Knowledge-based Development

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Formulating Urban Development Strategies with Knowledge-Based Development Approach (Case: City of Arak)

Formulating Urban Development Strategies with Knowledge-Based Development Approach (Case: City of Arak)

Abstract: In the third millennium and the urban world, achievement to development requires cities that they were mentioned as development engine until a few decades ago and today, they are introduced as knowledge-based cities. Such cities have a kind of economy based on knowledge and sustainable cities that their citizens live in comfort. In other words, a knowledge-based city is one aiming to achieve wisdom-based development. This important issue is done by creating, dividing, updating, and measuring knowledge continuously. In order to achieve to this purpose, citizens’ constant interaction from one hand, and interaction among them and people in other cities or urban economy from other hand is necessary. In the meantime, industrial cities, as economically and demographically important places, are very important since they are alternatives to achieve to knowledge-based cities because of their direct relationship with technology, science, job creation, and revenue creation. Thus, this research tries to evaluate feasibility of industrial cities to achieve to knowledge-based development with the aim of multiple analyses socially, economically, environmentally, institutionally etc. of industrial cities. Thus, city of arak, as one of the industrial hubs in the country, was investigated. Research methodology was descriptive-analytical by using decision-making techniques of SWOT and PESTLE. In this regard, it has been tried in this research to examine indicators of knowledge-based city in Arak, to realize abilities and limitations of city of arak by using strategic planning techniques and evaluating status, to investigate whether industrial cities, such as Arak, have necessary potential to become knowledge-based city, and to determine strategies to achieve to knowledge-based city. The findings indicated that city of Arak is able to become a knowledge-based city.
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KNOWLEDGE-BASED DEVELOPMENT

KNOWLEDGE-BASED DEVELOPMENT

The most important object types are Transactions and Procedures. They allow a reasonable description of reality even though, with time, a significant set of new objects has been added: some of them to complete our description (GXflow for describing business operations workflow and generating the necessary code to use the specialized management server); others to enable more user friendly dialog boxes as new architectures supported them (Work Panels, Web Panels, GXportal); others to ease knowledge reuse in order to significantly increase productivity (Business Components, Data Providers, Mini-Procs, Patterns); and others to take Database (GXquery) or Data Warehouse (GXplorer) querying to end users. These objects can be combined to meet the most complex needs.
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A Conceptual Model of National Skills Formation for Knowledge based Economic Development

A Conceptual Model of National Skills Formation for Knowledge based Economic Development

Finegold (1999) compared the interrelationship between the various actors involved in skills formation systems to a complex adaptive system. Since the constituent parts of complex adaptive systems are always changing, the aggregate behavior of the system can be suboptimal and may never arrive at a final optimal state (Holland 1992). In the context of skills formation systems, suboptimal states are manifest in underinvestment in human capital and market failures occurring at all components of the skills formation system: education and training institutions, employers, institutions providing training, and individual investment in attaining higher level skills (Wade 1992; Lall 2000). The economic and political exigency of skills formations systems to constantly respond to evolving skills needs requires an institutional setting similar to a complex adaptive system. In light of this need for adaptability, feedback loops, responsive policymaking, and coordination of education and training actors, institutionalist approaches to national skills formations in which governments play a center role have emerged as a preferred approach to national skills formation. The role of government in an integrated institutional approach to skills formation goes beyond supply side policies for schools, universities, and training organizations and reflects an understanding that the relationship between skills formation and labor markets is more nuanced than applying simplified neo-classical assumptions that labor markets are homogenous and supply and demand will converge upon equilibrium.(Brown, Green et al. 2003; Kupfer 2011). Effective institutions that prevent market failure related underinvestment in skills, provide adequate regulation, and coordinate stakeholders are key elements of effective skills formation systems. In many countries national skills development policies, underpinned by skill inventories, sectoral skill development plans, and competency standards and accreditation frameworks, serve as a governance mechanism for policy guidelines, monitoring the workforce supply and requirements, channeling funds, and ensuring coordination in skill building efforts. Thus, there are four main overarching skills formation coordination objectives required by governments to advance knowledge-based development: linking economic development with the evolution of education and training systems; ensuring qualitative and quantitative supply-demand match between outgoing students and the needs of the labor market; facilitating regular, on-the-job training provision and participation in skills formation by the business community; and addressing policy, informational, or financial sources of individual underinvestment in skills development.
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Some Methodological Problems of Improving the Effectiveness of the Management of Innovative Enterprises

Some Methodological Problems of Improving the Effectiveness of the Management of Innovative Enterprises

Based on this approach, initial indicators have been determined to establish an econometric model for the analysis of innovation and science-intensive products or service production in the activity of innovative enterprises. Y is a dependent variable and characterizes Gross Product Release in Innovative Enterprises (GPRIE-Y) and the volume of services (man). Xi independent variables characterize the following indicators in innovative enterprises: HER-X1 - heat and energy resources costs, man., applied to the product -service launch of the innovative enterprises, MTR-X2 - material and technical resource costs, man., SCP-X3 - costs for the purchase of semi-finished and complementary products, man., FFI-X4 - Fundamental funds and infrastructure elements, man., SAF-X5 - Salary (basic, creative, supplementary) fund, man., INV-X6 - Investment incentives (all sources), man., SRE-X7 - Scientific research and education costs, man., ECO-X8 - Environmental protection and ecological balance costs, man., SPD-X9 - Social protection and public development costs, man., IRR-X10 - Innovative research and perspective research costs, man., BTE-X11 - expediency degree of "Resource-production-sales" business environment, assessment of the expert group on the (0, 10) scale, INV-X12 - Innovative degree of cycle "Science-education-research innovation-production", assessment of the expert group on the (0, 10) scale, HEA-X13 - The ecological and health level of production and environment, assessment of the expert group on the (0, 10) scale. Taking these into account, the econometric model of the innovative enterprises is proposed as follows in such a way that its relevant parameters are determined by computer software packages based on the least-squares method.
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A Knowledge Based Tutoring System – Review

A Knowledge Based Tutoring System – Review

workload and allow more time for self-development and improvement of professionalism and competence. Therefore, many of the studies popularize the use of computers and technologies in the creation of modern systems of education. However, the researchers have also cited the challenges in the application of the systems. First, Salekhova et al. (2013) suggests that inadequate training on the application of the systems will lead to problems associated with the analysis of academic performance. According to the author, the problem is common in many learning environments considering that one teacher have to deal with a number of classes with almost thirty students per class. Consequently, the analysis of performance for the students in a system that one does not know how to apply faces significant challenges. Additionally, the development of the system faces challenges in the development of problematic topics that represent the weakly learned topics. For example, if the topic “Fractional expressions” cannot be learned before “Rational expressions”, it is not worth trying to eliminate the knowledge gap in a more complex topic “Fractional expressions” when a student has poorly learned a prerequisite topic “Rational expressions”. Contrary, Punjaburee et al. (2012) assert that the most significant challenge entails the integration of opinions of multiple experts in the obtainment of high quality test item- concept relationships. Additionally, the authors identify a challenge in the identification and integration of weights given by different experts. Moreover, they observe that becomes an interesting and challenging issue to construct a set of rules to integrate the opinions of teachers.
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Module 6 The Bachelor s Degree in Nursing Nursing care chronically ill patients and citizens in their own homes

Module 6 The Bachelor s Degree in Nursing Nursing care chronically ill patients and citizens in their own homes

The module is generally organised on the basis of the exemplary principle in relation to chronically ill patients and citizens in their own homes, including the latest practice-, development- and research- based knowledge that can be related to the module's subject areas and learning objectives. The previous modules’ knowledge, skills and competences are incorporated into the module.

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The Use of Case-based Reasoning in a Knowledge-based (Learning) Software Development Organizations

The Use of Case-based Reasoning in a Knowledge-based (Learning) Software Development Organizations

Paper is organized as follows. Section II describes methods in the software engineering field , like Quality Improvement Paradigm (QIP) and Experience Factory model (EF) , Section III presents the requisites for a domain to facilitate learning in the software engineering sphere and Section IV illustrates the motivation for using the Case – Based Reasoning (CBR) technology. Finally, Section V presents conclusion.

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Integrating personal learning and working environments

Integrating personal learning and working environments

Regulation offers one way out of this and the recent banking crisis has revealed the problems of an unfettered market economy. Of course, some companies do take learning seriously, both as an issue of social ethics but also because they believe a stable and well trained workforce will result in better profitability. However, other companies have adopted ‘human resource management’ policies determined by the situational context in the external market environment (Nyhan, 2003).This entails adapting human resource policies to fit in with the corporate business strategy. Companies ‘up-skill’ or ‘down-skill’ as the market demands. Brought to its logical conclusion, human resources are a contingent, instrumental factor with no inherent value in their own right. Accordingly ‘human resource development’ as a distinct activity may or may not be a part of the ‘human resource management’ policy, but based on the principle of ‘external flexibility’, human resource stocks can be renewed more effectively through a process of short-term ‘project-based’ recruitment,
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Standards-based mathematics reforms and mathematics achievement of American Indian/Alaska Native eighth graders.

Standards-based mathematics reforms and mathematics achievement of American Indian/Alaska Native eighth graders.

professional development on standards-based math curriculum were more likely to practice reform- oriented instruction. Based on a longitudinal survey of 207 mathematics and science teachers in five states, Desimone et al. (2002) further showed that standards-based professional development is effective in improving teacher practice of higher order instruction especially when the activities involve active learning in which teachers are not passive recipients of information, and when reform type of activities such as teacher study group and mentoring are provided (see also Garet et al. 2001). Despite the empirical knowledge on the positive impacts of standards-based knowledge and professional development on teacher practice, little is known about how they impact student achievement. In addition, few studies have examined whether and how the relationship between standards-based knowledge and professional development and student achievement differ by ethnic groups.
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Creating a Learning Organization to Promote Sustainable Water Resources Management in Ethiopia

Creating a Learning Organization to Promote Sustainable Water Resources Management in Ethiopia

The scale of the development challenge is Ethiopia is monumental, especially considering that one in four Ethiopians of a population of over 80 million, live on less than a dollar a day. Almost all major development problems in Ethiopia relate to water, including food insecurity, low economic development, recurrent droughts, disastrous floods, poor health conditions, and low energy production. The Ethiopian economy and its food production are heavily dependent on rainfall, which exhibits monsoonal characteristics (Beltrando and Camberlin 1993; Camberlin 1995). The bulk of annual rainfall occurs within three summer months, usually June, July, and August (Camberlin and Philippon 2002; Segele and Lamb 2005). Those with water storage facilities can practice irrigation that supports two to three crop cycles; but many communities lack even basic structures to store excess rainfall for use during the non-rainy period, which limits them to one growing season a year. This leads to low levels of economic development and food insecurity, which has been exacerbated by decades of rapid population growth.
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Knowledge-Based Economy as a Foundation for the Economic Development of Countries

Knowledge-Based Economy as a Foundation for the Economic Development of Countries

The greatest concern of the countries participating in the knowledge economy has led to a growing interest to measure the components of this factor and their impact in development. Such measurements are relatively new; some started to be developed in the 21st century. For example, the World Economic Forum (WEF) introduced the Global Competitiveness Index in 2005, the PISA test was introduced in 2000, and the KEI became popular in the same year. Other mechanisms of assessment are the university rankings, which, even though it might be an old practice, they have only started being widely used since 2000. The high interest in measuring knowledge reflects the importance of this factor and its impact on economic development.
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Achieving Sustainable Development and Knowledge-Based Economy in Serbia

Achieving Sustainable Development and Knowledge-Based Economy in Serbia

regu- lation and an inadequate legal system), the inefficiency of the market of goods, business sophistication, negative credit rating and low national savings. Serbia’s goal is to obtain a better business environment and increase a demand for domestic products for achieving economic growth. Based on the Europe 2020 WEF Competitiveness Index (The Europe 2020 Competitiveness Report, 2014) Serbia scored 3.46 (scale is from 1 to 7). In order to achieve a better rank and to increase competitiveness Serbia needs to undergo reforms first by establishing institutional capacities in the country, and then by adopting certain policies and devel- opment factors. This is the way to increase productivity and employment that will bring about higher com- petitiveness. Government efforts should be focused on the improvement of institutional capacities, business environment, digital agenda, and education and training. Also, Serbia should address problems, i.e., con- strains such as inefficient government bureaucracy, access to financing, corruption, policy instability and government instability (WEF Europe 2020 Competitiveness Report, 2014). Furthermore, the KBE is achieved at a modest growth rate. The KEI and KI show that Serbia is ranked 49th out of 146 countries. Serbia has highest results in ICT that are considered to be one of the factors that can influence economic growth. A low employment rate of 45% (2013), low allocations in R&D around 1% of GDP (2013), low productivity, in- creased poverty, high public debt (around 70% of GDP, 2014), and fiscal consolidation slow down the achievement of economic development. Serbia needs to continue carrying out the reforms in order to achieve sustainable development and establish knowledge-based economy. In comparison with the EU(28) that itself did not achieve its goals, Serbia is considerably below the EU(28) average and below, or at the same level as the neighbouring countries, Romania and Bulgaria, depending on the indicator.
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Globalization and its impingement on muslim societies: a soci0logical perspective

Globalization and its impingement on muslim societies: a soci0logical perspective

Economic liberalization or globalization opens societies to the culture of the market (foreign capital and global market) as well as the individualism and consumerism that goes with it. Global culture tends to homogenize societies along the lines of a Western model that does not always fit well with local culture. Islamic countries are no exception. There is a lack of independent scientific and technological research in these countries and they are reliant on foreign aid/capital. Most Muslim countries are dependent on the West for technological infrastructure (machinery, equipment, medicine, etc.) and high quality consumer and luxury goods. Liberalization of technological diffusion and innovation guarantees that Muslim countries will be permanently dependent on the West which is seen negatively by the “Dependency school of thought”. There has been negative perception of globalization in the Muslim world. Globalization/westernization may inculcate Western values and ideas (e.g. unacceptable moral standards in movies, music, dance) in local youths. Islam is seen as being marginalized from global process as the global politics is dominated by the United States. Islamic countries are predominantly state controlled and Western style of democracy is not seen positively in the Muslim world. The core of globalization, which preaches universalism, inclusiveness, pragmatism, is not consistent with Islamic faith based on Muslim brotherhood and Shariah. For instance, Islamic teachings prohibit interest (riba), ban on speculation due to uncertainty and lack of transparency, emphasize on adherence to risk-sharing and profit-sharing as well as promotion of socially responsible and ethical investments that are conducive to the welfare of society. These are in contrast to Western principles of economic freedom based on materialism.
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EHR based Genetic Testing Knowledge Base (iGTKB) Development

EHR based Genetic Testing Knowledge Base (iGTKB) Development

Since the inception of the Human Genome Project [8] in 1990, a large portion of genetic testing information has been accumulated accordingly. The Clinical Pharma- cogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) [9] pub- lished pharmacogenomics guidelines in peer reviewed journals. [10-19] NIH maintains a list of genetic testing relevant data resources including GTR (Genetic Testing Registry), [9] ClinVar, [20] MedGen. [20] Electronic health records (EHR) include a wide spectrum of clinical information about patients, such as medical history, laboratory tests including genetic tests. Particularly, EHR data has attracted much more interests in accelerating individualized medicine research, [21,22] given a sys- tematic collection of health information contained in EHR systems. [23] For instance, the NHGRI-funded eMERGE network (electronic Medical Records and GEnomics), [24] is coupling DNA biobanks to large comprehensive EHRs (containing millions of patients) for large-scale, high-throughput genetic research with the ultimate goal of returning genomic testing results to patients in a clinical care setting. To our knowledge, no efforts have been made to extract clinical evidence regarding to genetic testing from EHR to support genetic test recommendation. In this paper, we intro- duce our contribution in this particular area.
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Role of Knowledge Engineering in the Development of a Hybrid Knowledge Based Medical Information System for Atrial Fibrillation

Role of Knowledge Engineering in the Development of a Hybrid Knowledge Based Medical Information System for Atrial Fibrillation

Rule based reasoning as described in previous section depicts how an expert gives explanation about the con- clusion with the help of rules. But it cannot describe why these rules apply on the problem. This could be because of insufficient knowledge about a particular subject do- main in the knowledge base system. Semantic net is a graphical representation of nodes (objects) labeled and followed by links (relationships) to describe knowledge in a pictorials manner. Knowledge engineers understand these networks easily as they are presented in the hie- rarchical manner of using expert’s knowledge. Frames are also hierarchal in nature. They also give a simplified method of storing knowledge in form of a table. The knowledge used in one frame can inherit properties used in another frame. Ontology refers to representations of specific standard symbols which are used in knowledge, expert systems and knowledge base systems for the par- ticular purpose.
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Portal Based Knowledge Sharing Optimization On Agribusiness Community Development

Portal Based Knowledge Sharing Optimization On Agribusiness Community Development

We apply C4P framework is described as a way of under- standing how knowledge is created and disseminated by par- ticipants in a community of practice. The C4P framework pos- its that knowledge is generated and shared when there is pur- poseful conversation around content in context. C4P is short- hand for content, conversation, connections, (information) con- text, and purpose [4]. Content is explicit, static knowledge ob- jects, such as documents, videos (monologue). Generating quality content is one of the great challenges of nurturing a knowledge-building community, but people are often hesitant to contribute content. Conversation is face-to-face or online discussions (dialogue). It is the most effective mode of knowledge transfer and generation, because the personal connection and back-and-forth nature of conversation provide the greatest context for information. Meaningful conversation fostered by quality of the content, clear purpose and personal connections. While Connections is interpersonal contacts be- tween community members that involve some level of relation- ship. Without connections, an online space is merely a docu- ment repository (content) or chat room (conversation). Context of information is the condition, whether and how information is useful to community members. Its indicate richness of detail, that makes information are meaningful and memorable, and helps situate knowledge among people who are not physically co-located. Conversations and relationships increase context of information. Finally Purpose is reason for which members come together in the community. It is creates energy and pro- duces results [4][11]. Content shapes conversations and fos- ters connections. Conversation generates new content and adds context to existing content. Connections spark conversa-
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Development of starch based edible films

Development of starch based edible films

Increased use of synthetic polythene bags has led to serious ecological problems due to their total non-biodegradability. To overcome these problems, there is an urgent need to develop packaging films, which are safe and eco-friendly. One possible solution may be utilization of naturally derived materials for the development of biodegradable films. Biodegradable films are generally used for food packaging due to its edibility and safety. Biodegradable films degrade naturally. Biodegradability varies with the conditions of sunlight, moisture, oxygen and composting (Tharanathan, 2003). Biodegradation is enhanced by reducing the hydrophobic properties and increasing hydrophilic properties. Biodegradable plastics or bio-plastics are made from renewable raw materials such as starch, protein, polysaccharides, lipids, fibers etc. Among all the natural polymers, starch has been considered as one of the most promising candidate for future material, because of its attractive combination of price, abundance and renewable in addition to biodegradability. All the plant seeds and tubers contain starch, which is predominantly present as amylose and amylopectin. Plants use starch as way to store excess glucose.
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Center for Early Childhood Education Teacher Preparation Program

Center for Early Childhood Education Teacher Preparation Program

The faculty and staff in the Early Childhood Department welcome you to the Early Childhood Teacher Preparation Program. We are excited you are here and happy to support your journey in early childhood at Northampton Community College. You will find that your choice to become a teacher of young children is rewarding in many ways. Teachers play an important role in the lives of children and their families. The early years are a critical time to provide each child with opportunities to be creative, to explore, and to be engaged with other children and adults. These experiences are foundational for future growth, development and success in life. As a teacher, you will affect the lives of many children and their families. Your work will help to build a strong foundation for each child’s future growth, development and success. Much of this success comes from building reciprocal, respectful relationships unique to each child’s family and community. NCC upholds the highest program standards which are aligned with the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). *Our program will prepare you to work with all children and families in the context of cultural, linguistic and ability diversity from infant through grade 4. Please feel free to contact us at any time with questions or suggestions using the contact information below. As faculty and staff, we look forward to working with you and being a part of your success, as you begin your educational journey and realize your teaching goals.
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THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

Some argue that there is no longer a meaningful distinction between science and technology in the knowledge-based economy (Gibbons et al., 1994). They present the view that the methods of scientific investigation have been massified and diffused throughout society through past investments in education and research. The consequence is that no particular, or each and every, site of research investigation, public or private, can be identified as a possible originating point for scientific knowledge. In addition, there may no longer be a fundamental difference in the character of scientific and technological knowledge, which can be produced as joint products of the same research activity. Studies of the research process have demonstrated that incremental technological improvements often use little scientific input and that the search for technological solutions can be a productive source of both new scientific questions and answers. As a result, the traditional base of the science system, research institutions and universities, cannot be assumed to dominate the production of scientific knowledge.
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Assisted Reuse of Pattern-Based Composition Knowledge for Mashup Development

Assisted Reuse of Pattern-Based Composition Knowledge for Mashup Development

As for what regards capturing and reusing knowledge, in IT reuse typically comes in the form of program libraries, services, or program templates (such as gener- ics in Java or process templates in workflows). In essence, what is done today is either providing building blocks that can be composed to achieve a goal, or providing the entire composition (the algorithm – possibly made generic if templates are used), which may or may not suit a developer’s needs. In the nineties and early 2000s, AI planning [1] and automated, goal-oriented compositions (e.g., as in [2]) became popu- lar in research. A typical goal there is to derive a service composition from a given goal and a set of components and composition rules. Despite the large body of inter- esting research, this thread failed to produce widely applicable results, likely because the goal is very ambitious and because assumptions on the semantic richness and consistency of component descriptions are rarely met in practice. Other attempts to extract knowledge are, for example, oriented at identifying social networks of people [3] or at providing rankings and recommendations of objects, from web pages (Goo- gle’s Pagerank) to goods (Amazon’s recommendations). An alternative approach is followed by expert recommender systems [4], which, instead of identifying knowl- edge, aim at identifying knowledge holders (the experts), based on their code produc- tion and social involvement.
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