DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.612029 347 Open Journal of Social Sciences society and science and technology, the renewal of linguistic theories and the advancement of interdisciplinary studies, the scope of appliedlinguistics re- search has been expanding, and its definition has been extended from simple language teaching to all aspects of daily life related to language use. However, language teaching is still the most important research focus and core of appliedlinguistics, and also the long-term development direction of linguistics. Al- though the sample size involved in this study is relatively small. The experiment chooses the key classes, but it does not completely exclude the factors of stu- dents’ willingness to learn. Therefore, there are some limitations in the study.
The descriptive design of the study determined the nature of data and the nature of data collection. Initially, a list of single-authored research articles (RAs) was made. So co-authored research articles were excluded. The data were drawn from a number of leading English journals: AppliedLinguistics, Language Testing Journal, International Journal of AppliedLinguistics, Language Learning, Language Testing, System, and English for Specific Purposes, The Modern LanguageJournal, Linguistics and Education, and Text . The selected journal articles have been published in the field of appliedlinguistics from 1998 to 2006. Maximum effort was made to include only the articles that had similar designs and covered similar areas of research. The authors’ affiliation was also used as a guide for selection of the articles for the study.
established international and 59 from local English journals in the field of appliedlinguistics. That is, each subdiscipline was represented by 40 RA introductions, 20 introductions from local and 20 from international journals, except for ESP with 39 papers. Each subdiscipline was represented by an international journal, namely English for Specific Purposes, English Language Teaching (ELT), and Discourse Studies. On the national basis these subdisciplines were represented by local journals of Iranian Journal of AppliedLinguistics (IJAL), Roshd FLTJ, Teaching English Language and Literature Society of Iran (TELLSI), Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS), Journal of Faculty of Letters and Humanities of Shahid Chamran University, Journal of Humanities of AL-Zahra university, and Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities of Shiraz University. The selection of local journals was motivated by their availability, that they are outlets for scholarly publication, and that they are considered as established journals by local EFL and ESL experts in the field. Since these local peer-reviewed journals are not defined by subdisciplinary characteristics, they accept articles related to the broad area of appliedlinguistics. Therefore, the content of these journals was closely examined to select the articles which represented the above mentioned subdisciplines. Despite great care exercised in defining the subdisciplines, still choosing a paper in the ESP journal as an ESP paper was a real conundrum. In order to minimize the risk of putting papers in the wrong category, two other researchers were also requested to judge the papers from about 360 international paper titles in ESP and DA and about 300 titles in national journals. The criterion was full agreement by the three raters on each paper.
With respect to Discourse studies in educational contexts this issue proposes a reflective and sociolinguistic framework where it is necessary to stimulate the emergence and articulation of new research ideas involved with social value where discourses are understood from an ideological and context-sensitive perspective. In that sense, Fandiño invites us “to construct a coherent discourse that allows developing teaching models and learning experiences within the theoretical framework of the postmethod condition, world Englishes, and critical multiculturalism”. Jing reviews the inter- twined relationship between theme and rheme trying to unveil how a text unfolds. This is important to understand how language learners make sense, “locate, orient, and develop the messages in their English output”. Gerding, Fuentes, Gómez and Kotz also contribute to the understanding of how anglicisms become part of written Spanish in the media and the implications this may have for the vitality of Spanish and for second language teaching. This line of argument is also addressed by Moya who enquires the situation of linguistic varieties where languages are in contact impacting educational ideologies and policies.
59 It is also necessary to pay attention to the methodology preferences of the target journal. Historically, second language acquisition and appliedlinguisticsresearch have generally followed the empiricist research paradigm; thus, quantitative research always had a higher chance to be accepted by language journals than did the qualitative research (Davis, 1995). Even at present, despite the recent increase in interest in qualitative research, the proportion of qualitative studies is still low in most second language and linguistics journals (Navidinia, 2010). Aside from possible prejudice and bias against the legitimacy of qualitative research in general, the way qualitative research is written and reported was also claimed to be related with the higher rejection rate of qualitative research (Stenius, Makela, Miovsky, & Gabrhelik, 2008). Although there is a conventional standard format to follow in quantitative research-reporting, qualitative research is conducted and reported in various non-standard forms putting special demands on the editor and the reviewers while evaluating it (Stenius et al., 2008). Qualitative research, thus, needs higher skills in writing in terms of the quality of argumentation, objectivity, and the clarity of language. Therefore, before sending a manuscript to a journal, it should be checked whether the target journal publishes articles with similar methodologies. For example, sending an ethnographic research study about adult literacy experiences in a specific social context to Modern LanguageJournal or Studies in Second Language Acquisition would probably result in rejection despite the quality of research. Instead, TESOL Quarterly or Written Communication would be better options as they are more welcoming to qualitative research.
Such changes in perception may be attributed to a series of converging factors in the CLAC. The participants had the chance to contrast their then and now experiences in language assessment, so bringing their evolving teacher cognition to the forefront, through prompts as simple as those in the samples above, may have triggered deep reflections. Additionally, as it shall be explained later, the CLAC used problem-based learning as a core methodology to enable students could see language assessment in action through problems posed by the course instructor. In other words, they did not just see the theory of language assessment from an abstract perspective. Further, the CLAC included discussions that usually led to reflections that viewed language assessment as an intricate practice in language education. In Arias et al. (2012), the in-service teachers were engaged in critical tasks that helped them re-conceptualise language assessment and see it more critically. Just like our study, Arias et al.’s study also engaged in-service teachers in careful examination of what language assessment implies and how to design thorough assessments. In Restrepo and Jaramillo (2017), the pre-service teachers, through learning journals, showed intricate views of language assessment. The collective converging findings in these studies show that direct training in and reflection on language assessment leads to heightened awareness of what language assessment is for both pre- and in-service teachers’ professional development.
This poor access to the complete original instruments contributed to a general paucity of replication research, observed by many (e.g. Porte, 2013), and made systematic reviews and meta-analyses difficult, a problem noted in numerous reviews (e.g. Norris & Ortega, 2000 & 2006). It also impeded the scrutiny of research quality, and perhaps most importantly, led to considerable and unnecessary duplication of effort and resources when developing research tools, retarding the pace of enquiry and increasing its cost. By making more data elicitation tools transparent and accessible, IRIS brings far-reaching and permanent benefits to the field of L2 research, ensuring greater visibility of the primary data collection tools, enhancing the replicability of research agendas, thus improving the quality and generalisability of meta- analyses and systematic reviews. IRIS provides more complete information to the consumer of research, facilitating the scrutiny of data collection so that researchers can more easily evaluate the face and construct validity, reliability and generalisability of instruments used. Secondary benefits include increasing the visibility of researchers' work, establishing a 'collective memory' of research methods, enabling junior researchers to contribute to established agendas, providing established researchers with a source to direct requests for their instruments, and increasing awareness about format standardisation.
conceptualise and enact effective language use tasks in school FL classrooms? Jonathan Newton Teaching and learning through integrated task cycles in the Korean EFL university classroom Robin Reid Adopting theatre- based tasks in the Japanese EFL high school classroom Bao Trang Thi Nguyen
As the journal webpage states, “Biolinguistics is a peer-reviewed journal exploring theoretical linguistics that takes the biological foundations of human language seriously” (see http://www.biolinguistics.eu for full text). The high standing of our editorial board members in their respective fields — leading scholars in theoretical linguistics, language acquisition, language change, theoretical biology, genetics, philosophy of mind, and cognitive psychology — helps to ensure a fair and thorough review process. The journal Biolinguistics has its own ISSN (1450- 3417, as imprinted on every contribution’s first page footer as well as back and front cover) and is currently being abstracted and indexed for the usual places. Access to the journal is free, but online user registration is necessary. The full description of the aims, goals, and scope of the journal Biolinguistics can be obtained from the website. Subscribers will also receive regular updates and information, and in the near future, interactive tools will be integrated, for which Epstein & Seely’s (this volume) multimedia tutorial might just be one example. We encourage submission of products and ideas.
In the contemporary workplace, communication is not only concerned with language-in-use but embraces a range of associated social issues. This course introduces to participants key aspects of workplace communication and organizational interactions that are pertinent to applied linguists, such as rapport management, identities, roles, and interactional strategies. These aspects will be contextualized within a range of professional contexts and relevant discourse data will be provided for analysis with reference to frameworks such as communities of practice, critical discourse analysis and interactional sociolinguistics.
The main topic of this chapter is cross-cultural differences and their reflections on business life. These differences are introduced with a reading passage which contains a research about cultural values and their affects in the workplace. Before reading the passage learners have two questions in “starting point” section. These are warm up questions used at the beginning to familiarise learners to the main topic “culture”. Afterwards the “culture” is introduced in a reading passage which gives general information about cultural affects in the workplace. According to the Hutchinson and Water’s (1987: 108- 109) model created for material analysis has four components. These are “input, content focus, language focus and task”. As an input this chapter starts with a reading passage in order to introduce the topic and gives opportunity to learners for combining their own knowledge with the information in the passage by question 3:
The process of interpreting discourse is discussed in Chapter 4 drawing on Goffman’s concept of frame. The idea of frame is defined as individuals’ experiences. By virtue of ‘frame mismatch’ and ‘frame shift’, the authors argue that different participants have different perceptions based on the constitution of frames. It is asserted that frame and schema(ta) are somewhat the same while their differences lie in the fact that the former “seems more to be a term within the province of anthropology and sociology”, while the latter “is more drawn upon in artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology” (p. 88). The authors refer to analytic constructs named as stripes as ‘happenings’ that “can tell us something about how participants orient to what they and others are saying and/or doing” (p. 94). The concept of footing, or what Levinson (1988) argues as ‘participant role’, is discussed as the changing of speakers’ alignment that leads to different types of roles. The relation between face management and politeness theory is also discussed. The chapter ends with a focus on methodological aspects. The authors hold that the exploration of discourse should be done through ethnomethodology. Moreover, challenges and duties of ethnographers as well as features of “ethnographic approaches to research” (p. 111) and “linguistic ethnography” (p. 115) are discussed. It is also stated that ‘reflexivity’ and ‘thick participation’ are two major characteristics of ethnographers. The idea of ‘multiple voices’ is advocated by both reflexivity and thick participation.
Evidences indicate that tumorigenesis is a multistep process which involves the progressive transformation of normal cells to highly malignant derivatives. The economic impact of cancer is significant and is increasing. India is likely to have over 17.3 lakh new cases of cancer and over 8.8 lakh deaths due to the disease by 2020 with cancers of breast, lung and cervix topping the list. Data by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in 2016 revealed that only 12.5 per cent of patients come for treatment in early stages of the disease. Among females, breast cancer topped the list and among males mouth cancer, the study said. The northeast reported the highest number of cancer cases in both males and females. Aizawl district in Mizoram reported the highest number of cases among males while Papumpare district in Arunachal Pradesh recorded the highest number among females.
Natural Language processing is nothing but the subpart of AI, computational linguistics which is interaction between computer and human languages. It includes spoken words, emotions, and sentiments of human. Natural Language Processing is a process of language that is used by humans .Big data is the concept of data that is large in size, hard to handle, hard to analyse, and it has different types like structured, unstructured, semi structured data. Now, when we combine this both, we can process a language with help of big data concept. Machine can read, write, speak this is concept of NLP. So by processing natural language on machine and by analysing natural language data, decision making process can be done easily. And we can use it in politics, healthcare, finance, marketing ,etc.IN past, NLP were based on machine learning algorithms that is used for natural language processing .part-of-speech tagging POS has used for NLP, and increased by time , research has focused on natural language processing for decision making process can be done easily by help of NLP analytics.
From these data, I found that the six student teachers had brought good and bad remembrances from their elementary and secondary public schooling, where they had had the best and the worst of teachers. From these teachers they might have constructed part of the image of a good teacher they had by the time of the research, namely: a fair, delicate person who has good content knowledge, who is worried about students’ individualities and necessities, and who stimulates criticism and talents. The image they had of the English teachers they had studied with in public and private schools (Two of the student-teachers had spent a few years in private institutions.) was very negative. They had had no proficiency in the foreign language, their classes were very dull and they taught only grammar and translation. This opinion was also stated in the belief’s inventory they answered, in which they all disagreed with the following statement: English can be learned in a public school and English can be learned in private elementary and secondary schools.
This study explored the patterns of evaluative language in appliedlinguistics blurbs to see how attitude is reflected in these advertising texts. Following a qualitative approach, the study was informed by pragmatic and discourse- semantic perspectives in exploring the overall structuring of blurbs. Findings indicated that blurbs are frequently charged with appreciation as a category of attitude in the appraisal framework. Graduation as another element in the appraisal framework was also found to be employed both as intensification and quantification. With respect to the communicative settings of blurbs, it was found that blurbs are mainly constructed monologically. Meanwhile, results also showed that blurbs are logogenetically constructed due to the interpersonally prosodic flow of attitudinal resources across the whole components of blurbs. The study concluded that blurbs are logogenetically constructed by means of the monologic pressure of attitudinal resources for increasing the impact of persuasion as the primary tool of advertising discourse in blurbs.
As a hot research issue in recent years, evidentiality has been studied from various perspectives (e.g. Aikhenvald, 2003, 2004; Chafe, 1986; Palmer, 1990, 2001; Mushin, 2000, 2001; Halli- day & Matthiessen, 2004; Hu, 1994, 1995; Fang, 2005; Tang, 2007; Yang, 2009, 2010). With different research focuses, goals and perspectives, these studies have provided us different un- derstandings of evidentiality. Yet, up to now, few researchers have touched the evaluative functions of evidentiality, espe- cially the functions of reporting evidential. As the frequently used evidential type in English research articles, it is necessary to study what reporting evidentials can do for the writer. There- fore, to fill this gap, this study intends to focus on the evalua- tive functions of reporting evidentials in English research arti- cles, aiming to show how reporting evidential can help the wri- ters to negotiate the relationship among the information, the writer and the reader.
As the world’s second largest economy, China’s economic power and its growing domestic market play a pivotal role as a hub for regional trade growth and economic integration in Asia and Africa  As part of its socioeconomic rise, non-English foreign language programs are gaining in importance in China. In 2017, 583 Chinese universities offered 1,417 foreign language programs at undergraduate levels and these foreign languages are predominantly the national languages of China’s neighboring countries . The emergence of non-English foreign languages has been framed by Chinese sociolinguists as China’s national language capacity  and constructed by China’s mass media as profit and upward mobility . The promotion of non-English foreign languages from above has been framed by Chinese sociolinguists as China’s national language capacity  and constructed by China’s mass media as profit and upward mobility . However, what seems to have been largely overlooked is the language learning from below and the empowerment it can bring. This study aims to investigate how Arabic language learning might empower Chinese women in a Muslim-centered and poverty-stricken region and how their life trajectories are intersected with the wider process of socioeconomic transformations in China and beyond.