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International and Local Visions of the Justice and Security Sector in the West Bank

International and Local Visions of the Justice and Security Sector in the West Bank

Some NGOs even view the PA, with its police and security forces, as a direct threat. The human rights NGO believes the security forces regard the NGOs as enemies, where people get arrested for protesting, and incriminating rumors are spread by security forces. Tartir (2017: 8) goes further, arguing that ‘the overarching goal of the SSR … was to criminalize resistance against the Israeli occupation and to silence opposition to Israel’s colonial dominance’. Some NGOs think that the international bodies put pressure on the PA in order to maintain its security strength so it can curb and control the Palestinian population to prevent disorder, at the expense of legitimacy. The human rights NGO expresses distrust: ‘There is pressure from the Americans. The way the system works is that the Palestinian Authority needs to maintain its military, or its security strength, so it can maintain control over the Palestinian population’ (HR NGO). The prisoner NGO tells about experiences of maltreatment and oppression of rights by the security forces. In their view, if human rights defenders are acting against PA interests, they are characterized and treated as terrorists. They believe the security forces have adopted Israeli military strategies and behaviors.
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The Security Sector Reform Strategy

The Security Sector Reform Strategy

Security-Sector Reform, CSDG Working Paper No 1, 1999; Bonn International Center for Conversion, Security Sector Reform, Brief 15, June 2000; Clingendael Institute, International Alert and Saferworld, T owards a Better Practice Framework for Security Sector Reform: Broadening the Debate (London/The Hague, 2001); Tim Edmunds, ‘Defining Security Sector Reform,’ Civil-Military Relations in Central and Eastern Europe Network Newsletter, No 3 (October 2001), pp 3–6, http://civil-military.dsd.kcl.ac.uk/CMR%20Network/ cmrn3.htm#New_Agenda; OECD, The DAC Guidelines: Helping Prevent Violent Conflict (Paris, 2001); ‘Security Issues and Development Co-operation: A Conceptual Framework for Policy Coherence’, The DAC Journal, Volume 2, No 3, 2001; UNDP, ‘Democratizing security to prevent conflict and build peace,’ Human Development Report, 2002 (New York, 2002), Chapter 4, pp 85–100; UNDP, Bureau for Conflict Prevention and Recovery, Justice and Security Sector Reform: BCPR’s Programmatic Approach (New York, November 2002), www.undp.org/erd/jssr/docs/jssrprogramaticapproach.pdf; Hans Born, P. Fluri and A.B. Johnsson, Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector: Principles, Mechanisms and Practices, Handbook for Parliamentarians No 5, (Geneva/Belgrade: DCAF/Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2003); and Clingendael Institute, Enhancing Democratic Governance of the Security Sector: An Institutional Assessment Framework, prepared for the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs (The Hague, 2003)
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DDR and Security Sector Reform

DDR and Security Sector Reform

may include measures to address small arms and light weapons (SALW), mine action activi- ties or efforts to redress past crimes and promote reconciliation through transitional justice (see IDDRS 6.20 on DDR and Transitional Justice). The security challenges that these meas- ures seek to address are often the result of a state’s loss of control over the legitimate use of force. DDR and SSR should therefore be understood as closely linked to processes of post- conflict statebuilding that enhance the ability of the state to deliver security and reinforce the rule of law. The complex, interrelated nature of these challenges has been reflected by the development of whole of system (e.g. ‘one UN’ or ‘whole of government’) approaches to supporting states emerging from conflict. The increasing drive towards such integrated approaches reflects a clear need to bridge early areas of post-conflict engagement with support to the consolidation of reconstruction and longer term development.
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DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE OF THE SECURITY SECTOR

DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE OF THE SECURITY SECTOR

In the context of longer-term peace building, UN support should enhance the institutional and human capacity of national counterparts to govern the security sector in line with international norms, standards and best practices. These and other efforts should also contribute to ensuring that tensions in post-conflict situations are not exacerbated by maintaining unprosecuted perpetrators of human rights violations in the security sector (UN, , p. , para ). This approach should be developed around a comprehensive set of mechanisms, including transitional justice initiatives. Furthermore, ensur- ing equal opportunities for the effective participation of women and ethnic, religious and other underrepresented groups will help build sustainable peace. In a development context, adherence to norms and practices of democratic governance will ensure that the security sector is linked to broader develop- ment priorities and needs. Effective and transparent management of the sector should minimize the risk of unnecessary financial costs to society. A functioning security system, properly overseen by a civilian institution in a developmental context, will positively impact on human security, build a strong legal business environment, and (subsequently) increase investments.
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INTERNATIONAL UN VOLUNTEER DESCRIPTION OF ASSIGNMENT

INTERNATIONAL UN VOLUNTEER DESCRIPTION OF ASSIGNMENT

7. Brief Project Description: The Rule of Law and Security Institutions Service (ROLSIS) of UNIOGBIS embraces the governance of security, defence and justice reforms in its core. It supports the establishment of effective and efficient police, law enforcement, criminal justice and penitentiary systems to contribute to the peace-building process and the fight against impunity in Guinea-Bissau. ROLSIS works towards a “re-founding” of the Armed Forces in the context of a democratic state that respects constitutional order and civilian oversight. ROLSIS also assists national authorities in combating illicit drug trafficking and transnational organized crime in the context of criminal justice reforms.
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Hybrid Security Governance in Post-Conflict States: Explaining the dangers of state security-orientated SSR in areas of limited statehood

Hybrid Security Governance in Post-Conflict States: Explaining the dangers of state security-orientated SSR in areas of limited statehood

factors that explain why wars began, and by extension, why they end. In most cases, the stimuli that lie at the root of the conflict are resource inequality and fear. According to the ‘resource argument’, wars recur mostly because citizens have (a) a lack of resources, or (b) are greedy to gain more resources. These two perspectives are generally grouped in what are called the ‘grievance’ and the ‘greed’ school in civil war literature. Under the resource grievance rubric, the argument is that wars recur because of inequality in income, the lack of political representation, land, security, ethnic and religious divisions and other resources (Cramer 2003; Davies 1962; Gurr 1970: Collier and Hoeffler 2004). The latest addition to the writings within the grievance school is the notion of “political exclusion” by Charles Call (2012). Call’s central argument in Why Peace Fails is that the “perceived or actual deprivation of an expected opportunity for former warring parties, or the social groups associated with them, to participate in state administration, through either appointed posts or elected office” serves as a ‘trigger’ for war recurrence (2012: 4). Alternatively, the more recent ‘resource greed hypothesis’ finds that wars in essence the product of greed and suggests that wars begin and recur because of economic variables (Collier and Hoeffler 2004; Collier 1999). In effect, wars recur because contending parties repeatedly fight over control of the spoils of the state such as oil, drugs and rare minerals. Paul Collier argues in The Bottom Billion that there is a significant relationship between the presence of natural resources and conflict, which Phillip Le Billon describes as the “resource curse” (2006: 11-27). The greed hypothesis gained significance in the study of civil wars when the problem of diamonds, commonly known as ‘conflict diamonds’ or ‘blood diamonds’, gained worldwide attention. For example, it became widely recognized that the civil wars in Angola, Côte d’Ivoire, Sierra Leone and the DRC have been mainly driven by continuous clashes over the control over diamond mines.
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Criminal Justice and Police Cooperation between the EU and the UK after Brexit: Towards a principled and trust based partnership  CEPS Task Force Reports

Criminal Justice and Police Cooperation between the EU and the UK after Brexit: Towards a principled and trust based partnership CEPS Task Force Reports

hroughout the past decades, the UK has carved its own special status into the EU area of freedom, security and justice. The UK’s position is based on a model of flexible and differentiated integration in EU criminal justice and police cooperation instruments. Despite its sui generis position in the AFSJ, the UK has been an active contributor to the development of EU criminal law and police cooperation. It has championed application of the principle of mutual recognition in the field of judicial cooperation. It has also promoted a model of ‘intelligence-led’ (data-driven) policing or preventive justice, where retention and exchange of data are the key tools to curb transnational crime and face (potential) security threats to the detriment of criminal justice standards and guarantees. The EU has espoused such a data-driven model of law enforcement to a large extent and has developed it further through new operations in the field of security, sometimes at the expense of a more ‘criminal justice-led’ approach to the fight against crime and terrorism.
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Administration of the Indigenous Legal Assistance Programme

Administration of the Indigenous Legal Assistance Programme

1. The provision of legal assistance to disadvantaged persons is recognised  as  a  key  element  of  equitable  and  accessible  justice  systems.  In  general,  government‐funded  legal  assistance  arrangements  aim  to  provide  people  with  better and early access to information and services that can help them prevent  and resolve disputes, and receive appropriate advice and assistance, no matter  how  they  enter  the  justice  system.  This  support  may  occur  through  legal  assistance  services  available  for  all  eligible  members  of  the  community  or  through  services  specifically  directed  at  particular  matters  or  groups.  The  Australian  Government  funds  legal  assistance  services  including  state  and  territory  run  legal  aid  commissions;  community  legal  centres;  family  violence  prevention legal services and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander legal services.  2. In  the  Australian  context,  Aboriginal  and  Torres  Strait  Islander  (Indigenous)  people  are  generally  over‐represented  in  the  criminal  justice  system,  and  adverse  contact  with  the  justice  system  is  recognised  as  contributing  more  broadly  to  disadvantage.  The  Australian  Government  has  funded  Indigenous‐specific  legal  assistance  services  since  1971.  Providing  Indigenous people with access to justice that is effective, inclusive, responsive,  equitable and efficient remains a priority within the Australian Government’s  approach  to  improving  the  ability  of  the  justice  system  to  meet  the  needs  of  Indigenous people. 1   
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Valuing Complex Third Sector Organisations

Valuing Complex Third Sector Organisations

SROI is not always adequate to this task. It can be useful when the causal nexus is well defined and controlled for displacement (in our example above, the offenders simply move to another area or another form of crime) and for other causal variables (such as changes in policing policy, economic changes affecting employment levels, the introduction of new home security devices in newly built homes in the area, etc.). But many interventions cannot be controlled in these respects and this is especially true of the multi-functional—there-for-the-long-haul—community anchor when we consider that organisation itself as the intervention to be supported.
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Implementing Privacy Policy in Justice Information October 31, 2007 Sharing: A Technical Framework Version 1.0. Table of Contents

Implementing Privacy Policy in Justice Information October 31, 2007 Sharing: A Technical Framework Version 1.0. Table of Contents

The electronic resolution of multiple security policies is in a very early stage of development. The most recent progress in this area is with the WS-TRUST, WS-SecureConversation work, which supports the ability to broker security tokens between domains. For example, one enterprise may offer services based on a user ID and password basis, another using X.509 certificates, and the third using SAML authentication assertions. Utilizing an intermediary security token service (STS) and WS-TRUST, each of these entities could agree to trust the intermediary to convert the incoming security token to the desired security token of the receiving system, such as converting a username and password to an X.509 certificate or an X.509 certificate to a SAML authentication assertion.
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Information Guide: Justice and Home Affairs

Information Guide: Justice and Home Affairs

... as recent events have starkly illustrated, the EU continues to face serious challenges in the development of its migration policy. The vulnerability of some sections of the EU's external borders is a clear example, notably in the Southern Mediterranean and at the land border between Greece and Turkey. In particular, measures must be taken to prevent large numbers of irregular migrants, often exploited by unscrupulous criminal networks, from arriving in the EU. The EU should accordingly pursue a migration policy based on ensuring that inward migration is effectively managed and ensure that the need for enhanced mobility does not undermine the security of the Union's external borders.
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Integrating food security into public health and provincial government departments in British Columbia, Canada

Integrating food security into public health and provincial government departments in British Columbia, Canada

However, one important difference from the 1930s health approach is outlined in this research. The BC food security experience brings together local, decentralized, bottom up approaches and government, centralized, top down approaches, with the top down thrust coming from the BC Provincial Government. The melding of both of these directions builds on the Bellows and Hamm (2003) contention of conflicting trends of decentralization and centralization occurring in food security since the Second World War. Their contention is also furthered by this paper, arguing that both top down government intervention and bottom up civil society engagement is likely to be required in achieving food security. It is also argued that many of the challenges within the incorporation of programs into the government are microcosms of higher level tensions seen played out at international levels. The paper’s intent is to analyze food security health promotion initiatives in the province of BC, and to create a framework for analysis of food security work in BC. A number of theoretical models are utilized in this analysis. First, the scope and means (e.g. policy instruments) of food security policy in the BC government are analyzed by contrasting and comparing them to the Hamm and Bellows’ (2003) definition of community food security 2 . Next, the research utilizes Lang’s (2005a) simple food policy triangle (Figure 1), which proposes a starting point for food policy as a contested space between stakeholders from government, civil society, and the food supply chain. Using the triangle and the sectors within it, the research examines relationships between the stakeholders and institutions, and explores the distribution of power between them.
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An Appraisal of the European Commission of Crisis  Has the Juncker Commission delivered a new start for EU Justice and Home Affairs? CEPS Paperbacks, 21 January 2019

An Appraisal of the European Commission of Crisis Has the Juncker Commission delivered a new start for EU Justice and Home Affairs? CEPS Paperbacks, 21 January 2019

‘Crises’ have served as catalysts for the adoption of previously controversial and already existing, as well as some new, EU policy, legislative and institutional ideas by the Juncker Commission. They have provided the ground for the re- design or creation of new Community bodies and EU agencies responsible for coordinating and supporting EU member states and with increasing operational tasks in JHA-related fields. The proposed and adopted reform of the Frontex Agency into a European Border and Coast Guard (EBCG), the creation – through enhanced cooperation – of a European Public Prosecutor’s Office (EPPO), a new mandate and a counter-terrorism centre at Europol, and an expanded role for the eu-LISA agency, constitute some cases in point. A key outstanding issue for these community bodies and agencies is that of democratic accountability and judicial control, and effective access to justice and independent complaint mechanisms when their activities impact on fundamental rights.
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COUNTRY PAPER CRIME, JUSTICE AND SECURITY SYSTEM

COUNTRY PAPER CRIME, JUSTICE AND SECURITY SYSTEM

After going through the security check, the prisoner is escorted to the reception office of the Central Prison. The reception officer checks his warrant sheet and fills up the particulars of conviction which is filed in the Penal Record Long Sentence . Most of the information about demographic details (e.g religion, marital status, etc) is obtained upon questioning of the detainee. Each prisoner is given a registration number and his/her particulars of conviction are filed in the “Penal Record Long Sentence folder.” Admission to Women’s Prison is done by the reception officer. The information in the particulars of conviction is as follows:-
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Climate Change,Environmental Security and Global Justice

Climate Change,Environmental Security and Global Justice

pertinent question is: Do future generations have rights? The answer to this question is in the affirmative and the contents of the rights of future generations depend on our conceptions of justice: utilitarianism (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), egalitarianism (justice as fairness á la Rawls) (Note 2), sufficientarianism (meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs) (Note 3), and libertarianism (the Nozickean entitlement theory of distributive justice based on the historical principles of just acquisition, just transfer and rectification which forbids any redistribution by way of taxation) (Note 4). These conceptions of justice are about the distribution of benefits and burdens within a state. The principles of justice enunciated at domestic level, as we shall see later, become problematic when applied at global level. But, first, let us discuss the objections to granting rights to future generations.
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Justice, Safety and Security of Women: a Literature’s Review

Justice, Safety and Security of Women: a Literature’s Review

In this paper I am going to present the position of women and how crime against women take place. And how, in this era of globalization, criminal justice system & maintaining law and order. How women feel safe and secure from the crime like rape, abduction, kidnapping, Murder, eve-teasing and forcing wife/daughter-in-law to go for feticide. These are the issues which affect a large section of society even in Indian society where women occupies a vital position and venerable place whom Vedas glorified as the Mother, the creator, one who gives life and worshipped her as a ‘Devi; or Goddess. Women found herself totally suppres sed and subjugated in a patriarchal society. Indian women through the countries remained subjugated and oppressed because society believed in clinging on to orthodox beliefs for the burnt of violence, domestic as well as public, physical, emotional and men tal. In present, women are now to safe and always a kind of threat feelings generated among women that in the present scenario they can be easily victimized from any nook and corner of the society.
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Web Services Security Issues in a Justice Environment

Web Services Security Issues in a Justice Environment

Confidentiality services support the policies governing access to information and are designed to ensure that information is not exposed to unauthorized parties. Currently, a common practice providing confidentiality service on the Internet is the use of the standard end-to-end encryption protocol, Secure Socket Layer or “SSL” (also more accurately referred to as Transport Level Security or “TLS”). A key problem with using SSL to provide confidentiality in Web services applications is granularity. SSL encrypts the entire session between a user and a Web server or, in the case of Web services, between two computers. More sophisticated applications of Web services may call for encrypting select fields of an XML message. For example, maybe the XML message includes medical information fields that must be encrypted to comply with HIPAA, but all other fields, for the purposes of wide- scale use, must be unencrypted. The WS-Security standard provides this kind of granularity, and there are tool-kits now available that allow developers to encrypt specific XML fields. However, we consider WS-Security-compliant applications to be an emerging technology that requires considerable expertise and complex programming to implement.
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National Security and Secret Evidence in Legislation and before the Courts: Exploring the Challenges  CEPS Liberty and Security in Europe No  78/January 2015

National Security and Secret Evidence in Legislation and before the Courts: Exploring the Challenges. CEPS Liberty and Security in Europe No. 78/January 2015

the article’s author. Cicero’s editor-in-chief filed an official complaint arguing that the search had violated the freedom of the press as guaranteed in the German Constitution. He won the case. Furthermore, and as a result of the Cicero affair, Section 353b(3a) of the Criminal Code was introduced, stating that journalists are not guilty of complicity to commit treason through the simple act of receiving and publishing secret information, which they probably received from a civil servant. As a result, editorial departments can be raided only if there is a suspicion that the journalist him- or herself is the author of a criminal offence. Some EUMS’ courts have seen their judgment compromising journalists’ sources challenged by the ECtHR. In the Netherlands, the ECtHR held in the 2012 Telegraaf case that the Dutch authorities had disrespected the right of journalists to protect their sources. The case concerned the actions taken by the authorities against two journalists of the national daily newspaper De Telegraaf after they had published articles about the Dutch secret service, the AIVD. It was alleged that the journalists had leaked highly secret information to the criminal circuit. The Regional Court and the Supreme Court held that the protection of state secrets justified the interference with the right to source protection. The case was taken by the ECtHR, which found that the AIVD’s telephone tapping and surveillance of two journalists lacked a sufficient legal basis, as the law did not provide safeguards appropriate to the use of powers of surveillance against journalists with a view to discovering their sources. Additionally, an order to surrender leaked documents belonging to the security and intelligence services was considered a violation of the journalists’ rights as guaranteed by Article 10 of the Convention. Similarly, in the 2007 case Voskuil v. The Netherlands, the ECtHR challenged the Dutch government, which had denied journalists the right not to disclose sources. The applicant, a journalist, had written two articles for a newspaper concerning a criminal investigation into arms trafficking. The journalist was detained for more than two weeks in an attempt by the Dutch authorities to compel him to disclose his sources. The ECtHR found that the Dutch government’s interest in knowing the identity of the applicant’s source had not been sufficient to override the applicant’s interest in concealing it, and held that there had been a violation of Article 10 of the Convention.
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Kautilya and Machiavelli on Justice, Prosperity and National Security

Kautilya and Machiavelli on Justice, Prosperity and National Security

Dharma and Artha : Kautilya gave the highest priority to the preservation and promotion of d harma , that is, to the practice of secular virtues, such as non-violence, compassion, tolerance, freedom from malice, truthfulness and honesty. He, just like the Vedic seers, assigned a foundational role to dharma . He believed if there were no dharma there would be no society. According to Kautilya, role of dharma was not only foundational but also instrumental to the promotion of artha (prosperity), that is, dharma not only paved the path to bliss but also to prosperity. He (p. 142) explained, “Government by Rule of Law, which alone can guarantee security of life and welfare of the people, is, in turn, dependent on the self-discipline of the king (1.5).” That is, economic growth depended on rule of law and that in turn depended on ethical conduct of the king. He (pp. 107-108) emphasized, “For the world, when maintained in accor- dance with the Vedas, will ever prosper and not perish. Therefore, the king shall
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Towards Closer Relationships: Requirements for More Effective JHA Cooperation in an Enlarged EU. CEPS Working Documents No. 211, 1 October 2004

Towards Closer Relationships: Requirements for More Effective JHA Cooperation in an Enlarged EU. CEPS Working Documents No. 211, 1 October 2004

The requirements of good policy-making in JHA are that decision-makers have a clear mandate and that those agencies charged with policy implementation are well-managed. Who does what, who has responsibility and the lines of accountability should be clear to the public and to professional groups affected by the policies. At the most general level, the provision of a clear mandate is a constitutional question. The present pillar structure of the EU is unsatisfactory and unclear. Should the Constitutional Treaty that was politically adopted at the intergovernmental conference (IGC) on 18 June 2004 enter into force as foreseen in 2009, the pillar structure would cease to exist, the European Parliament would have a greater role in the co-decision procedure (Article III-302) and the European Court of Justice would be conferred the power to review and interpret all these policies. In the proposals for the next IGC, the pillar structure should be replaced by a simple division of powers – those reserved for the EU, those remaining exclusively with the member states and those shared by the EU and the member states in an enlarged European Union.
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