In order to extend this strand of research beyond the confines of the Christian and post-Christian context, three related instruments have been developed for application in Islamic, Hindu, and Jewish contexts: the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Islam (Sahin and Francis, 2002), the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Hinduism (Francis, Santosh, Robbins, and Vij, 2008), and the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism (Francis and Katz, 2007). In order to develop the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism, the 24 items of the original Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity were discussed by a group of theologians and religious educators representing both the Jewish tradition from Bar-Ilan University and the Christian tradition from the University of Wales, Bangor. The items were first developed in English, then translated into Hebrew, and then back-translated into English to check the reliability of the translation.
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Two major limitations with Francis’ original invitation to colleagues concerned the restriction of the interrelated research studies to Christian and post-Christian contexts and the restriction of these studies to English-speaking environments. Subsequent research has tried to address both issues. Addressing the first issue, the basic construct underlying the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity has been reapplied within other faith traditions, leading to the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism (Francis & Katz, 2002, 2007; Francis, Katz, Yablon, & Robbins, 2004), the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Islam (Sahin & Francis, 2002; Francis, Sahin, & Al-Ansari, in press; Francis, Sahin, & Al-Failakawi, in press), and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Hinduism (Francis, Robbins,
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operationalising measures concerned with the attitudinal or affective dimension of religion. Application of the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Islam Revised can facilitate the integration of research findings generated within an Islamic context alongside studies that have utilised the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity (Francis, Lewis, Philipchalk, Brown, & Lester, 1995), the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Hinduism (Francis, Santosh, Robbins, & Vij, 2008) and the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism (Francis & Katz, 2007). In this way the empirical psychologies of religion evolving across different religious traditions may be more effectively brought into the dialogue. Empirically the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Islam Revised has been developed and tested across four cultural contexts, namely the Islamic community in England, in Kuwait, in Pakistan, and in Malaysia. At each stage the measure has been refined and modified in light of evolving datasets and the experience of the research groups involved.
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The perennial problem in the psychology of religion concerns the integration of findings from studies which have operationalised different understandings of religiosity, or even used different instruments which purport to operationalise similar understandings of religion. The present paper has addressed this problem by proposing a way in which a family of instruments grounded in an operationalisation of the notion of attitude toward religion can begin to facilitate the generation of comparable findings across different religious traditions. The Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Islam was originally proposed by Sahin and Francis (2002) to provide an instrument for use in an Islamic context comparable with instruments designed for use among other religious traditions: the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism and the Santosh- Francis Scale of Attitude toward Hinduism. Data provided by a sample of 1,199 17- to 18- year-old students selected from secondary schools in six educational districts in Kuwait have supported the unidimensionality, internal consistency reliability and construct validity of this instrument. The data have also demonstrated the usefulness of the instrument to examine how a range of key demographic factors predict individual differences in religiosity among this population. Further research would now be helpful to confirm the psychometric
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Three attempts have been made to translate the concepts underpinning the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity in ways relevant to other faith traditions. The Sahin- Francis Scale of Attitude toward Islam was developed and tested among 381 Muslim adolescents attending sixth-form colleges in Birmingham in the United Kingdom (Sahin & Francis, 2002). The psychometric properties of this new scale were then confirmed among a sample of 1,199 Muslim students in Kuwait (Francis, Sahin, & Al-Ansari, 2006; Francis, Sahin, & Al-Failakawi, 2008). The Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism was developed among 618 Hebrew-speaking Jewish students in Israel (Francis & Katz, 2007) and then tested among separate samples of 298 female Jewish students (Francis & Katz, 2002) and 203 male Jewish students (Francis, Katz, Yablon, & Robbin, 2004) also in Israel.
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behaviours, as indicated by self-reported frequency of prayer and worship attendance. The development of a cross-cultural body of research has been further facilitated by FSAC translations available in a variety of languages (see Francis & Katz, 2007 for review), and adaptations of the FSAC measuring attitudes towards Judaism (Francis & Katz, 2007), Islam (Sahin & Francis, 2002), and Hinduism (Francis, Santosh, Robbins, & Vij, 2008).
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religiosity, including: abortion attitudes (Fawcett, Andrews, & Lester, 2000); alcohol attitudes (Francis, Fearn, & Lewis, 2005), altruism (Eckert & Lester, 1997); conservatism (Lewis & Maltby, 2000); dissociation (Dorahy & Lewis, 2001); dogmatism (Francis, 2001; Francis & Robbins, 2003); gender orientation (Francis & Wilcox, 1996, 1998; Francis, 2005); general health (Francis, Robbins, Lewis, Quigley, & Wheeler, 2004); intelligence (Francis, 1998); obsessionality (Lewis, 1996; Maltby, 1997); paranormal belief (Williams, Francis, & Robbins, 2006); prosocial values (Schludermann, Schludermann, & Huynh, 2000); psychological adjustment (Schludermann, Schludermann, Needham, & Mulenga, 2001); psychological health (Francis & Burton, 2007; Francis, Robbins, ap Sion, Lewis, & Barnes, 2007); psychological wellbeing (Francis, Hills, Schludermann, & Schludemann, 2008); purpose in life (French & Joseph, 1999); and science attitudes (Francis & Greer, 2001). In order to test whether the growing body of evidence regarding the correlates, antecedents and consequences of attitudes toward religion (established in a Christian context by means of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity) also held true in a Jewish context, Francis and Katz (2007) developed a comparable instrument, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism. In order to achieve a proper comparability between the two instruments the attempt was made to translate each of the original 24 items in a way appropriate for a Hebrew speaking Jew living in Israel. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed on a sample of 618 Hebrew-speaking undergraduate students attending Bar-Ilan University.
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This paper builds on the tradition of attitudinal measures of religiosity established by Leslie Francis and colleagues with the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity (and reflected in the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Islam, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism, and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Hinduism) by introducing a new measure to assess the attitudinal disposition of pagans. A battery of items was completed by 75 members of a Pagan Summer Camp. These items were reduced to produced a 21-item scale that measured aspects of paganism concerned with: the God/Goddess, worshipping, prayer, and coven. The scale recorded an alpha coefficient of 0.93. Construct validity of the Williams Scale of Attitude toward Paganism was demonstrated by the clear association with measures of participation in private rituals.
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The goal of the study is to develop a scale of “Attitude toward Pedagogical Teacher Training Programme” (APTT) for finding out faculty members’ attitudes toward pedagogical teacher training programme. Two study groups (“Exploratory Factor Analysis and Reliability Group” and “Confirmatory Factor Analysis Group”) were employed to develop the scale. The main aim of “Exploratory Factor Analysis and Reliability Group” that consisted of faculty members is to determine the technical properties especially the construct validity and reliability of APPT scale. The aim of “Confirmatory Factor Analysis Group” that consisted of faculty members is to determine whether the factor structure acquired by APTT was confirmed or not. At the end of the analyses, it has been found that 14 items in the scale grouped under one factor. The study shows that “Attitude toward Pedagogical Teacher Training Programme (APTT)” is a valid and reliable tool. Using APTT with other data collection instruments about pedagogical teacher training and comparing the attitudes of faculty members with the attitudes of students toward pedagogical teacher training will be beneficial. The final form of the scale measures to which degree Pedagogical Teacher Training Programme is necessary and valuable for the teaching profession.
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Table 1 examines the internal structure of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity among the three year groups separately. In the first set of three columns, table 1 presents the item-rest-of-test correlation coefficients between the individual items and the sum of the other 23 items in respect of all 24 items, together with the alpha coefficients. In the second set of three columns, table 1 presents the loadings on the first factor of the
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Secondly, future studies need to examine level of contact in detail. Studies found that level of contact is one of the most influential factors that affect the attitudes of individuals toward PWDs (Watson, 1947; Yuker, 1994; Wilson & Scior, 2015; Lee, 2016). Although this study found that there is a significant difference between level of contact and attitudes toward PWDs, it is important to define the level of contact deeply. It is because the context where individuals without disabilities contact with PWDs can elicit different attitudes by receiving status they have in that context. For instance, individual without disabilities does not provide job descriptions to PWDs in detail in workplace. In this situation, both of them do not receive equal status. Thus, it can elicit negative attitudes toward each other. This idea is supported by Allport’s intergroup contact hypothesis, which proposes unequal status which individual without disabilities and PWDs receive in the context directly influences their attitudes toward each other (Allport, 1954). Thus, future studies should include the type of contact, such as where the contact takes place and how frequent they interact with PWDs.
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The 24-item version of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity was completed during class-time on two occasions separated by a period of five weeks. Participants recorded their names and age but were assured of confidentiality, and participation was voluntary. None of the class declined to participate, and no credit was given for completing the questionnaires on either occasion. The participants were not informed that the measure would be re-administered.
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This special edition of Mental Health, Religion and Culture brings together thirteen original empirical studies that employ theories and measures based on the notion of ‘religious orientation’. As originally conceived, Allport’s notion of religious orientation distinguished between the two motivational styles of intrinsic religiosity and extrinsic religiosity. Subsequent work distinguished between extrinsic-personal and extrinsic social motivations, and added the third orientation styled as quest religiosity. The first set of seven studies draws on a variety of measures of religious orientation developed since the mid-1960s, including single-item measures. The second set of six studies draws on the New Indices of Religious Orientation proposed by Francis in 2007. Collectively these studies confirm the continuing vitality of the notion of religious orientation for informing empirical research within the psychology of religion and strengthen the foundation for future work in this area.
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When we move one layer down in Figure 2 we see the six dimensions of the attitude toward the cross-compliance criteria, which thus can be considered sub-dimensions of the attitude toward the direct support framework. The first of these is the attitude toward the existence of cross-compliance criteria, referring to farmers’ opinion on the fact they have to do something and to comply with certain rules, in order to receive the subsidy. Secondly, the attitude toward the focus of the criteria, which is increasing sustainability, as was explained in the literature review. This thus also relates to the utilitarianism in attitudes of farmers, as opposite to a land ethic. Thirdly, the attitude toward the effectiveness and the logic of the criteria, referring to the understanding farmers have for the criteria and how effective these are; how they, with their practical experience, perceive the logic of setting these specific criteria for reaching their goals. Fourthly, their attitude toward the degree of connection with other regulations, as well as between various criteria. Fifthly, their attitude toward the changeability of the criteria, meaning the stability of criteria over time, and whether they often change. And sixthly, their attitude toward the specificity of the criteria. This dimension refers to their opinion on the specificity or genericity of the criteria, and thus how they feel about general rules applying to every farmer in the same way, and about specific rules considering business-, regional-, and/or national circumstances. These five dimensions and six sub-dimensions came forward in our research as being part of farmers’ attitudes toward the direct support framework.
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abbreviated Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised (Francis, Brown, & Philipchalk, 1992), the apparent significant positive association between prayer and happiness vanished. This finding is consistent with the views that Eysenckian personality dimensions are powerful factors in shaping the predisposition to personal happiness, and that the apparent association between prayer and happiness in the present study was an artefact of individual differences in personality. The absence of a significant association between prayer (as a measure of religiosity) and
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Principal component factor analysis was performed on independent variables (i.e. general attitudes (towards money, change, and competiveness), the attitude toward entrepreneurship and perception of the external environment condition) and on dependent variable (i.e. entrepreneurial intention) to define the under- lying structure among the variables in the analysis (Table 3). Table 2 shows the finalized number of items included for each variable. For the purpose of the hypothesis testing only statements with factor loadings more than 0.60 were taken (Table 3). The reliability tests based on Cronbach’s alpha measurements were conducted. The Cronbach Alpha for all measures is above 0.7. Thus, the results of the reliability of constructs can be considered to be satisfying (Table 3). In conclusion this study measured entrepreneurial intention with three items. General attitudes comprise three constructs, i.e. attitude toward competitiveness (two items), attitude toward money (two items), and attitude toward change (two items). The attitude toward entrepreneurship was also measured using two items. The perception of the college environment refers to the degree to which the college the students are studying is perceived as a supporting organization to start a new venture. The construct was measured by a set of four items. The perception of entrepreneurship-related support relates to the degree to which external conditions to start a business, particularly financing factors, are perceived positively. This construct includes two items and the perception of entrepreneurship- related barriers consists of three items.
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38 in attitude toward the brand between the three message types (hypothesis 2).For purchase intention Hahn et al. (1995) stated that there was a difference in purchase intention for people who saw a message with a coupon, than for consumers that saw the message without a coupon. Therefore, was expected that there was a difference in purchase intention between the three message types (hypothesis 3). Surprisingly no differences were found in this research. For engagement rate (which is measured in likes, comments, and shares) was expected that there is a difference in engagement rate between the three different message types (Hypothesis 4). Taken the research from Cvijikj and Michahelles (2013), in account which showed that Informative posts got more likes than for example promotional posts. Whereas, social, and promotional posts got more comments. The results of this study show that there is no significant difference in engagement rate between the three message types. So in contrast with previous findings, however, no evidence for differences in engagement rate between the three messages types was detected. A reason for this could be that all the messages have the possibility to respond, maybe people like an informative message faster, but would share an entertainment message. The engagement rate consist of three different constructs with different meanings. This could be a reason that the engagement rate on the three messages show no significant difference.
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Licensed under Creative Common Page 518 understanding how the companies can make use of advertisements in order to form Saudi consumers’ attitude towards advertisement and products’ brand (Ab) and purchase intention (PI). It is hoped that the present study can provide insights for further research in this area and help company policy makers to employ the implementation of attitude towards advertisement as it was found that attitude towards advertisement to be among the main drivers of consumers’ intention and behavior in their buying behavior. It must be noted here that the sample size was only 150 Saudi male students learning at Najran University in Najran city. Thus, the results could not be generalized to all Saudi consumers.
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Alongside a family of instruments designed to measure the attitudinal dimension of religion within specific faith contexts (Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism), the Astley- Francis Scale of Attitude toward Theistic Faith was designed to assess the attitudinal dimension of religion within a multifaith context. Drawing on a sample of 4338 pupils attending schools in three areas of northern England, the present study supported the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of this instrument among four groups of pupils defined by self-assigned religious officiation: No religion (N = 1367), Christian (N = 1984), Muslim (N = 817), and other religion (N =126). On the basis of these data, the Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Theistic Faith was commended for further use in such multifaith contexts.
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coefficients in respect of all 24 items, together with the alpha coefficient. In the second column of statistics, table one presents the loadings on the first factor of the unrotated solution proposed by principal component analysis, together with the percentage of variance explained. Both sets of statistics support the conclusion that the scale is characterised by homogeneity, unidimensionality and internal consistency reliability within the sample. The alpha coefficient is established as 0.97, while the proportion of variance accounted for by the first factor is established as 57%.
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