pharaoh didn’t listen, God sent ten plagues that made life miserable for the Egyptians, and finally Pharaoh let the Israelites leave Egypt. They fled across the Sea of Reeds (sometimes called the Red Sea), where they thanked God for their freedom.)
II. The significance of a birthday. The Talmud Yerushalmi (Rosh Hashana 3:8) records that when Amalek came to do battle with the Jewish people, they were careful to have those whose birthday it was, fight on the front lines. The commentator Korban Edah explains that on one’s birthday, he has a special mazal that may be helpful in an otherwise risky situation. The Chida (Chomas Onach Iyov chapter 3) points out that this is not merely a belief of the pagan nations, but is actually firmly rooted in kabbalistic sources. The Chida writes that on one’s birthday his mazal is particularly strong. Based on this idea, the great Sephardic Chacham, Rabbi Chaim Paladgi writes that one should give extra tzedakah on his birthday because the increased mazal of the day will allow a person’s actions to have a greater impact on his overall personality and character (Tzedakah L’chaim). The Arvei Nachal (Parshas Shemini) writes that when a person focuses his efforts on a particular positive character trait on his birthday, Hashem will supply extra help to continue along that path (cited by Sefer Minhag Yisrael Torah page 264).
aboriginal population, long time in the margins of Taiwan society with a frowned-upon lifestyle, found new appreciation. With Taiwan’s heritage now sought in multiculturalism, aboriginal villages have become tourist destinations. Driving into an aboriginal village, this is easily recognised by the stylistically painted walls of the mountain roads and invitations to share their folklore. At the centre of government in Taipei, streets have now been renamed after aboriginal tribes in recognition of Taiwan’s precolonial roots. The government buildings along these streets are homages to the Japanese colonial period, in particular the Presidential Office. Renaming streets is a continuum in Taiwan. The street map of Taipei reads as the map of China, all major cities are represented, a legacy of the martial law period (Kuo 2000, 28). To emphasise the
Knowledge of kashrut (the Jewish dietary laws) here introduces extra critical commentary on the scene. According to the laws of kashrut, seafood is only kosher if it has fins and scales. Consequently, all shellfish (indeed anything with a shell) is forbidden. The symbolic or allegorical interpretation of the kashrut laws has it that fins and scales on a fish are signs of endurance and self-control; the lack of them can be construed to mean wild, impetuous abandon. Shells here stand as a code for wantonness and excess. Thus the metaphor of ‘snails and oysters’ hints at Crassus’ warped sexuality, licentiousness, and narcissistic, libertine all- consuming but entirely self-directed passions (Tatum 132-3). Crassus’ turpitude, as expressed through his sybaritic and treyf (explicitly non-kosher) tastes indicates the feelings of Jewish repugnance towards Crassus and the Romans.
Once a Jewish person dies, there are many rituals that must be taken care of in order to give the deceased the respect he or she deserves. When a person dies, someone close to the deceased, whether it be a relative or close friend, must close the eyes and mouth of the deceased and pull a sheet over his or her head. All of the mirrors in the house should be covered to avoid personal vanity in times of tragedy and also to lessen the over-concern that many place on appearance. Another reason for the mirrors to be covered is to take emphasis away from the beauty of a person’s flesh at a time when another person’s body has begun the process of decay in the same house. (Habenstein, 194; Lamm, 4)