Howard and Singh (1985) have studied the Mesozoic sediments from the Kachchhregion of India for ichnofossils. They have studied the sediments of the Patcham Formation, the Chari Formation, the Katrol Formation and the Umia Formation for ichnofossils and they have collected ichnofossils from all formations with varying degree of preservation. They concluded marine depositional environment for the Bhuj Member of the Umia Formation (Now Bhuj Formation, Upper Member, Biswas 1971, 1991) on the basis of Rhizocorallium bioturbated horizon. Casshyap et al., (1985) studied ichnofossils in and around Bhuj (23 0 12 I 16 II ; 69 0 40 I 13 II ) and SE of Bhuj i.e. Anjar village and they have documented ichnofossils up to generic level as Planolites, Skolithos and Thalassinoides.
In the present study, the temporal behavior of 2001 Bhuj aftershock sequence in Kachchhregion of western peninsular India is studied by the modified Omori law. The Omori law parameters p, c and K are determined with the standard errors by the maximum likelihood estimates using ZMAP algorithm in MatLab environment. The entire aftershock sequence is analyzed by diving it into three separate series with respect to time to weigh up the bigger earthquake of magnitude M 5.7 occurring on March 7, 2006 at Gedi fault. This study helps to understand the cumulative effect of the aftershocks generated by this bigger earthquake of the mainshock sequence. The results of this analysis are discussed with other studies of the different earthquake sequence for the differ- ent parts of the world and suggest that all the three series of Bhuj aftershock sequence follow the Omori relation. Values of parameter p vary significantly from series 1 to series 3, i.e., p-value va- ries significantly with time. Similarly, other two Omori law parameters K and c are also found to change significantly with time. These parameters are useful to describe temporal behavior of af- tershocks and to forecast aftershock activity in time domain. Aftershock decay rate provides in- sight into stress release processes after the mainshock, thus helping to understand the hetero- geneity of the fault zone properties and evaluate time-dependent seismic hazard analysis over the region.
For the present study, we have used seismological data and rainfall data. We have used seismological data from the catalogue of India Meteorological Department (IMD) and Institute of Seismological Research (ISR) and rainfall data recorded by three meteorological observatories of India Meteorological Department (IMD) network namely Bhuj, Naliya and New Kandla in Kachchhregion. These three meteorological observatories and epicen- ter of the 2001 Bhuj main earthquake are shown in Figure 2. Seismological data are taken for the period from 2001 to 2010 and rainfall data are taken for two decades, one decade before the 2001 main shock i.e. from 1991 to 2000 and one decade after the main shock i.e. from 2001 to 2010. Rainfall prediction and its analytical con- clusions always attract scientists and common man as well especially in the country like India, where agricultur- al activities are based mainly on rainfall. We have checked whether continuing aftershock activity after the Jan- uary 26, 2001 Bhuj earthquake over Kachchhregion has any influence on rainfall activity. Here, we have re- stricted the study to check the hypothesis whether the rainfall activity has increased over the Kachchhregion af- ter the 2001 Bhuj main earthquake and aftershock activities without going in details of different meteorological systems prevailed during monsoon season. Rainfall over Indian subcontinent depends upon various factors which prevail during the different seasons of the year. They are not taken into consideration. We did not go in de- tails of monsoon characteristics like normal or deficient or draught or excess rain observed in the concern year.
Lakhpat, Abdasa and Nakhatrana taluks. This zone is repre- sentative of Kachchh with all landscape elements like forests, agriculture, industries, mining areas, grassland, mangroves, salt pans, rocky barrens, wetlands and waste land. Intensive study area was delineated by considering a buffer of 10 km from two major mining complexes in the region. These mining complexes are at Panandhro and Mata-na-Madh villages located in Lakhpat and Nak- hatrana taluks, respectively (Figure 1). The area with three major landform types (depositional landform, ero- sional landform and residual landform) falls under drought prone region. The climate of Kachchhregion is characterized by long hot summer, cold winter and over- all aridity. The area experiences four seasons: Winter (December to February), summer (March to mid June) followed by monsoon till September, and post-monsoon (October to November). There is general moisture defi- ciency, indicating sustained potential water deficit where potential evapo-transpiration (PET) outweighs precipita- tion. The region is marked by very high aridity index of over 40 percent with more or less dry desert conditions. The rainfall usually shows an upward gradient from west to east. Being situated in the extreme western portion of Kachchh, the study area landscape receives lowest rain- fall. The annual average rainfall is low (334.7 mm) near these mining complexes. Semi-arid climatic conditions prevail in the area, which falls in rain-shadow portion with scanty rainfall. The minimum and maximum tem- peratures recorded were 2˚C and 44˚C during winter and summer, respectively. The area is characterized by a very low gradient and devoid of any significant topographic features, where the plain gradually rises, from the sea level, to an altitude of 297 m.
In recent years, there have been enormous efforts with alarm-based earthquake forecasting techniques. Examples are the pattern informatics (PI) approach (e.g., Rundle et al. 2003) that uses a pattern recognition technique to capture seismicity dynamics of an area, the relative inten- sity (RI) approach (e.g., Zechar and Jordan 2008) that uti- lizes smoothed historical seismicity based on extrapolated rate of occurrence of small events, and a moment ratio (MR) based method (e.g., Talbi et al. 2013) that uses the ratio of first- and second-order moments of earthquake interevent times as a precursory alarm to forecast large earthquakes. The comparison of these competitive fore- casting models encompasses a number of likelihood test- ing methods, such as the N-test for data consistency in expected number space, the L-test for data consistency in likelihood-space, and the R-test for relative performance checking of seismicity models (Schorlemmer et al. 2007). The working group on Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM), supported by the Southern California Earthquake Centre (SCEC) and United States Geological Survey (USGS), or the group of Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP), facilitates such testing methods as a part of their earthquake research and forecasting programs (Jordan 2006; Schorlemmer et al. 2007; Shebalin et al. 2014). These simulation-based model-testing strategies usually require a controlled envir- onment with a complete list of small to moderate histor- ical events and a detailed seismotectonic map of the study region. In addition, the test region comprising smaller grids should experience sufficient earthquake events (during the test period) to evaluate the alarm-based earthquake predictions (Schorlemmer et al. 2007). In the present study, however, the models could not be compared in the suite of N-test, L-test, and R-test because of the lack of seismotectonic understanding and sufficient sophistication of seismic events in the Kachchhregion (e.g., microseismicity, deformation rates, and fault maps). For this reason, two statistical goodness-of-fit tests were employed to examine the performance of each studied distribution such as: the maximum likelihood criterion with its modification to AIC and the K-S minimum distance criterion.
Grewia tenax (GT) is the mutual name of Guddaim or Gangeti, a treasured plant species in Kachchh region.Leaves of G. tenax are a significant part of the traditional remedy for the use of treatment against tonsillitis infections, trachoma and are used as a compress against inflammation. Grewia’s extracts are also useful in remedial hepatitis and another such type of diseases. Plant containshigh therapeutic standards. It has been used to treatseveral diseases such as dysentery, fever, rheumatism, diarrhea, anemia, osteoporosis, body weakness nausea, bone fractures, bone strengthening etc. Present study has been carried out on thequalitative and quantitative analysis of the major bioactive components of therapeutically significant plant Grewia tenax (GT) leaves by the use of GC- MS, whereas the mass fragment spectra of the compounds was compare with the National Institute of Standards and Technology(NIST) library. The soxhlet extraction of sample was done by use of continuous hot percolation method using n-Butanol as a solvent. After extraction, it was concentrated by using distillation method. Crude n-Butanol extracts were introduced in GC/MS instrument for isolation and identification of valuable phytochemicals. GC-MS analysis hasrevealed the existence of 27 compounds.The result exhibited that there are very significant phytochemicals found in n-Butanol leaves extract of G. tenaxlikeFatty acid, Hydrocarbons, Carbohydrate, Diterpenoid, Diterpenes, Triterpen, Phytosterol, Vitamin E and Steroid compounds.
On the basis of ostracods and lithological association it is concluded that the sediments of the Early Miocene, ages in Kachchhregion (as is true of other marine coastal deposits in India) were formed as a result of marine transgression. The deposits thus formed are generally characterized by (1) shallow water depositional environment (2) coarse nature of sediments (3) moderate thickness of beds and (4) their occurrence as thin strips near the existing coast line. The marine transgressions commenced with a gradual advance of shallow epeiric seas over slowly submerging land. Such transgressions bring with them the littoral environment, which is subsequently replaced by comparatively deeper infra-littoral or shallow circa-littoral environments.
The Kachchhregion is part of a network of rifts that de- veloped along the western margin of India following the breakup of Gondwanaland (Biswas, 1987; Fig. 1). The Quaternary/Tertiary sediments, Deccan volcanic rocks, and Jurassic sandstones resting on Archean basement charac- terise the geological sequence of the Kachchhregion (Gupta et al., 2001). Major structural features of the Kachchh re- gion include several E–W trending faults/folds as shown in Fig. 1. The rift zone is bounded by a north dipping Na- gar Parkar fault in the north and a south dipping Kathiawar fault in the south. Other major faults in the region are the E–W trending Allah Bund fault, Island belt fault, Kachchh mainland fault, and Katrol Hill fault. In addition, several NE and NW trending small faults/lineaments are also ob- served (Biswas, 1987). Latest paleoseismological data sub- stantiate that this region has been experiencing large earth- quakes of M > 7.0 since 325 BC (Rajendran et al., 2008). As stated earlier, within a span of 182 yr, the region has experienced two large magnitude earthquakes, one in 1819 (Kachchh earthquake, M w = 7.7) and the other in 2001 (Bhuj
In the regions of higher temperature and moisture content, weathering is more intense causing destruction of feldspars and other labiles, thereby increasing the compositional maturity by enrichment of more stable quartz. A colder and more arid region may produce less mature sediments .The chemical weathering may be further enhanced due to biochemical reaction in highly vegetated area (Basu, 1981). Bivariant log/log plot of the ratio of polycrystalline quartz to feldspar plus rock fragments (Suttner and Dutta, 1986) has been used for interpreting the paleoclimate of Habo Dome Sandstone. This diagram indicates a humid climate for the region (Fig 5A). The paleoclimate simulations for Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous times show that India as a part of Gondwanaland experienced humid to tropical climate (Thompson and Barron, 1981; Chatterjee and Hotton, 1986; Chandler et al., 1992). The precipitation of huge carbonate during Jurassic is also supportive of the fact that the area was witnessing a warm climate similar to found in tropics. A combination of low relief, hot humid climate and ample vegetation can produce quartz rich detritus (Franzinelli and Potter, 1983). Low relief provides prolonged residence time of sediments, thereby increasing the duration of chemical weathering and thus enriching the sediments in stable quartz.
specimen length is recorded 80 to 100 mm, whereas in the current study maximum length was recorded to be 120 mm. In any of these studies the spawning of the genus Melibe has not been mentioned. The study by Mastrototaro et al. (2004) in the mediterranean sea recorded at least ten specimen in spawning condition with maximum length of 60 to 143 mm of the specimen. The current study carried out in the Gulf of Kachchh significantly describes the mass spawning aggregation of Melibe viridis Kellart (1858) with an average ratio of 2:1 specimen and egg ribbon, in the Gulf of Kachchh in the western part of India
IJSRR 1(1) APRIL-JUNE 2012 Page 45 cattle and it can survive even other plant species failed. Presently the Banni grassland is degraded and converted into Prosopis based woodland. In this scenario, it is urgent to generate a data base on various aspects of grasses and status of grassland of Banni. Hence, the present study is to generate distribution, diversity and palatability information on various grasses and grasslands of Banni region.
Abstract—Aim of this paper is to evaluate the economic potential of the fourteen regions of the Czech Republic and based on this assessment to describe the degree of regional disparities in the Czech Republic. In addition there is the description of the economic potential of the region. In the second part of the paper there is analysis of the development of the selected indicators and the assessment of regional disparities. There is the evolution of five selected indicators and there is the description of differences of this evolution. Subsequently, during to use these indicators there is calculated average values and these are compared with the optimal values. It is by using graphical methods of magic polygons. Based on the analysis we concluded that the region which best uses its economic potential is Prague. This region has long been placed on the top of our imaginary scale in both in the assessment of individual indicators and in the total score. The contrary, the worst results are in Karlovy Vary Region, Moravian-Silesian Region and Usti Region.
Characterization of InDel diversity among a worldwide col- lection of M. ulcerans strains by comparative genomic hybrid- ization analysis (20) has yielded markers for the investigation of the phylogeography of M. ulcerans patient isolates on a global scale. Continental haplotypes with unique constellations in particular RDs were defined (19, 20). Here, we combine the strength of lineage-specific unequivocal genetic InDel markers with the high-resolution power of SNPs. We now determined the nucleotide sequence of RD-associated haplotype-specific copies of IS2404 and identified SNPs, allowing further subdi- vision of continental lineages. In particular, within the classical lineage, sequence analysis of the RD9- and RD11-associated IS2404 elements yielded 11 SNP types (ISE-SNP types) across a panel of 79 M. ulcerans strains. Since the two selected ISEs are identical in their chromosomal context across the tested classical lineage strains, the haplotype-specific insertions in FIG. 2. Phylogenetic and epidemiological patterns of the ISE-SNP types in the classical lineage. Identified SNPs were used to create a neighbor-joining tree (using percent identity) with JalView, version 2.4 (9), for visualization of their phylogenetic relationships. Clusters were assigned ISE-SNP type numbers (1 to 11, corresponding to Fig. 1). The geographic origins of the African strains are shown on the map (created using HealthMapper, version 4.3.1, software [http://www.who.int/health_mappping/tools/healthmapper/en/index html] with the permission of the WHO Geographic Information Systems department). Frequencies of the respective ISE-SNP type per geographic sample size are indicated in brackets for each country or region. Genetic distances (legend) are reflected by the lengths of the branches. GH, Ghana; IC, Ivory Coast; DRC, Democratic Republic of Congo; AN, Angola; BEN, Benin; PNG, Papua New Guinea; AU, Australia; MAL, Malaysia.
The study area Bhuj, the major town of Kachchh (Figure 1), is an old walled city in the past and it is has many old palaces with intricately carved wooden pavilions and decorated Hindu temples According to census 2011 population of the city is about 1,50,000. Bhuj resembles much of India before the tourist invasion. The present study area was selected in the residential area of the city (23 0 15 ’ 14.7 ” N, 69 0 40 ’ 07.4 ” E).
The most frequent sector of employment of men owning a wood-based building (the national average) was own business with the value of 41.3%, values in individual regions ranged signiﬁ cantly from 13.3% to 60.0%. The second most frequent sector of employment with the average of 38.6% was employment relationship in the private sector, the individual regions ranged signiﬁ cantly from 17.5% to 69.7%. The least frequent sector of employment was employment relationship in the public sector (the average of 20.2%), where the values in individual regions ranged from 6.1% to 36.1%. The survey showed that in the Hradec Králové Region, Pardubice Region, Ústí nad Labem Region, Liberec Region, Moravian-Silesian Region, Karlovy Vary Region and Vysočina Region the prevalent sector of men’s employment was own business, while in the Olomouc Region, Plzeň Region, Central Bohemian Region, South Bohemian Region, and Prague prevailed employment in the private sector. With respect to this parameter, there were signiﬁ cant deviations between individual regions. There is a noticeable inﬂ uence of big private companies in certain regions that raise the proportion of employed men over self-employed entrepreneurs.
The antibacterial antagonistic activities produced by these strains clearly indicates that marine environment possess numerous broad spectrum of antibiotic producing actinomycetes . Marine microbes are involved in bioactive activities such as antibacterial and probiotic activity . Antagonistic activity of the actinomycetes against the human pathogens of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria were reported from Bay of Bengal and Valsad district of South- Gujarat region . Correspondingly, in this present study, among sixteen microbial strains, only actinomycete strain A3 showed broad spectrum of antibacterial activity by spektra-plak technique and whereas A1, A2, A4, bacteria and fungi showed no inhibitory activity against the pathogens. The strain A3 showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (21 mm), Shigella boydii (40 mm), Escherichia coli (40 mm), Salmonella paratyphi b. (20 mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16mm). There was no zone of inhibition was found against Klebsiella pneumoniae (Table 2; Fig. 1).
Gujarat Ecology Commission (GEC) is actively involved in the development and design of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project (ICZMP) with Forest & Environment Department (MoEF), which is a World Bank-funded project. GEC has been appointed as the State Project Management Unit (SPMU) of the ICZMP. Under the ICZMP, GEC is working with several Project Executing Agencies (PEAs) to achieve the specific ob- jectives of the project. GEC is also working with Kachchh Forest Circle for mangrove regeneration and conser- vation. As the SPMU, GEC shall also coordinate among the Project Executing Agencies (PEAs), ensure effec- tive utilization of allocated funds and provide guidelines to the agencies for better implementation of their re- spective components thereby providing management services for successful operation of the ICZM program. GEC is the implementing agency for Component A-1 of ICZM i.e. Restoration, Plantation and Conservation of Mangrove along the coast of Gulf of Kachchh. The major responsibilities of GEC are as follows: