Several studies have analyzed the JCQ dimensional structure. However, different evaluation methods and the instrument different versions have hampered the compa- rability of results drawn from these studies. The JCQ dimensional structure was mainly described by means of exploratory techniques (Kawakami et al., 1995; Cheng et al., 2003; Gimeno et al., 2004; Li et al., 2004; Edimansyah et al., 2006; Eum et al., 2006; Araújo & Karasek, 2008; Choobineh et al., 2011; Gomez-Ortiz & Moreno, 2009; Mase et al., 2012; Nehzat et al., 2014). The confirmatory factorial analysis can improve the con- struct measurement theory of a research instrument and deepen the analysis when it considers the theoretical framework that presupposes the measure that the instrument will make. According to this technique, the measurement theory previously tested by an exploratory method is used for specifying the number of factors and items that will compose the factorial model (Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, & Tatham, 2006). Some studies have already applied this technique to JCQ and have proposed structural changes in this instrument (Niedhammer, 2002; Sale & Kerr, 2002; Santavirta, 2003; Niedhammer et al., 2006; Choi et al., 2008; Phakthongsuk & Apakupakul, 2008; Hökerberg et al., 2010; Griep et al., 2011; Hökerberg et al., 2014). This study aimed to assess the dimensional structure of the JobContent Questionnaire’s (JCQ) main scales in two different work contexts in Brazil.
This cross sectional study investigated the test –retest reliability of the Malay Version JobContentQuestionnaire (M- JCQ) among electricity linemen. The M-JCQquestionnaire was administered to 10 electricity linemen working in private sub-contract company. The data were collected at two occasions with one week interval of time between each sessions. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland Altman plot were used to analyze the reliability of the M-JCQ. The ICC for the ‘psychological demand’, ‘decision latitude’, ‘work related social support’ and ‘job insecurity’ scale were 0.96, 0.52, 0.99 and 0.55 respectively. The Bland Altman plot indicated that the tests and retest score for all the four scales had an acceptable agreement. These findings indicated that the M- JCQ is reliable and consistent for assessing work related psychosocial risk factors among electricity linemen.
A total of 75 453 women responded to a single mailing of the 1992 questionnaire (69% response) that included the Karasek JobContentQuestionnaire. Of these, 10 824 women were premenopausal and a further 23 309 women did not provide responses to the Karasek JobContentQuestionnaire as they were no longer in paid employment. We excluded from the analyses all women who had reported breast cancer or other cancer on any questionnaire up to 1992 (n = 3137). A further 11 247 women were excluded because of missing information on key covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), age at men- arche, and educational attainment. The final study population comprised 26 936 employed women who provided complete information on all covariates of interest. These women were followed as part of the entire Nurses’ Health Study cohort through the 1994 questionnaire. For non-respondents to the 1994 questionnaire, we attempted telephone contacts and identified deaths through next-of-kin as well as searches of the National Death Index.
The efficiency of organizations thus starts to be seen as the result of the interdependency of technical and human subsystems in the context of the organization. This theoretical perspective regards companies as a social system, with informal structures of groups, yet still not considering the interactions between organizations and the society, regarding organizations as closed systems, similar to what happened with classic approaches. This change in the conception of the organization has consequences in the level of the job function. The job is no longer perceived from a strictly individual, mechanized, automated, specialized and standardized perspective. Aspects such as motivation, leadership, satisfaction or acknowledgment start to be valued in the job. Thus, the organization gains a new entity, the informal structure of groups, in which individuals interact in the design and performance of their jobs.
Based on these concepts, we reconsider our approach and construct a dose-response curve for understanding social issues, such as the perception of TI among hospital workers. In this study, “dose” represents the external characteristics, jobcontent, work environment, organizational support, and personal characteristics. “Response” represents the risk of TI. In other words, the most significant factor for assessing the risk model of the perception of TI is investigated. Hence, the two objectives of this study are (i) to conduct a cross-sectional study via a survey questionnaire and consider the key predictors of EL, JS, IM, and OCB to explain the risk of TI, and (ii) to assess the risk model of the perception of TI based on the dose- response concept.
The study aims to identify the relationship between job stress levels with job satisfaction levels among teachers in Sek. Men. Kebangsaan Sri Muar, Johor. In specifically, this study aims to identify the level of job stress and job satisfaction. A total of 56 respondents were randomly selected among the teachers. This study was carried out using a quantitative approach. Data collected through questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (Statistical Package for Social Science) version 20.0 to obtain the results in the form of frequency, percentage, mean, and Pearson correlation. A pilot study was conducted among 30 teachers to identify the items. For the pilot study, Cronbach Alpha value of stress is 0.859 and Cronbach Alpha value for job satisfaction is 0.867 overall. Actual findings based on 56 teachers show medium levels of job stress and high levels of job satisfaction. Pearson correlation analysis test result is r = - 0.355 which indicates there is negative relationship which is significant between job stress with job satisfaction among teachers in the Sek. Men. Kebangsaan Sri Muar, Johor. Some of the proposed action and further study also recommended.
Unlike generic instruments, the Amblyopia and Strabismus Questionnaire (ASQE) was the first patient- derived and condition-specific questionnaire for strabismus and/or amblyopia to be shown to be a valid and reliable instrument in several studies [14–17]. The original Dutch-language version , based on the experience of amblyopia and strabismus patients in the Netherlands, demonstrated high internal consistency with a Cronbach’s alpha ranging from 0.76 to 0.93 for each domain, dis- criminating between healthy controls from the Waterland patient study group. Van de Graaf et al.  used the ASQE to evaluate the quality of life in patients who were treated by occlusion therapy, showing that visual acuity was significantly correlated with all the domains in a cohort of 174 patients. In addition, the high level of variance in ASQE scores by the six factors found by the PCA confirmed the a priori hypothesized dimensions of this HRQOL instrument . The English language version of the ASQE showed good psychometric proper- ties and had a high correlation with the domains of the disability questionnaire including; the impact of the visual problems on specific health issues, daily functioning, social interaction, concerns about the future, self-image and job-related difficulties . Bujak et al.  used the ASQE to test the quality of life for strabismus patients and found their scores and daily function improved after monoocular correction, demonstrating good dis- criminative validity. In summary, the ASQE not only potentially captures the impact of visual and appearance problems on physical, psychological and social func- tioning, but also provides an evidence-based basis for developing personalized medical and nursing care for these patients.
Continuous exposure to job stressors over a long period may also cause fire-fighters to experience anxiety reactions. They may experience physical features of anxiety, such as trembling or a shaking of hands or limbs, heavy perspiration, a shortness of breath or shallow breathing, a pounding or racing heart, dizziness, weakness or numbness, stiffness in the neck or back, an upset stomach or nausea, diarrhoea, and a feeling of irritability or of being on edge (Davison et al., 2004). Behavioural features of anxiety may include avoidance behaviour, clinging behaviour, dependent behaviour and agitated behaviour. Cognitive features of anxiety may include worrying about something and a nagging sense of dread or apprehension about the future. The spillover effect (job and family conflict) manifests when the marriage partners of fire-fighters feel that they are unable to cope with these anxieties and that they do not know how to help (Nevid et al., 2005).
The Evaluation of Daily Activity Questionnaire (EDAQ) was developed in Sweden to meet occupational therapists’ needs of for a reliable, valid and detailed PROM (Nordenskiold et al 1996, 1998). The occupational therapist introduces the EDAQ to the client, who then completes it at home, allowing time to reflect on any difficulties. In Sweden, it is used in clinical practice in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in other musculoskeletal conditions (MSCs). However, it was developed initially with women with RA and psychometric testing was limited to RA only. It has been used in research to evaluate occupational therapy in RA (Nordenskiold et al 1998) and in epidemiological studies of the impact on activity ability of: early RA (Thyberg et al 2004, 2005); systemic sclerosis (Sandqvist et al 2004); and hand-arm vibration syndrome (Cederlund et al 2001, 2007).
iii) According to the data analysis, the younger junior employees tended to have lower degrees of job satisfactions and senses of well-being. The major causes could be the junior employees’ lack of practical experiences and colleague relationship. Therefore, for the enhancement of practical experiences, it is suggested to invite the senior staff for more skill pass-on and experience sharing with the junior staff for the cultivation of professional abilities; however it may take relatively longer period of time due to the occupational features. It is hoped that the junior employees may gain higher degree of job satisfaction with more professional job skills; as well as more senses of well-being with higher self-cognition and colleague interactions.
To assess the factors influencing job satisfaction, the primary data collection method was used in the form of a consumer survey that was designed and distributed to 92 employees in different age groups and of different education levels working at different organization in three countries. The chosen participants worked in companies that use an ERP system. The survey was printed in the English language. Prior to distribution, the questionnaire was pre- tested on four individuals working in different sectors, to ensure consistency, clarity, and relevance to the case. Minor changes requested by the test group relating to question content, wording, or sequence were incorporated into the questionnaire before the final copy was produced. The instrument was then tested to determine how long it would take a respondent to complete the form. It was found that it would take from 5 to 8 minutes.
Emery et al. compared their family history screen- ing questionnaire with a 3-generation pedigree that was prepared by a genetic counsellor. They found that the questionnaire shows good performance when screen- ing primary care patients (among 526 patients, aged 20 to 50 years, in 6 general practices in Perth, western Aus- tralia) for increased disease risk due to family history . Walter et al. performed a two-stage diagnostic vali- dation study in 10 general practices in eastern England (stage 1: 618 patients; stage 2: 529 patients) comparable to Emery et al. although using a shorter questionnaire, and found comparable results regarding diagnostic accu- racy of the questionnaire . Emery et al. mentioned that the questions were tested in a pilot study but did not provide further details. Walter et al. mentioned that face validation was tested using a panel of lay members. Our study validated the translated Dutch family history ques- tionnaire for face and content validity, the first step in the implementation of a Dutch family history question- naire. Although the questionnaire is now validated for the Netherlands, the method used could be extrapolated to other medical systems internationally to enable wider implementation.
The features of the present subjects according to NIOSH generic job stress questionnaire, when compared with a previous study conducted among Japanese workers, was that they had a lower quantitative workload, lower job control, and slightly higher social support from colleagues and family 19) . However, it is unclear whether these features were characterized by night work or garbage work, because scores in the NIOSH generic job stress questionnaire vary according to the type of job. According to the GHQ, there is no significant difference from other Iranian employees reported formerly in the rate of psychological disorder among the present subjects 20 .
All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verba- tim for the purpose of qualitative analysis. Written inter- view transcripts were then entered into a qualitative software package (Atlas.Ti) (ATLAS.ti Scientific Soft- ware Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany) which was used to facilitate analysis of interview transcripts. Inter- view transcripts were analysed using a thematic ap- proach involving organising quotes into domains and sub-domains as common themes emerged in the data . Content and thematic analysis methods were used to present count and verbatim examples of caregiver re- sponses during the cognitive debriefing interviews . This analysis focused specifically on whether the con- cepts and items comprising the CBQ-HF were relevant, appropriate and understood by caregivers in the way intended by the developers .
Lastly, the findings indicate that further refinement of the final questionnaire is required. In general, the amount of items measuring most of the domains could be increased to at least three items for each domain (at least three items with a loading above .80 will give a reliable component ). With regard to the specific do- mains, the final items measuring the domain Environ- mental context and resources are framed entirely in terms of the socio-political context, while there may be additional environmental and resources influences that remain unmeasured. The initial version of the question- naire included items related to characteristics of the innovation, organization, socio-political context, and innovation strategies [16-20], however, only the items assessing the socio-political context were judged to dis- criminately assess this domain. Lack of discriminant content validity of items measuring characteristics of the innovation, organization, and innovation strategies might be due to our method of developing a generic question- naire based on factors related to a specific implementation behavior (i.e., the implementation of PA interventions). Moreover, the domain Environmental context and re- sources is arguably among the least well conceptualized domains of the TDF, which may partly explain challenges that judges faced in allocating items to this domain. Nevertheless, potential users of the final questionnaire may wish to incorporate additional more contextually sen- sitive items focusing on the environment and resources whilst recognizing that their discriminant content validity
The VBSQ stability determined by the reliability coef- ficient of the test-retest varied and indicated that some items had to be removed or reformulated. Overall, the stability in the questionnaire was acceptable as 71% of the items fulfilled the acceptance criterion one and 68% criterion two, and 82% fulfilled either of the criteria. However, answers in questionnaires can be affected by memory interference and by changes in knowledge and behavior over time, which influence the stability (test- retest) of the measure. The recommended interval between test and retest is 2 days to 2 weeks . We used an interval of 3-4 weeks so higher stability could have been reached with shorter interval. It is to note that the stability of the items were high considering that we surveyed how VBS was actually performed and not knowledge of how it should be performed according to guidelines. A weakness of using the K for stability assessment is that it takes no account to the degree of disagreement . Thus, complementing with percen- tage agreement in the persons answer when K is low and rs high is an aid in the stability acceptance decision. For example, in item 12a (low K, high rs and high per- centage) and for 15a with (low K, low rs and high per- centage) actually only two respondents changed their answers. Items 7c, 18e, 18f will be removed from future VBSQ surveys because of lack of stability. Item 10a will
searching or retrieval of information . Beile and Adam’s investigation is one comprehensive study that looked at the breadth of academic library job announcements published in four journals in the year of 1996 and then analyzed the reported job vacancy across a number of dimensions to identify the changes made in job market for a period of 8 years till 1996 . An analysis of the US Online Library and Information Science Recruitment database showed that: The proportion of comprehensive posts without specific job description is 8%, however, the proportion of reference and user guidance positions together account for 45%. It was found that American libraries are highly targeted in recruiting talents through specifying the concrete requirements in job vacancy advertisements . In 2013, Ocholla and Shongwe made a thorough survey of Library and Information Science Job Market in the Republic of South Africa using content analysis method as tool of recent. The data was collected from 2009 - 2012 longitudinal newspaper scanning of LIS job vacancies advertisements in whole country. The results showed that LIS job market of South Africa grew rapidly from the year of 2009 to 2011, however which suddenly declined in 2012; Public sectors are the main sections to enroll LIS graduates; It is important for LIS professionals to master Information Technology (IT) competencies which has already become an important skill in new era . Sinha and Pandey carried out a study to analyze advertisements collected from the printed weekly issues of Employment News and the LIS Link (a LIS Job Portal) which reflect the different aspects of LIS professions, the period of advertisements are from January 2011 to December 2011. Finally some suggestions were
From the table 16, it can interpreted that, the correlation is a statistical tool that establishes the relation between two different variables and explains how they are related that is either positive or negatively related this further helps in the analysis of the variables. The correlation between the overall rating with various categories and with individual statement variables establishes the relation between the overall rating and the other variable and indicates whether there exists a positive relation between them or negative relation, and among the categories ‘faculty, methods and facilities` is more positively related with the overall rating followed by ‘contribution for career development ’,’training need identification and job relevance’. With regard to the individual statement variables, the overall rating is more positively related with faculty provided, followed by audio and visual presentations, contribution for career development, training programme relevance for job and least related with the acquired skills and knowledge and with the performance improvement.
To examine the relationship between experience with destructive leadership and satisfaction, a series of simple linear regressions were performed that indicated destruc- tive leadership was significantly correlated with all the satisfaction variables. A linear regression was also per- formed using the results of the Petty Tyranny in Organi- zations Scale as the independent variable and the Satis- faction Scale as the dependent variable. The results dis- played in Table 3 indicate that experience with destruc- tive leadership was a significant predictor of dissatisfac- tion. Table 4 indicates that the leadership style experi- enced remained a significant predictor of satisfaction even after component status (active service) and pay grade were added to the model. Collinearity diagnostics confirmed that fit of the model was not affected by multi- collinearity. Based on these findings, we can state that there is sufficient evidence to suggest that an increased level of contact with negative leadership behaviors will negatively affect middle level workers’ job satisfaction (hypothesis 1). We then conducted a logistic regression that examined the relationship between several inde- pendent variables (active status, pay grade, and destruct- tive leadership) and inclination to remain in the job as the dependent variable (Table 5). This analysis indicates that there is insufficient evidence to accept hypothesis 2. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that an in- creased level of contact with negative leadership behave- iors will negatively affect the inclination of middle level employees to remain in the job.