This work-integrated training experience enables them to write about their work and share in their blogs the hits and misses of actually doing the job. They can also process any anxieties they may have about “doing it right” or showing initiative. The beginning journalist develops a sense of their own competence and this often leads to the confidence to try new ideas or approaches. This is the type of experience that Mezirow labels “transformative learning”. He defines this as “the process of effecting change in a frame of reference” (1997:5). Thus, the risks students might perceive in challenging the frames of reference in place around writing as merely the way news is banged out in sharp and summary reports can be experienced as transformative. Mezirow continues:
The importance of textbooks to the learning process has led to them becoming the focus for a range of content research, from studies on the way textbooks treat issues of gender (e.g. Cawyer, et al., 1994; Yanowitz and Weathers, 2004) to medical instruction (Janson, Paavola, Porter & Morello, 2010; Rabow et al., 2000) or training in Public Relations (Hoy, Raaz & Wehmeier, 2007). Journalism textbooks have also been a frequent subject for content analysis. This research has ranged widely, from the treatment of issues of disability in the news media (Hardin & Preston, 2001) to ethics (Peck, 2004) and convergence (Gilmour & Quanbeck, 2010). However while an analysis of college textbooks in 1990 showed that ―specific guidelines on use of anonymous sources are rare‖ (Boeyink, 1990, p. 234), little if any research has focused on the way texts treat the subject of whistleblowers as sources. Indeed, as we shall see, whistleblowing itself is a subject that is largely overlooked in these texts, even though the issue is of pressing importance in modern reporting and one that comes with complex implications.
In this new ecosystem, traditional journalistic skills, such as being able to spot a good story — having a ‘news sense’ in other words — and being able to build and maintain contacts that provide new exclusive stories are still highly sought after skills. As is the foundational skill of science writing — the ability to translate the ‘raw material’, new discoveries, into clear, engaging and accurate stories. It is reassuring that those who have risen to prominence since this new ecosystem came into being, such as Ed Yong and Brian Switek, have built their careers primarily on their talent for this foundational skill.
Journalism is one of the most vital courses pursued by students enrolled in the AB Communication program. Hence, this research and developmental study was conducted to determine the competencies of the students in journalism particularly in the areas of editorial, feature, sports, news and headline writing; and, to develop a training manual to address the issues on students’ competencies. This research is employed the Communicative Competency Framework of Canale and Swain in 1987, which brought the study into analyzing the grammatical competencies of the students, specifically in terms of lexico-semantic and syntax; and, their discourse competencies in the areas of content writing and cohesion. Consequently, findings revealed that the AB Communication students have fair ability both in terms of their grammatical and discourse competencies. For this reason, there is a high need of training students in journalistic writing. Moreover, perceptions of the students and industry partners, in terms of the journalistic needs and factors contributing to the development of journalistic competencies were investigated. Results also showed that there is need for students to develop their interest in journalism and as perceived by the industry partners, a need for a sufficient and appropriate instruction, drills, trainings and related pedagogical intervention is a necessitate among AB Communication students to surmount the challenges they encountered vis-à-vis journalistic writing.
Jazeera has a secondary area where more stories are offered. Typically these are offered under a number of titles: Arabic, International, Economic, Reports and Discussions, Medicine and Health, Varieties, Culture and Art, Sports, and Press Tour. Since these were not part of the data collected for the current study, I cannot tell to what extent readers were, or were not, interested in commenting on „non-top‟ stories in such a secondary area. It seems that the „more significant‟ and „hotter‟ news stories are offered as top stories, whereas others (e.g., police and crime, sports, social affairs, etc.) are rarely presented as belonging to that category. I believe that this practice on the part of Al Jazeera is not due to a lack of interest in this type of story. Rather, the turbulent situation in the Middle East seems to impose the practice of prioritizing a certain type of news categories. Additionally, it may also be the case that Al Jazeera is
Media organizations in Thailand are commercial businesses, so they survive only by competing for advertising revenue. Reaching wider audiences gives them a chance to attract more revenue. The case study of three newsrooms document the extent to which they have similar characteristics, including multiplatform ownership and cross-media operation strongly shaped by commercial drivers, that is, they have to find ways to balance between gaining revenue and maintaining professional values. Yet, their operational characteristics are distinctive, with differing approaches and attitudes toward newsroom culture, routine practice, and cross-media content production processes. The first case study of PPTV HD 36 involves, in part, an analysis of a hybrid cross-media team where newsroom, new media, and production teams were working together on planning, producing, and distributing cross-media content. The main characteristic is the strategy of multi- skilled journalists able to develop a personal brand and engage people in issues throughout the newsgathering and reporting process. Here I will be further clarifying the nature of the strategies whereby multi-skilled journalists engage in cross-media journalism. The next case study, Thairath, delves into a corresponding strategy of isolated work on each platform, but here designing situational cooperation to strengthen high-quality coverage of issues that impact change in society. Their practice situates them very much as an example of complex news organisation with high tensions engendered between different media cultures in the news organisation. Finally, the case study on Nation Multimedia Group examines the challenges interwoven through complex layers of news outlets within the same company, each of which trying to embrace a convergence concept by building co- operative practice between one another. This case study illustrates the example of a newsroom where each outlet has a brand identity, market positioning, and specific audience profile, enabling an examination of how convergence shapes and conditions news production. Taken together this thesis’s analysis of the three case studies’ interview data brings to light significant external and internal factors that have affected policy- and decision-making in the design of cross-media production models.
In the case of dialogic contraction, the use of disclaims and proclaims can help the reader navigate the news by pointing out what a journalist sees as especially important in an issue. In many cases, the outlets’ disclaims or proclaims present the journalist as having greater expertise than the reader. This positions the journalist as a ‘guide’ for the reader (Martin & White, 2005: 120), such as instructing a reader to ‘Forget the [Republican] memo’ (Axios). By proclaiming what aspects and interpretations of an issue matter the most, the outlets reject other possibilities, thus contracting interpretations. Disclaims, in turn, not only ward off opposing stances but can provide counter- arguments in an imaginary discussion: ‘Even a great year of investment gains doesn’t solve the problem [of pension bills], because there is less money to reap the rewards when they come’ (VoSD). Such arguments converse with imaginary opponents. They can aid the reader in understanding the news better by considering possible counter-arguments beforehand. Both proclaims and disclaims also build rapport with a putative reader (Martin & White, 2005: 129-130). When The Skimm, for instance, pronounces its support for a new legislation in France against gender pay gaps in companies by proclaiming ‘oui, oui’ to the legislation, it assumedly seeks to align with its core audience of millennial women. By building solidarity with a particular group in an informal manner, The Skimm operates in a zone between private and public.
Baumann says that by the late nineties, the ‘media & conflict’ field had become a field of theory and practice unto itself, even though there still remained many cynics in media circles who claimed that they must stay ‘objective’ at all costs and that advocacy of any sort compromised the standards of journalism. Baumann points out that the advocated alternative paradigms to conventional journalism avoided promoting ‘taking sides’ in favour of any conflicting parties, but did argue in favour of taking the side of peace and peace building. According to her, journalists are already a third party in any conflict they cover, but that, “through a lack of a moral
In comparison with Europe and America, journalism is a young profession in Africa, but its phenomenal growth has created an increasing demand for trained journalists. Early practitioners in Nigeria had no formal training; they only had basic education, and interest in journalism practice. Added to these was their awareness of the power of the pen and the realization of its potency in the fight against colonialism. In the 1900s, Ernest Sesei Ikoli left his job as a teacher at King’s College, Lagos to join the Lagos Weekly Record. He was trained on the job by John Payne Jackson, the publisher of the newspaper. Several others equally got in-house tutoring. For example Obafemi Awolowo was trained at the Daily Times in the 1930s. Others who could not be trained in-house simply learnt by doing. For instance, after studying in the United States, and with exposure to various statutes on national self-determinism, Nnamdi Azikiwe established and edited the West African Pilot in 1937. He thereafter established six other newspapers which were strategically located in important cities in Nigeria (Uche, 1989). The first university mode training for journalists was the Jackson College of Journalism (now department of Mass communication, University of Nigeria, Nsukka), named after John Payne Jackson, the publisher of Lagos Weekly Record. The College started off with forty seven students and four full time staff in 1960.
Bentley et al. (1988) conducted research that relied on the use of ethnographic methods over a shorter time frame by using of mixed-methods of data collection (Pink & Morgan, 2013). Following Pink and Morgan, this research also combines qualitative data obtained by ethnographical study and quantitative data. The short- term ethnography strategy is an alternative way for a researcher who has a limited amount of time for observation, as in the case of research by Paulussen and Ugille (2008) and Jordaan (2013). By the same token, this study applies a strategy of short-term ethnography and uses more structured interviews, or so-called semi- structured interviews, in data collection due to limited time. There is a risk that the researcher misunderstands the phenomenon in the fieldwork because it was observed in a short time. However, triangulation is employed to gain more rounded picture of the phenomenon and avoid bias. The decision to utilise a short- term ethnography strategy consequently means that acting as an intern as in a long-term ethnography is not appropriate to apply in this research. However, close observation is conducted as much as possible within the newsroom by attending important news production meetings daily between the traditional working hours from 9 am to 5 pm.
The first of these rhetorical devices, the role of the narrator-as-character, in academic history is usually confined to a prologue or introduction. Within the text itself the narrator is implied, and therefore appears more neutral, objective and distanced. However, within literary journalism the narrator is often undertaking an active investigation, with the reader following events as they develop. This conforms to a style of ‘naïve narrator’ who admits to the limits of what s/he knows, allows for ambiguity in the text and for speculation on issues about which the writer feels an emotional connection (Seabrook, 2000). In the reviews of Esther, for example, one writer commented on this technique where I inserted myself into the text, reflecting on my process of uncovering Esther and my insights into her character through those discoveries: ‘[these chapters] detail the author’s quest to determine whether her ancestor actually chose a convent life, or was pushed into her vocation and cruelly kept apart from her family’ (Burns, 2011). Moreover, such a technique in these short, 1,000-2,000 word chapters acknowledged a lack of evidence and my speculation based on material related to Esther’s internal world. ‘Esther left no record of her story, so I am feeling my way through it, relying on my emotional connection to her to fill in the blanks where the black hole of documentation gapes wide. But this story refuses to shape itself into one of simple religious conversion’ (Wheelwright, 2011: 137). This approach defies narrative closure, involving the reader in making choices and, therefore, recognising how history is actually constructed as a series of logical surmises filtered through the author’s own preconceptions as they interpret and recreate an individual’s unspoken or undocumented feelings (Zinsser, 2006) 19
Google news is the greatest news aggregator and app powered by technical giant Google.inc available on all web platforms. It is a non-commercial website requires no registration and focuses on every news according to the reader’s preferences. Google news engines have different reasons for automating news content. Digital revolution in news exerts one of the most powerful influence on reading behaviour and this impact will grow even more. They use automation to expand coverage in particular field, specialize their coverage, provide more regional variation sin customize their content to the readers. Industry leaders like Google hopes that automation will provide additional values to their readers and open up new streams of revenue. Google news is having a simplified interface and a combination of personalization and artificial intelligence. The core competencies of Google news have the feature of displaying all world news along with a particular option called ‘For you’, which comprises the sort out news according to each of the reader’s personal taste.
This special issue seeks to redress the balance, demonstrating how print journalism in a range of participant nations, including Britain, France, Germany, Ireland, the United States and Australia, was a powerful and persistent influence on public attitudes to, and memories of, the unprecedented military carnage of 1914-1918. The articles are diverse in style and content, adopting a range of different methodologies and focusing on different types of text. Reading them alongside each other, however, we can perhaps identify five distinct roles played by the print media: producing and narrating histories of the war or its constituent episodes; serialising and reviewing memoirs or fictional accounts written by participants; reporting and framing the rituals and ceremonies of local and national commemoration; providing a platform for various war-related advocacy groups or campaigns, from
till att det var betydligt skönare att flyga på 1970-talet). NiemanLab emphasized that this change in the Swedish media landscape reflects a global trend in tabloid media that has witnessed an explosion of viral news sites like BuzzFeed, Upworthy, Viralnova, and Mashable devoted to aggregating highly clickable web content. As readers’ habits change and advertising revenue continues to decline, media organizations are investing in viral sites as a potential source of revenue that can reverse the business downturn. In a country with a population of just 9.6 million like Sweden, viral news websites have amassed an average of 1 million unique mobile browsers each. Omtalat has expanded the business model to other countries and languages by launching similar viral news sites in German, Turkish, and Norwegian, while rival viral site Newsner has started an English language version of the site (Lichterman, 2014).
According to Stempleski (1987), “a rich and exciting source of video software for EFL/ESL classes is authentic material” (p. 3). She advocated that authentic videos present real language and provide an authentic look at the culture, which can stimulate students’ learning motivation, enhance their comprehension, and give them an opportunity to practice in dealing with the medium. Furthermore, language is not only learned through words; instead, visuals play an important role in language development and language learning requires association with perceptual experience (Britsch, 2012). Fazilatfar, Mohebbi, and Modrek (2016) pointed out that we cannot deny language learners can make good use of video materials and learn through different techniques. Many video sites are web-based and can be accessed easily through mobile devices for viewing (De Jesus, 2017). In the study of Black (1993), she investigated whether students improved the quality of descriptive writing by using auditory stimulus and visual stimulus as prewriting techniques. The results indicated that it was effective for students to improve their composition writing by using both auditory stimuli and visual stimuli simultaneously. Instead of reading texts, Goodson (1993) found that most Taiwanese students preferred visual approaches to learning. Asian students tended not to have better academic performance if they only received auditory as a primary mode of instruction in their college courses (Ladd & Ruby, 1999). Therefore, by watching news videos, the EFL learners can watch the scenes and headlines and stimulate their visual sensory.
Mainstream journalism, though often framed in opposition to the DIY ethnos of the internet, shares this notion of procedural justice. Indeed, this bracketing of values in favor of processes is exactly how many media scholars have defined professional objectivity (Schudson 1978). For American journalists, at least, truth emerges via reportorial methods, a reasoned consideration of all sides of a debate, the amassing of evidence, and the fair presentation of opposing arguments. Citizens are perceived as some combination of rational, autonomous, and self-interested actors who must be trusted to decide for themselves what the normative
● Stephanie Goodwin: A sponsorship is an advertorial, it’s an ad with editorial built into it. So, it’s not really a new concept it’s just a new way of delivering the concept because ad- vertorials have been around a pretty long time. One thing I think is really interesting and me personally, I don’t mind sponsored posts from bloggers that I like. I feel really dedi- cated to the bloggers I follow on social media. The things to think about are transparency and the integrity. You can always tell if a blogger is just pocketing some money and doesn’t care about a product. You can see that from a mile away and can see what it is, it’s an ad. But if the blogger/writer is savvy enough, they will only work with companies they believe in and only promote products they can use in their personal life anyway, that comes out in their writing. So, is that not really a third party endorsement? That is free of ad and free of incentive? That’s debatable. But they really do put that transparency up, reputable bloggers will say, “Hey this is a sponsored post or ad, or I only work with com- panies I really believe in and do those companies justice.” So I think those are hugely ef- fective and I buy things through blogging because somebody has taken great photos and had this endorsement of these products. I have trusted and believed everything they’ve told me before. As someone even in the business, it works on me and I don’t think that’s necessarily a bad thing.
Automatically generated Football News is one of refined field in document summary and natural language generation. The biggest challenge we faced is that how wherein the maximum extent possible to extract all the key information. When humans writingnews, the first step is to grasp the overall context of the whole game, then locking key information base on their experience and intuition, after that they are able to organize an overview of all key information in appropriate form, appear a wonderful game of football news. The system can’t identify important information point game Intuitively as a professional editor at the present stage. Our approach at this stage is to build a model base on machine learning algorithm to learn the contact and difference between critical and non-critical information by reading the manual tagging corpus, and then try to identify the key sentence from all input. However, this method extracted key sentences have some problems. However we found some problems in extracted key sentences when we review them. The quality of key sentences selected by the model is not perfect. The information described by those sentence sometimes mediocre shot in reader angle, on the other hand wonderful and difficult shot was ignored by the model.
However, also in the case of datafication and the power of algorithms in society, two different levels of reflexivity can be observed. First, the increasing expertise of journalists with algorithms – also due to the implementation of algorithms within newsrooms – allows reporters to engage in algorithmic accountability reporting. This journalistic genre could be further empowered by taking advantage of the computer experts and hackers present in „data-networks“. Second, some of the issues related to the opacity of algorithms are present within newsrooms as well. Particularly in the era of data and automated journalism, where “much of the work may be obfuscated via analytic procedures, and data literacy among journalists and / or readers may hinder the valid interpretation of results“ (Stark and Diakopoulos, 2016, p. 1), enhancing transparency is key. This would mean sharing the different steps of an analysis, publish any form of code, software used as well as the raw data. This would allow news organizations to formulate journalistic standards and ethical norms for such complex products as algorithms. Drawing from these initial works, journalists could then formulate (ethical) criteria that could be applied to algorithms in general in order to provide full transparency.