Unlike mainstream schools, child care centers and kindergartens in Singapore do not have a centralized curriculum or standardized syllabus prescribing the contents to be taught. Preschool centers are thus free to adopt and implement a curriculum and the pedagogies that best meet the center’s educational philosophy and cater to the different preferences of parents and needs of the children. As a result, the preschool landscape in Singapore offers a diversified range of curriculum approaches that contributes to an uneven level of program content and teaching standards across the sector. In order to promote more evenness in the quality of teaching and learning across preschool settings, the second step taken by Singapore in its efforts to reform kindergarten education was to develop a curriculum framework outlining broad teaching and learning principles and strategies for the holistic development of children. In January 2003, Singapore witnessed the laying of a prominent milestone in the journey of improving kindergarten curricu- lum and pedagogy by launching the NEL Framework. While the NEL Framework is not mandatory, it signifies the first official document or “nationally endorsed curriculum for children in preschools” as described by Ang (2006, p. 205) that made explicit the nation’s aspirations and directions for a quality and appropriate kindergarten program. The NEL Framework aims to lay a sound foundation for early learning based on internationally accepted principles and research findings of ECE. In a nutshell, the curriculum frame- work is underpinned by six key guiding principles which advocate learning through an integrated approach, play, and interactions with the support from teachers in six learning areas for the holistic development of children. Teachers were also encouraged to restruc- ture the learning environment by setting up learning centers in the classroom to mini- mize passive learning and maximize opportunities for active and interactive learning.
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New ICT tools allow children to take advantage of new learning platforms as well aiding them effectively in attaining new knowledge through activities related to their immediate interests and real life scenarios. Nowadays, computers and digital applications are a part of the daily life of children. In kindergarten edu- cation, properly designed digital educational activities can become a very powerful educational tool for efficient and effective learning. The utilization of interactive activities may contribute towards the growth of learning incentives as well as proper mental development in particular areas; such as mathematics and science. Mobile devices have new attractive features and provide considerable advantages in the teaching of mathematics in kindergarten education. Our study proposes the integration of mobile devices, running our own specially designed learning activity applications, in kindergarten classrooms. These applications are based on the three levels of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) targeting fundamental mathe- matical concepts for the kindergarten level. We intend to gather information on effectiveness of the in- corporation of these devices and applications as leaning tools for kindergarteners.
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(head, shoulders, knees and toes, eyes, ears, mouth, nose) for five weeks. In the activities, certain items were used to encourage learners such as a bar of chocolate. They are always voluntary to start an activity but they get bored easily after a short time. Therefore, they should be included to the lesson with different kind of exercises. They like playing games and painting pictures in the classroom so I prefer to let them do these activities if time is left. They always wait for verbal encounter from me to encourage them. They want to be appreciated by the teacher with their works. The language that is used in the classroom is their native language (Turkish). The use of first language (Turkish) is generally preferred while even giving commands and directions to them. However; unlike the most children, they do not like to go around in the classroom. They would prefer to sit in their places and wait for the teacher to ask them questions. After the observation process has finished, two kindergarten teachers who works in the same institution (Gaziveren Kindergarten) were interviewed by the researcher. They are not English language teachers. They are pre-school teachers but they teach English to the kindergarten chil- dren because there is no English teacher in the institution. The gender of two teachers is female. They are ex- perienced teachers. One of them has been teaching in kindergartens for 5 years and the other one has been teaching for 7 years. Moreover, both of them generally use puppets in their English language classrooms be- cause they have used an English course book named “Cheeky Monkey” till this semester.
The parents’ needs regarding full-day classes, as perceived by the kindergartens, include the need for diverse education programs (56.0%), operation during vacation (30.6%), provision of meals/snacks and nutritious food (24.2%), instructions on safety (18.2%) and extension of class hours (15.3%). Among such requests, the public/national kindergartens show higher rates than private kindergartens in the following areas; the need for more diverse educational programs (61.8%) and operation during vacation (34.4%). On the other hand, the private institutions show higher rates than public/national kindergartens in the provision of meals/snacks and nutritious food (28.3%), reduction in education expenses (18.1%) and operation on Saturday (6.8%). The difference by region is not significant, but in small towns the demand for operation during vacation (40.4%) and extension of class hours (18.4%) was higher than in other regions. Meanwhile, the kindergartens point out that securing full-day class teachers is the most urgent issue that should be addressed in order to expand the operation of full-day classes.
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The OECD report (2001) highlights that one of the key driving forces behind high quality early years education is high quality teacher training and a high level of professionalism in the early childhood workforce. According to Khoo (2004), in-service training for pre-school teachers in Singapore was ad hoc and brief when it was first introduced in the early 1970s. These teachers would normally undergo some basic and fundamental training programmes in pre-school teaching that ranged between 60 hours and 120 hours. In order to enhance the standards and ensure consistency of pre- school teacher training, an inter-Ministerial Taskforce comprising representatives from MOE and MCYS, together with pre-school professionals and practitioners was formed in 2000 to develop a common training route for kindergarten and child care centre teachers and principals as well as an accreditation framework for the
This study has linked the fields of B5 child development, education and current/lifetime income, and medical health research in order to provide demographics that link education, gender, and ethnicity with life expectancy. A methodology was then used to determine gains in female and male life expectancies and active life expectancies using Social Security Period Life tables. From these tables male and female health dependency values were obtained making it possible to provide upper bounds to gains between one year and a later year for life expectancy, active life expectancy, and health dependency.
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The establishment of teacher certification system is the important process of teacher professionalization . Teacher qualification system refers to a compulsory regulation made by the country as to conditions and iden- titys which should be owned by people working on teaching profession, and education and teaching activities, which is the legal occupational license of teacher executed by the country. It is the basic national requirements as to staff specially working on education and teaching, as well as legal premise of citizens for obtaining posts of teachers. The new Chinese teacher qualification system has been put into trail implementation since 2011 and this reform of system broke off the convention that normal university students can obtain teacher certification without participating in teacher qualification examination, and explicitly stipulated that all examiners can obtain teacher certification through passing examination.
Race to the Top. With the Obama administration came new incentives for education. The Race to the Top (RTTT) program was created by the Department of Education to fund a federal grant competition that gave states an opportunity to compete for large grants. To earn the money, states had to commit to adopt the Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSS) created by a consortium of the National Governors’ Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers and funded by the Gates Foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (Porter, McMaken, Hwang, & Yang, 2011). The CCSS were created with the hope of reaching consensus on what is expected for student knowledge and skills in grades K-12. The primary areas of focus were on mathematics, English language arts and literacy (Porter, et al., 2011). America’s single-minded attention to content rather than how children learn best is perpetuating the reduction of intellectual, playful, experiential learning needed in kindergarten (Fromberg, 2006). Once again the focus of legislation was not on how children learn best but the perpetuation of academic knowledge.
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The present study examined the gross motor development of children enrolled in regular physical education, provided by a specialist teacher, and children enrolled in recreational activi- ties, provided by a regular teacher, in kindergarten. Our results showed that children from both groups prior to enrollment in the respective activities were delayed comparing the equivalent motor age to the respective chronological age in the locomotor motor skills. While at the beginning of the year no difference was observed in gross motor development, at the end of the school year, children enrolled in physical education activities, provided by a specialist, showed better performance than chil- dren enrolled in recreational activities. Physical education in- fluence was such that, at the end of the kindergarten year, chil- dren displayed advanced object control skill development ex- pected to their age. These results indicated that regular physical activity, provided by a specialist teacher, influences and pro- motes better development of gross motor development of chil- dren even in kindergarten.
Another area of research is sensory education, allow- ing children to explore foods with their senses by smell- ing, touching, hearing, watching and tasting. The aim of sensory training is to increase the willingness to taste new foods and thereby increase intake of vegetables or other foods in children [31–34]. The Sapere method based on Puisais’ work Le Goût de L ’enfant  can be one way of learning about food through senses and lan- guage in kindergartens and schools. The sensory-based food education programme, which originated in France, has since been translated to Swedish  and is being used both in schools and kindergartens in Sweden  To our knowledge, the Sapere method has not been sub- ject to research in preschoolers in Norway except from the study done by our research group . Helland et al. [17, 38] have tested the Sapere sensory education in tod- dlers between the ages of two and 3 years. We will now investigate whether there are benefits of conducting such interventions in younger children, before the usual onset of food neophobia.
Nowadays, an increasing number of Chinese people from rural areas move to big cities to earn more money. Additionally, with the development of mass media, the differences between rural and urban or different regions are increasingly less. From parents’ opinion, “respect” and “love” to children are the most important competen- cies of kindergarten teachers. With the increasing of parents’ education level, as well as the development of preschool education, more and more parents notice that professional education concept is more important than professional knowledge and skills. Parents from both urban and rural areas give high scores to kindergarten teachers’ mastery levels. In this study, although Chinese parents are satisfied with their children’s teachers, they pointed out that kindergarten teachers should be better educated and be more knowledgeable in the future. Urban parents have better expectations on their children’s achievement. They tend to provide more wide range study- ing materials and opportunities to promote children’s full development. However, both parental expectations to their children and parents’ involvement are two key impact factors to parents’ cognition and assessment on teachers’ competencies. Parents, who have higher expectations to their children or who spend more time in par- ticipating children’s education, tend to think kindergarten teachers’ competencies are more important to their children. Besides, these parents give higher scores on their children’s teachers. In China, urban parents tend to have a single child comparing with rural parents. Most of families are structured by 6 adults and 1 child, so the security problem of their children is taken as super important to families. As a result, they tend to have more strict requirements to teachers.
Figure 1 shows the estimated probabilities of falling into each of the 14 income categories for the average person in the sample (all covariates at the average val- ues) for 3 scenarios: having a nondisabled child, having a child with other disability, or having a child with ASD. Given identical education and demographics, the pres- ence of ASD was associated with greater odds of falling into lower income categories compared with households with nondisabled children. The households with chil- dren with other disabilities fell between the other 2 groups for each income level. Other factors associated with higher income included 2-parent households (OR: 3.71; 95% CI: 3.24 – 4.25), urban households (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.26 –1.65), more educated households (OR: 2.28; 95% CI: 2.17–2.40), and households with white non-Hispanic children (OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.76 –2.23). Controlling for other factors, parental age had no signif- icant association with household income.
of kindergarten children with very little missing data allowed for examination of both genetic main effects on and G x E associations with parent, teacher and self-reported behavior in very young children. As has been stated previously, these analyses would have been improved if there were an actual continuum of positive to negative environmental context, such that we could have investigated true positive effects of an environment, rather than referring to protective effects. However, that we were able to identify genetic main effects and a strong G x E effect in a low-risk community sample characterized by fairly low levels of adversity and moderately high average SES suggests that these effects may be amplified in higher-risk samples with clinical levels of symptomatology. Thus, this study stands to provide a “normative springboard” for future research with access to more extreme samples.
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All the kindergarten teachers highlighted the importance of the cooperation with the parents. They suggested organizing a pre intervention meeting with a health profes- sional in order to explain the intervention program aims. Most of the parents didn’t express any objection or criticism on the intervention program but were not involved in it. The “Health festival days” with the parents were a success. A small part from the Jewish-Israeli kindergarten teachers pointed out that the intervention program had an effect on the family eating habits at home. This effect was present only during the in- tervention year and did not last one year after. The Arab-Israeli kindergarten teachers felt that there was a positive influence on the family eating habits at home, and recom- mended to escort the intervention process with parents’ on a monthly basis.
Researches show that in the kindergarten teachers’ evaluation indexes system of complex qualities, the weight of Professional concept and ethics 、 professional knowledge and profession ability are not uniform size. The weight of Professional concept and ethics is 0.40, which have a large proportion in the first grade assessment indicator, it is show clearly that the kindergarten teachers’ Professional concept and ethics should have a improvement. Secondly, the weight of kindergarten teachers’ professional knowledge is 0.30, and professional ability is 0.3, which are also important that evaluate the kindergarten teachers’ complex equalities.
4. Educate families about the benefits of quality pro- grams that aid young children’s safety and devel- opment. Using local information, direct families to the resources that will help them locate quality care and help develop strategies to make quality care affordable. This can be done using brochures (eg, Choosing Child Care: What’s Best for Your Family by the AAP), checklists of quality, and referrals to the local child care resource and referral agency (www.childcareaware.org). A conversation with all families of young children will help promote quality through family education. Brochures and office displays can help facilitate this conversation in a busy practice. Remember to be a resource to families educating their young children at home. Zero to Three (www.zerotothree.org) is a tremen- dous resource for early brain and child develop- ment parent guides, and the AAP Literacy Promo- tion Technical Assistance program (www.aap.org/ advocacy/literacypromo.htm) is a resource for pediatricians.
importance when thinking about developing professional competences to act [see also: 29], including verbal acts. Practical training periods provide the possibility to act in real kindergarten settings and to reflect on one’s own acts during mentoring sessions provided by in-service teachers. Campus-based teaching and learning play crucial roles in equipping students with relevant theoretical concepts that are used as tools to reflect upon one’s own actions. Nevertheless, there are certain challenges in making this happen. Since students start their practical training very early in their education, they do not have a chance to read all the required literature that would help them develop the conceptual framework for self-examination in relation to children and to reflect. This weakens the learning potential of the first practical training period. Another weak point is that in-service teachers are seldom up-to-date on current literature used in kindergarten teacher education, so they are not always able to support their students in their professional development with an up-to-date conceptual frame.
Physical education and sports/play lessons provide opportunities for children to move, do sports and play games. Physical education aims to encourage children to take up a sport as a habit, help them know about their bodies, keep them physically active and help them learn through movement. Çelik (2008) defined physical education as educating people through physical activities. TPR helps teach a foreign language through physical movements. Physical education and sports/play is a course in which the TPR method can be applied comfortably. The teacher demonstrates the target words to be taught, such as run, jump, and throw, and then asks the students to do the same. During the lesson, the students follow every command given by the teacher. Thus, the foundation of learning a foreign language in a fun and healthy way can be laid.
that assessment practices are of similar importance as teaching practices for students’ achievement in higher education. The assessment practices they point out as crucial, are all associated with formative assessment practices . Evans  has conducted an extensive review on feedback in higher education from 2000 – 2012. Researches from the past decade on feedback and assessment have produced a growing body of evidence for good feedback practices. However, the review also renders visible that the art of assessment and feedback is complicated, and that this field of research and practice needs more nuanced empirical evidence. Furthermore, Evans points to a lack of implementation of good strategies in higher education, and that both student and lecturer dissatisfaction with feedback and assessment is well documented. Evans also discusses the issue of “the feedback gap” – although students are presented with high quality feedback, not all will benefit. William  has conducted a review on the role of assessment on teachers’ professional orientation, which shows that formative forms of assessment appear to have the largest impact on students’ learning outcome. William  points out that assessment is a crucial bridge between teaching and learning. Formative assessment focuses on encouraging the students’ abilities in “learning to learn” by involving them as active participants in the learning process, and by revealing what they have already learned and applying this in further learning. William emphasizes five key strategies in formative assessment: (a) to clarify, share and understand the learning outcome and criteria for success; (b) to develop effective classroom discussions, activities and assignments that evoke evidence of the students’ progression; (c) to give feedback that progresses learning; (d) to make the learners become each other’s instructors and supervisors; and (e) to help the students gain ownership of their knowledge .
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input to public schools had been increasing greatly each year. The hardware construction, teacher professional development and salaries were improved significantly; private schools lost their comparative advantage in school conditions and performance-based salaries. “Essentially, the teacher flow from public schools to private schools ceased in recent years and lots of teachers returned to public schools through open recruitment”. In this circumstance, these private schools without high quality, good reputation and favorable characteristics went into a vicious cycle and the government began to quicken the pace of policy tightening. First, “in the years ahead, new private schools for compulsory education and private high schools in rural areas could not be approved to set up” since the government statistics showed that primary and secondary education resources had already saturated in the past years and tended to have a crisis of surplus. Second, systems of annual inspection, stricter approval and censor, property rights monitoring and alteration, and income distribution had been established to neaten the local education market. Third, the government speeded up education resources adjustment and integration after 2000. A specific policy package was issued, one of which proposing “school transfer”, “capital increase and share expansion”, “school-enterprise liaison”, “mergers and acquisitions”, “the formation of education group”, etc. to accelerate the flowing of high-quality resources to elite schools. Some schools closed down under the pressures of “uneasy” policy environment and fierce market competition, while some private schools survived and continued to grow.