The study was carried out exclusively in Ghana to explore the approaches employed by consultants in riskassessment at the design phase of projects in Ghana. One hundred and fourteen (114) consultants were selected out of a population of one hundred and eighty six (186) from three main professional associations in Ghana made up of the Ghana Institute of Architects, Ghana Institution of Engineers and the Ghana Institution of Surveyors (Quantity Surveying Division) practicing in Ghana for the study. Both primary and secondary data were collected. A descriptive survey was also used to observe and describe the presence, frequency or absence of characteristics of a phe- nomenon as it naturally occurred, in order to gain additional information. A questionnaire was also designed to collect data from the architects, engineers and quantity surveyors. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Scientists (SPSS) 17.0. Descriptive and inferential statistics, such as frequency tables, percentages and cross tabulations were used in the data analysis and summaries. Simple tests of associations were undertaken by us- ing Chi square and Cramer’s V statistics to compare relationships between variables. Again, relative importance index was also used to analyze some of the data by computing to deduce their rankings. The relative importance in- dex was used to analyze some of the data by computing to deduce their rank- ings. The research revealed that majority of consultants had an average knowledge of risk management. Based on the findings it was recommended that consultants undergo advanced training in riskassessment. It was there- fore suggested that consultancy firms should develop a set of laid down pro- cedures for consultants to use in riskassessment in order that the use of in- tuition employed by majority is lessened. The challenges observed in risk as- sessment and the remedial steps suggested curtailing the detrimental effects of risks would be of wide importance to many developing economies.
The highest and the lowest PI prevention knowledge scores were on nutrition and preventive measures to reduce the amount of pressure/shear. In fact, for all the three groups of nurses, assistant nurses, and nursing students, the lowest scores were on preventive measures to reduce the amount of pressure/shear. This dimension includes nurses’ knowledge on repositioning, positions for reducing the risk of ulcer, timing of repositioning in patients lying on the viscoelastic foam, disadvantages of water mattresses, and the common location of pressure ulcer. In the study by Hulsenboom et al, less than half of the nurses knew that putting heels on ring-shaped cush- ions or water-filled gloves could reduce the pressure applied to the heel. 29 In Schoeps et al’s study (2017), less than half of
Based on the challenges occasioned by fraud, the need for reforms and the establishment of various institutional, legal and regulatory frameworks cannot be over-emphasised. The American institute of certified public accountants came out with the Statement on auditing standards (SAS) No. 99 which deals with the consideration of fraud in a financial statement audit (AICPA, 2002). In addition, the Institute of chartered accountants of Nigeria (ICAN) issued Nigerian standards on auditing (NSA) No 5, the auditor’s responsibility to consider fraud in an audit of financial statements (ICAN, 2005). These standards seek to address the fraud challenges that engender public outcry on the financial statement auditors’ responsibility with respect to fraud detection, prevention and response. One of the suggestions for consideration in SAS 99 regarding the overall responses to the risk of material misstatement due to fraud is the assignment of personnel and supervision. Section 50 of SAS 99 identifies that the auditor may respond to an identified risk of material misstatement due to fraud by assigning additional persons with specialised skill and knowledge (emphasis on italics is mine), such as forensic and information technology (IT) specialists (AICPA 316.50, p.177, 2002).
Cardiovascular diseases become more common with ageing. 12 WHO classifies the disease conditions into 11 groupings based on drug findings and progress for the purpose of assessing the mortality data. 13 Knowledge about CVD and its risk factors is a vital requirement to change the individual’s behaviors, physical conditions and daily life practices. 15 A better patient outcome can be achieved by the improvement of the patients knowledge about various cardiovascular diseases. 16 Individuals should be aware about the implications of CVD, its risk factors and symptoms to allow them to be proactive for reducing their risk. 17 The previous study shows that the age distribution of total population were 32% of 30-39 years, 34% of 40- 49 years, 28% of 50-59 years and a total of 60% were male and 20% were females. 7 From our study it is observed that, out of total 105 patients 9.5% were from 20-40 years,41.9% were from 41-60 years and 47.6% were from >60 years and a total of 57.14% were females and 42.85% were males Another study finds that about 67.0% were literate more than average,8.0% were having primary education and 25% with no education. Comparing our study observations, out of 105 patients 52.4% were uneducated, 12.4% with primary education, 28.6% with secondary education, 2.9% with pre-university and 3.8% with degree education. In addition, in another study, 71.8% were having an occupation 8 and a fewer women have household incomes. 3
A total of nearly 64 million cases of CVD are likely in the year 2015, of which nearly 61 million would be CHD cases (the remaining would include stroke, rheumatic heart disease and congenital heart diseases). Deaths from this group of diseases are likely to amount to be a staggering 3.4 million (Burden of Disease in India, 2005). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most preventable cause of death in the world, due to the fact that the majority of its risk factors are preventable or controllable, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity, and smoking, lack of physical activity, stress and unhealthy dietary practices. The social and environmental causes of CHD and stroke are well recognized, and enhanced population-based prevention programs could result in a significant decrease in CVD morbidity and mortality (Pearson, 2013). Knowledge about CVD and its modifiable risk factors is a vital pre-requisite to change the individuals’ health attitudes, behaviors and lifestyle practices (Becker, 1977; Ford, 1991).
Based on power system riskassessment theory and com- bined with the knowledge of fuzzy theory, the overhead line fault probability model is established, by selecting the proper membership function to describe the influence of lightning, wind speed, line ice and temperature. In this model, the outage rate of overhead line, derived from historical statistics, is amended, and the forced outage rate of the lines is more in line with the actual operating conditions.
The term “fraud” comprises activities occasioned by theft, corruption, conspiracy, embezzlement, money laundering, bribery and extortion and the legal definition varies from country to country save for the Fraud Act (2006) that produces its legal definition in England and Wales . Fraud fundamentally involves using deceptive means to falsely make a personal gain for oneself and/or create a loss for another. Scholars definitions of fraud vary, but most are based around these general themes . For instance, the Black’s Law Dictionary defines fraud as all multifarious means which human ingenuity can devise, and which are resorted to by one individual to get an advantage over another by false suggestions or suppression of the truth. It includes all surprise, trick, cunning or dissembling, and unfair way by which another is cheated .
The aim of our research was to set up and validate a riskassessment approach for organizations from the perspective of the knowledge life cycle and the knowledge management system. The MARJETKA approach assesses risks related to explicit and tacit knowledge within the organization. Some limitations of the present research should also be noted. First, the case studies were limited to only 10 cases. Second, the selected case studies were concentrated in one country (Slovenia). Third, the initial risk rating is based on the subjective identification of knowledge threats and risks. Whilst these ratings are subjective, they probably represent the boundaries of this type or research. Although the MARJETKA approach was thus far only tried in 10 case studies, we demonstrated with a detailed discussion of two of those cases that it can be applied to, and is useful for, organizations of different sizes and types, whether commercial or in the public sector and therefor not-for-profit.
Context: Hypertension is a growing health problem throughout the World. There is paucity of data on awareness about hyper- tension, its causes and related complications in general popula- tion. Awareness about hypertension in younger population can prevent its development in later age. Thus to prevent & con- trol the problem of hypertension there is a need for increasing knowledge and awareness about hypertension in younger pop- ulation. Aim of this study is to assess knowledge about hyper- tension in younger population using a knowledge questionnaire. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study amongst 450 participants in the age group of 20 to 40 years using sys- tematic sampling technique with a random start. Data was col- lected using a questionnaire form that was devised relevant to the study. Conclusion: Among 450 participants, 264 i.e. 58.7% participants had poor knowledge about hypertension (score < 7) and 186 i.e 41.3% good knowledge about hypertension (score > 7).
Residents still presented with behaviours of concern and risk but the inspection findings indicated that the provider had arrangements in place to support residents and these arrangements reduced the frequency, intensity and impact on peers of these behaviours. Residents were seen to have access to support from psychology, psychiatry and behaviour support. There was evidence that residents were consulted with in relation to the supports that they needed. Staff were seen to liaise with the CNS (clinical nurse specialist) in behaviour support in relation to the review and update of behaviour support plans. Staff spoken with said that while responding to and managing behaviour was still an ongoing requirement in the centre, they had the resources required to provide one-to-one support, to prevent and respond quickly to triggers, and to implement with effect the behaviour management guidelines. This would concur with the overarching review of recorded incidents completed by the inspector; this review found an overall reduction in incidents and in their intensity and impact particularly on peers.
ICH Q8 defines quality as “The suitability of either a drug substance or drug product for its intended use. This term includes such attributes as the identity, strength, and purity.” ICH Q6A emphasizes the role of specifications stating that “Specifications are critical quality standards that are proposed and justified by the manufacturer and approved by regulatory authorities.” 13 Pharmaceutical QbD is a systematic, scientific, risk-based, holistic and proactive approach to pharmaceutical development that begins with predefined objectives and emphases product and processes understanding and process control. 14 It means designing and developing formulations and manufacturing processes to ensure predefined product quality objectives. QbD identifies characteristics that are critical to quality from the perspective of patients, translates them into the attributes that the drug product should possess, and establishes how the critical process parameters can be varied to consistently produce a drug product with the desired characteristics. 15 In order to do this the relationships between formulation and manufacturing process variables (including drug substance and excipient attributes and process parameters) and product characteristics are established and sources of variability identified. This knowledge is then used to implement a flexible and robust manufacturing process that can adapt and produce a consistent product over time.
Strengths of our study include our use of validated survey tools to measure PrEP adherence, osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, physical activity, and fracture risk, as well as our enrollment of participants in a variety of care settings. Our study also has limitations that warrant consideration. For instance, responses to our survey may have been subject to recall bias and social desirability bias, potentially leading to overestimations of willingness to take supplements, PrEP adherence, and OSE. In addition, most of our respondents were identified as gay white males of higher socioeconomic status, so our findings may not be generalizable to other PrEP- using populations. Finally, some physicians at practice sites incorporate education about the impact of PrEP on BMD into routine patient counseling, which may have inflated interest in bone health interventions.
In the knowledge-based economy, problems emerge with the conceptual framework of the national accounts. Not least is the issue of subsuming knowledge creation into a measurement system designed for traditional goods and services. The pace of change complicates the task of measuring aggregate output and raises questions about the use of input measures as output indicators. Factors which are not sufficiently incorporated into the national accounts framework include qualitative changes in prod- ucts, the costs of change and rapid product obsolescence. Knowledge is not a traditional economic input like steel or labour. When traditional inputs are added to the stock of economic resources, the economy grows accord- ing to traditional production function “recipes”. For ex- ample, more labour can increase GDP by an amount that depends on current labour productivity, or more steel can increase production of autos, housing or tools by predict- able amounts according to the current state of the arts. New knowledge, in contrast with steel or labour, affects economic performance by changing the “recipes” them- selves – it provides product and process options that were previously unavailable.
In volcanology, the observations of lay people can pro- vide excellent insights into volcanic processes in data-poor settings, as exemplified by the observations recorded by Pliny the Younger during the eruption of Vesuvius in AD79. Lay observations also help scientists to understand the impacts of complex events (Anderson & Flett 1903) and can provide unique information that may have imme- diate value in mitigation efforts (Loughlin et al. 2002). Such lay observation of volcanic events is typically infor- mal and unsystematic, and as yet has been little studied for the contribution that it can make to disaster risk man- agement. More systematic citizen involvement in volcan- ology can also be used, however, to collect multiple data points that sample eruptive products or the properties of volcanic fallout or flows, furthering the understanding of physical processes (Bernard 2013; Stevenson et al. 2013). Importantly all of these activities can have the in- direct benefit of enhancing communication, under- standing and trust between members of the public and the scientists charged with monitoring their volcano. This has been well documented in other scientific fields (Conrad & Hilchey 2010).
Consequently, we used LLF data, recorded by the Bei- jing Meteorology Bureau, to calculate the CG lightning den- sity. The data are based on SAFIR (Système d’Alerte Foudre par Interférométrie Radioélectrique) data recorded in 2007 and on ADTD (a lightning detection network of the China Meteorological Administration) data from 2008 to 2011. In China, the SAFIR network consists of SAFIR3000 sensors, which use the VHF interferometric technique for angular lo- calization of lightning discharge, of both IC and CG light- ning flashes, complemented with wide-band low frequency (LF) which uses the time-of-arrival (TOA) technique to char- acterize the lightning flashes to ground. The sensors have a detection efficiency (i.e. the percentage of actual flashes observed by the network) estimated by the manufacturer at about 90 %. Orville et al. (1987) concluded that in areas cov- ered by two or more direction finders, 70 % of all lightning could be detected. There are three SAFIR detection stations in the Beijing area (Fig. 1), separated by distances of 126– 145 km, which allows an accuracy of lightning detection of 1–2 km in most areas.
drought hazard has kept rising for the past 46 years and drought hazard with severe extent has been spreading from south-west to north-east gradually. The probability distribu- tion of drought hazard intensity index decreased from south- west to north-east and increased from south-east to north- west along the rainfall isoline. For the physical vulnerabil- ity curve, its reduction effect in three parts of the farming– pastoral ecotone in Northern China helped reduce drought hazard vulnerability in spring maize. For the curve of risk of yield loss ratio based on physical vulnerability, the prob- ability was lower compared with the drought hazard inten- sity index, which shows the capacity of spring maize to resist drought and its adaptation to drought. Overall, the farming– pastoral ecotone in Northern China is highly sensitive and very fragile to climate change because of its location in sev- eral different transitional zones. Riskassessment of physi- cal vulnerability to agricultural drought in this region can help people better understand physical vulnerability to agri- cultural drought and can also promote measurements from different fields to adapt to the climate change.
Analysis of research question three was based on answer given by a total of 400 respondents through 14 items related to their AfL practices in SBA context is shown in Table 2. This study reveals that teachers rarely used AfL practice in SBA with 2.75 mean value. This finding is relevent with Brookhart’s (2002) finding which indicate the teachers have limited skills at gathering and using classroom assessment information for improving student learning. This study also indicate findings that teachers always apply the critical influence of assessment as motivation and self-esteem practices. However, rarely use the teachers’ feedback and studentw involvement AfL practices in their lesson. This finding is supported by Hattie and Timperley (2007) that found teachers tend to focus on the correctional rather than instructional aspects of feedback. Studies of the impact of feedback on student learning achievement indicate that the feedback has the potential to have a significant effect on student learning achievement (Hattie and Timperley, 2007). Hattie and Timperley (2007) also note that feedback is more effective when it addresses achievable goals and when it does not carry high threats to self-esteem. At this point, once a task has been assessed, proper feedback needs to be given so that both teaching and
Assessments may be categorized as formative, summative, or diagnostic . Formative assessment provides prescriptive feedback to assist learners in achieving their competences . It is intended to help the learner deal with deficiencies in their understanding, knowledge, or competence. In contrast, summative assessment is generally given at the end of a period of learning to establish what knowledge, skills, and/or attitudes the learner has acquired over a period of time. It helps to establish whether learners have attained the competences required, and is not focussed on supporting learning. Diagnostic assessment is an in-depth assessment related to strengths and weaknesses in each skill area, which identifies priorities and needs . It helps to determine what learners can already do within the goals of the curriculum. This paper focuses on formative and diagnostic assessment.