The theory has been against the system of parliamentary democracy which has seemed to become detached from its grassroots origins, to impede rather than facilitate movement in political and social life. It also takes exception to a ‘mass society’ which is over-organised, over-centralised and fails to offer realistic opportunities for individual and minority expression. McQuail (1987: 122) says “the central point of a democratic-participant theory lies with the needs, interests and aspirations of the active ‘receiver’ in a political society. It has to do with the right to relevant information, the right to answer back, the right to use the means of communication for interaction in small-scale settings of community, interest group, sub-culture”. Essentially, the theory’s cautions that communication should not be left in the hands of professionals alone find practical expression in the structure and general operations of citizen journalism. Orchestrating the tenets of the Democratic Participant Media Theory is the Public Sphere Model.
In the same vein, Dimoudi (2002:97) said, “The new media technologies are perceived to empower people and democratize the relationships between consumers and producers of content (which could be news or information). It also connects to on-line media logic as a concept which includes the notions of the audience as an active agent in redefining the workings of journalism.” Thus, the emergence of new technologies particularly the internet and social media have created a variety of opportunities of reaching international audiences. Although, social media started out as a platform where friends and families can connect and socialize, today, sites like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Youtube, MySpace, Flicker, Netlog, and Slideshare, are connecting broadcast audiences to the newsroom in new and exciting ways that will not only boost the news and event coverage of both local and international broadcast stations, but also impact positively on the society. The scope of this paper therefore, is to establish ways through which social networks have been incorporated into broadcasting with particularly emphasis on its implications on audience participation in the generation and transmission of information.
Development journalism has a lot of attraction for developing countries. In countries where poverty is the norm, the government of the day wants and need as much support as it can get. Government can probably have to take decisions which are based on the common good but which harm individual liberties. These decisions may be highly unpopular but they have to be taken, and a hostile press can hold back government’s progress while a supportive press can help the government push these policies ahead. This follows one of the definitions or the duty of a journalist reporting on development to critically examiner, evaluate and report the relevance of a development project to national and local needs, the difference between a planned scheme and its actual implementation, and the difference between its impact on people as claimed by government officials and as it actually is. Ability to nation building is an important function of development journalism.
The data analysed indicate that investigative journalism is practised in Rivers State of Nigeria as 56.60% of the respondents (Journalists) agreed. This finding agreed with that of Ocholi (2010) who concluded that investigative journalism is recognised and practised in most media houses in Nigeria especially the print media.The analysis also revealed that the extent or level of practice of investigative journalism was abysmally low as 66.64% of the respondents affirmed. This finding validates the assertion by Assay (2009) who advanced that the Nigeria mass media still maintained a crawling speed in the field of vibrant investigative reporting unlike their counterpart in developing South Africa and Ghana,. This analysis also showed that death threat is the greatest challenge facing the practice of investigative journalism in Nigeria. Citing the case of Dele Giwa, Olaniya (2008) acknowledged that most journalists in Nigeria prefer to gloss over incriminating facts concerning the government, institutions and society for the fear of being murdered.
Since the emergence of modern journalism in Nigeria in 1859 according to (Aliede, 2003), it has been struggling to achieve the needed freedom that would enable it discharge its social responsibilities creditably. The journalistic task of gathering and disseminating news has not been an easy one largely due to limited freedom occasioned largely by government firm grip and control of the mass media. Thus, Uche (1989) notes that “relationship between the mass media and the government in Nigeria has been a cat and mouse affair”. This implies that, the free flow of information has been trampled upon. Journalists have had no access to vital information let alone the masses. In struggling to get detailed, factual and balanced reportage, journalists have had to continue to nose around for information, exposing themselves to high levels of risk that got them victimized, jailed, tortured and sometimes killed (Ezeah, 2004). In contribution, Malayo, (2012) asserts that: “Over the years, the agitation for the emergence of a free press society, has been on the front burner of national discuss, especially among journalism practitioners in Nigeria. This owes largely to the fact that the expediency of having a legislation that guarantees a high level of press freedom cannot be ignored. It cannot be ignored apparently against the backdrop of the attendant positive effect it could have on any society”
opposed to campaigns in support of globalization and liberalism in developing countries. However, both groups agree that foreign aid is antithetical to sustainable development in the continent. Apart from a domination of western model in media education and practice with its success stories and associated challenges, in the last three decades, foreign aid to independent media outlets has shaped the practice of investigative journalism in Nigeria. Recent evidences show a direct positive relationship between support from foreign donors and improved reportage of critical national socio-political issues by media houses and journalists in Nigeria. However, empirical evidence on the validation of the degree to which investigative journalism practice induced by western model and aid determine Nigeria’s global ratings on crime, corruption, economy, education and government remains scanty. This study investigates this observation using cross-sectional and panel data, and reveals the positive and negative economic and political gains. Recommendations are suggested to the concerned stakeholders based on the conclusion.
The relative importance of foreign language in journalism Education or mass communication education in Nigeria has been long debated by experts in the field of Journalism in Nigeria. Stakeholders in the field of journalism education are skeptical and disillusioned about the inclusion of French language into the curriculum of journalism education in Nigeria. This skepticism gave birth to variation in the content of the curriculum of journalism across various bodies or institutions offering journalism training or mass communication in Nigeria. Research works in Journalism in the recent past only focused on indigenous languages in Journalism in Nigeria to the exclusion of French language. This study therefore set out to investigate the relevance of French language to journalism education in Nigeria.
Lastly, the researcher decided to probe further to find out the challenges of citizen journalism in Nigeria. The finding shows that despite the huge benefits derived from citizen journalism, the concept still have some major issues if not tackled may result to a crisis situation in information and communication need of the society. Due to the pervasive nature of social media, the study discovered that it can lead to the invasion of people’s privacy which is their basic fundamental human rights. Also, social media has the potential to fuel mass revolt and protest. This is evident in the Arab spring revolution and other similar mass action that engulfed some countries in Africa and Europe. Nigeria had its own share of the experience during the fuel subsidy crises. The crisis was largely mediated through social networking sites. It has been observed recently that due to this dysfunctional role of the social media, the governments of several nations are beginning to put stringent measures on the operation of social media in their respective countries. The Egyptian government is already leading in this direction. The findings of this study is therefore consistent with other literature examined in this work which identify lack of objectivity, trust and credibility as the potential problems associated with citizen journalism the world over (Suleiman, 2015 & Okafor, Ebenezar, Chukwuemeka, & Daniel 2013).
(3) Journalists always faced some problems and ambiguities in the process of defining, shaping and legitimizing their profession. The decisions about who should be included and who should be excluded from the professional group were difficult because of the characteristics of their activity (frequently balancing between the right to freedom of speech and the right to information), which contributed to an increasing blurring of the borders of their professional territory. With the development of online publication and with the multiplication of mechanisms of self-edition which make it very easy for anyone to produce and disseminate timely information in the public sphere, the idea of journalism-as-a-citizen-practice has been emphasized, somehow challenging the specialized field of journalism-as-a-professional-work – or the bare definition of who is a journalist. If everyone dealing with journalism in any form is expected to know and respect the ‘practice ethics’ of the activity, only the organized profession can (and is supposed to) be committed with an ‘institutional ethics’ that engages in guaranteeing the political, social, economical and cultural conditions necessary for journalism to fulfil its valuable role in a democratic society. In return, the profession must accept to be responsible and accountable for its work, developing the means of transparency and self-control which may give concrete substance to their alleged dedication to the public interest.
Legacy news organizations with ample financial resources design and build intricate systems that employ reporters and sales professionals to produce and deliver stories, as well as developers and systems managers to build and maintain data servers, firewalls, recommendation algorithms, user tracking systems, and so forth. What has been called “post industrial journalism” has its own specific set of traps and opportunities: news 17 organizations have been forced into constantly monitor platform companies and the consumer electronics industry at large with an eye toward forming partnerships or otherwise pivoting strategies in a rapidly changing digital information ecosystem.
This paper provides an overview of the positive and negative changes that have come about due to convergence. Through an observation of what is happening on various online sites and journalists’ everyday experiences, the paper offers an analysis of the impact globally. On a positive side, for example, citizens are engaging in conversations online with journalists and also with each other on various social platforms on issues that matter to them. The internet is applauded for promoting the number of voices online and freedom of expression. On a negative side, citizens bemoan the rise in fake news and disinformation which is harmful for democracy and is discrediting journalism. Journalism is fundamental as it influences society’s worldview. It thus becomes paramount for media houses and society to be more digital literate so as to distinguish between “real” and “fake” news in order to make more informed decisions.
Sports journalism offers a fascinating case study in how global and local media interact in contemporary societies. Sport can at times appear global and outward-looking, and can also be local in focus and intensely domestic in its concerns. While this book is primarily centred on the UK experience, it will also be noticeable the extent to which the development of sports jour- nalism in, say, the United States has helped influence British sports writing. Echoing the earlier point about the local and the global, the book will, how- ever, reinforce the extent to which sports journalism is heavily shaped by the particular patterns of social, cultural and political evolution that shape both the sports and the media industries in the UK.
This course focuses on the role of entrepreneurship and innovation for the future of journalism and on the creation of news and information enterprises and initiatives for the emerging media ecosystem that has been formed by the Digital Revolution. The class will study the impact of digital technologies on the news industry, both in terms of content production and consumption. Special attention will be given to the changes in business and distribution models and the ways people consume (and produce) news and information. The historical evolution of the business of journalism will also be examined, including the current challenges the industry is facing in adapting to the new media ecosystem. Through case studies and testimonials of guest speakers with firsthand experience as entrepreneurs, students will dissect journalistic initiatives based on innovative uses of digital technologies and then work on their own projects. The course culminates with the presentation of students’ projects of media enterprises for the digital age, including business plans, and, if possible, prototypes and/or demos. During the semester, the class will also produce a blog that will be managed as much as possible as a real business, with clear strategic goals in terms of audience and sustainability. The blog will cover the business of journalism, with an emphasis on news related to innovative startup organizations. The course will be based on the
Based on this example, it could be said that one of the roles of citizen journalism is not only to inform people, but broaden the content published by traditional media. In other words, citizen journalism covers topics that are sometimes overlooked by the mainstream media. Dr. Saqib Riaz (2011: 109) stated that the big media organizations lost their monopoly over news because of the evolution of citizen journalism. With the Internet and social media, sharing information has never been easier, which also means that hiding information requested by the public is highly unlikely, if not impossible. Riaz (2011: 114) claims that citizens’ involvement in the news process breaks down the media hegemony. That means that citizen journalism contributes to pluralism in the media. In addition, citizens do not have some hidden agenda, they just report what they witness and experience.
Community-level “hyperlocal” journalism has proved difficult to sustain (Kurpius, Metzgar, and Rowley 2010) despite support from philanthropic foundations, particularly in the United States, as well as the steep decline of legacy competitors’ staffing and thus reporting. In general, these start-ups have been characterized as imperfect, at best, information substitutes for newspaper coverage of local government (Fico et al. 2013). But some regional digital enterprises have been more durable, particularly those that have succeeded at obtaining and maintaining public trust (Konieczna and Robinson 2014). The Texas Tribune and MinnPost in Minnesota, for example, have both survived since the 2000s and continue to provide in-depth state coverage backed by donors large and small; in Scotland, a newer site called The Ferret, which relies heavily on users for its revenue, has twice been shortlisted for a British Journalism Award for digital innovation.
The notion of fluidity – which applies to the entire journalistic enterprise, including products, processes, and structures of all sorts, from social to physical to economic -- may be useful in considering this ongoing cultural change and the difficulty of managing its negotiation. Journalism once had clear boundaries. We have already discussed the erosion of definitional boundaries around who is and is not a journalist. There also were boundaries of time; journalists worked to a deadline, after which the presses had to roll or the program had to air. There were boundaries of space; journalism was produced within a newsroom and processed by editors who worked in it. There were boundaries around the product itself, too; journalism came neatly packaged within the pages of a newspaper or the minutes of a news show. Reaching the back page or the last minute meant there was no more news.
“If you want to study journalism at City here are some tips which will help. We are looking for people who love writing and can provide evidence of that, perhaps by working on a college newspaper and/or having your own blog. Many students applying now have already done some work experience on a magazine, newspaper or website, so try to ﬁx some as soon as possible. We want people who think like a journalist: that means being interested in people, and curious about people, events and issues.
statistics. The authors focused on consumption to quantify the environmental footprints (GHG and depleted land, water, and raw materials) that are traded along with the imported goods. They argue that a dependence on imported electronics from low-wage, high emission regions could “offset, or even revert, gains in efficiency and climate change mitigation actions in developed countries.” Their research demonstrates why net importers of GHG such as Norway and the US emit about twice as much CO2 as is reported in national statistics. While regional impacts vary across consumption categories, wealthy consumer societies have the highest per capita impact on the environment, because of their imported goods and services (Ivanova et al. 2015). The study offers a useful model that could be extended to imported digital devices that produce news and deliver it to TVs, tablets, computers, and cellphones. Such work marks the beginning of an important turn towards greening the media. Journalism needs to stop externalizing social liabilities and look at the embodied environmental harm it causes.
Hallin and Mancini (2004) make the strongest case for severing the link between objectivity and professional standing in the world of journalism. For them professionalism is defined less in terms of educational barriers to entry, a lack of state regulation, or the ideal of objectivity; rather it is viewed primarily in terms of “greater control over one’s own work process” (Hallin and Mancini, 2004:34 in Schudson and Anderson, 2009). Journalists in democratic states judge journalistic autonomy to be compatible with active and international intervention in the political world; in these terms, journalists in Germany are as ‘professional’ as those in the United States. The social bases of their professionalism, however, and the specific content of their values are different (ibid, 2009). For Sarfatti Larson (1997), groups seeking professional status must organise themselves to attain market power; they must fight to first constitute and then control the market for their services. They must, as marketers of human services, “produce their producers” through training and education; they must attain state sanction for their occupational monopoly; they must ratify this monopoly through “the license, the qualifying examination, the diploma” (Larson, 1997:15). For objectivity, there is need for accuracy and thoroughness, since, for example, journalism convention demands that news headlines reflect the content of the story that follows, while photographs must reflect the actual event in order to avoid sensationalism. There is a need for journalists to understand the difference between news reporting and opinion journalism in their daily news- gathering and reporting activities, as a deliberate departure from the truth questions the integrity of the journalism profession. Aldridge and Evetts (2004) see professionalisation as a social process through which individuals develop common values and norms, establish a code of conduct and agree on a set of qualifications that everyone practising a particular occupation or trade is expected to possess; conformity with these occupation- or trade-specific criteria distinguishes the professional from the amateur. Most of the literature focuses on news selection criteria, news values and views on objectivity as applied in the mainstream media (Aldridge and Evetts, 2004). Hence, News values, routines, sources and objectivity among other universal journalistic functions have been described as the hallmark of journalism profession. Journalism in practice therefore remains universal and the label of African journalism is a mirage.
Technology is the influencing factor that is easiest to see and most simple to explain. We see that LSU’s adopted both camera and radio technology between 1930 and 1940. While this makes sense for radio technology, as radio stations were in their infancy, camera technology had been available before this time. It’s possible that due to budget cuts that LSU was experiencing at the time, buying the equipment to take and develop photos was not high on the list for the new department. It’s also possible that the staff, which was largely made up of professors from the English Department, were not savvy in camera technology. However, in years following technology was integrated into the School as it became more widely used. Between 1950 and 1960 the Journalism School introduced television courses, and between 1990 and 2000 courses using computer software, digital images and Internet.