developing a KnowledgeManagement (KM) Program appropriate for their organization. Each step of the process has an associated set of questions that will help leaders understand the implications with respect to resources, time, commitment, and implementation. Identifying the strategic goals and objectives a KM Program will support and linking the program to organizational performance are central to creating a KM Program.
tomers. For example, a company could support the customer process “car ownership”, which extends from the purchase and financing of the vehicle and the usage and maintenance all the way to the sale or scraping. This process could be covered entirely with an innova- tive combination of products and services by a single provider. Efficiently collaborating within dynamic networks based on modern information technologies, companies can provide these process oriented offerings [8, p. 20]. The growing importance of customer ori- ented business models is emphasized by numerous publications within the area of Customer Relationship Management (CRM), for example , , . A comprehensive overview over the literature in the field of CRM with a focus on e-commerce can be found in . CRM aims at leveraging investments in customer relations to strengthen the competitive position and maximize returns.
Structural knowledge assets are the organisational capabilities to meet market requirements. They comprise what's left when people go home and they provide the structure and continuity that people need to perform within the business environment. To build structural knowledge assets an organisation must provide knowledge-related leadership, i.e. policy and strategy that take explicitly knowledgeleveraging into account; build the necessary structure and culture for knowledge creation and sharing; provide information technology support (e.g. communication systems, documentation systems, etc.). As structural knowledge assets grow individual capabilities turn to grow and become organisational capabilities, the company’s performance is improved and people are better supported and become more productive in the business context. Market knowledge assets refer to knowledge about the market, the company’s clients, partners, competitors, etc, i.e. knowledge about the value created from the company’s relationships with the people and organisations with which business is conducted. Market knowledge assets gauge, evaluate and value the company’s products and services. They are the final outcome of investments in human and structural knowledge assets. To build market assets an organisation must deliver customised solutions more quickly; involve partners in all phases of product development; and provide feedback that customers can practically use. As market assets grow the results will include higher trust levels in the company’s supply chain and clear customer value.
13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words)
This thesis examines KnowledgeManagement (KM) initiatives at the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the United Kingdom (UK), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The first goal was to identify existing KM approaches that would foster higher levels of knowledge sharing and collaboration among security risk management practitioners within Department of Homeland Security (DHS) agencies to enhance risk- informed decision-making activities. Through the analysis of the three case studies, it was discovered that organizational culture, more than any particular KM process or enabling technology is responsible for moderating the level of knowledge sharing. The KM strategies, policies and implementation mechanisms explored in the three case studies are good models for DHS to consider in order to reduce agencies’ uncertainty, aiding decision making and bolstering effectiveness. The Risk KnowledgeManagement System (RKMS) called for in the DHS Integrated Risk Management Directive will require similar implementation and support structures for DHS to overcome the cultural, process, security, and funding obstacles experienced by the United Kingdom, Canada, and NASA. By using these case studies as models and reflecting on their experiences, DHS will be better positioned to effectively implement and adopt proven KM policies on an agency-wide basis.
Knowledge sharing can help an organization create value-added benefits (Liebowitz, 2001, pp. 1-6). Lesser (2001, pp. 831-841) provided evidence that a group of organization members who are involved in sharing and learning their same interests can help improve organization performance. Knowledge sharing can happen at various levels (Alavi and Leidner, 2001, pp. 107-136). Knowledge sharing was defined as a process of creating and sharing knowledge to others (Tannenbaum and Alliger, 2000). By sharing of personal experience, it also creates organization knowledge. Nonaka, Toyama and Nagata (2000, pp. 1-20) argued that a sharing of existing knowledge and creating of new knowledge are two major mutual tasks for management. Davenport, De Long and Beers. (1998, pp. 43-57) also claimed that a successful knowledgemanagement program usually pay significant attention to knowledge creation and knowledge sharing.
In the competitive environment, the entrepreneurs need to use their knowledge and skill and use them to connect existing and new technologies to their company. Successful entrepreneurs can develop their knowledge, skill, and managerial capabilities (Tidd & Bessant, 2009:79) in order to survive in the competitive environment. In order to survive, they must innovate new opportunities in their industries. In today’s competitive environment, innovation becomes more and more relevant, mainly due to three major trends: intense international competition, fragmented and demanding markets, and diverse and rapidly changing technologies. Firms that adapt to the needs and wants of target customers are in a better position to create a sustainable competitive advantage (Alegre-Vidal et al., 2004). Dobni (2010) argues that enhancing the innovative ability in organization is one of the most important levers to increasing profitability and growth in organizations. Innovative firms are more successful over long term if they are more creative, have desire to succeed, possess a common sense of purpose and constituency, and they are empowered (Dobni, 2010). This means firms must understand the relationship between strategy and innovation, and they have identified the configurations that are best suited to their environment, and also know how the business will achieve their objectives (Dobni, 2010; Stankevice & Jucevicius, 2010).
Knowledge is power and knowledge has value, but knowledge value is still a challenging topic that has not been completely clarified, whether it be in engineering science or philosophy, economics, etc. (Xu and Bernard, 2011). Over the past 15 years, knowledgemanagement (KM) has progressed from an emergent concept to an increasingly common function in business organizations (Zach et al., 2009). Understanding knowledgemanagement within SMEs is fundamental to economic advancement, particularly if priorities and practices transferred from large organizations are sub-optimal or counter- productive (Sparrow, 2011). Knowledge exists in the mind of people and circulates within organizations (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995). For all companies KM and innovation plays an important role (Porter, 2001). Many of KM initiatives are implemented in large companies but in the last years there is a shift towards small and medium-sized enterprises (Fink and Ploder, 2006). Lately, there is increasing realization of need and significance of KM for sustainable competitiveness for SMEs (Pillania, 2008). According to some studies SMEs need a simple framework to organize their key knowledge processes: knowledge identification, knowledge acquisition, knowledge distribution and knowledge preservation (Fink & Ploder, 2007; Ploder & Fink, 2007). The key knowledge processes (KKPs) for SMEs (Rosu et al., 2009b) identified (presented in figure 3) are:
By flexible and frequently published crediting and feedback methods the traditional ways of assessing students are supposed to be replaced/to be supplemented. Every student can frequently control their success and their current standing in the group. Since K3 is a cooperative system, there are totally new opportunities of assessing a student’s progress and learning success, one does not longer have to rely on the mere repetition of facts by written exams. Now, a student’s performance may be assessed by their active use of the system, the frequency of contributions and entries, the entries’ reception, and the quality of contributions. The big aim behind this is to develop competency of information and communication. Due to the great number of entries that have to be assessed automatic evaluation methods have to be found. So it is necessary to develop incentive and crediting systems that meet the collaborative approach and appeal to the participants’ reputation. Therefore it is every single student’s intrinsic motivation that has to be addressed, for it is the nature of studies that they are originally intrinsic-driven.
When using the Bayesian Knowledge Tracing model, it is assumed that the student’s probability of making the transition from the unlearned to the learned state is not changing across opportunities, while in the real world there might be a time elapse since students’ last opportunity. This fact assumes that there is a great possibility that a student’s forgetting rate is not zero. The standard KT model assumes no probability of forgetting. Prior work has modeled forgetting between sessions in a lab but did not allow within-day learning to occur . Alternatively, poor performance on a new day may also suggest that students may not actually be “forgetting” but instead, they might just be “slipping” We used Bayesian networks and Expectation Maximization to detect whether time had any influence on the forget parameter and the slip parameter of the KT model . The model with the better predictive accuracy will indicate the better cognitive explanation of the data.
Several knowledgemanagement frameworks have been proposed by numerous researchers, such as Wiig’s model, Leonard-Barton model, Arthur Anderson and APQC’s model, and Choo’s model (Holsapple & Joshi, 1999). The other framework was the van der Spek and Spijkervet model (van der Spek & Spijkervet, 1997) and the Lai and Chu model (Lai & Chu, 2002). Wiig’s (1993) KM framework proposes the three KM pillars which represent the major functions needed to manage knowledge. The pillars are based on a broad understanding of knowledge creation, manifestation, use, and transfer. While the Leonard-Barton (1995) model highlighted a KM framework which comprised of four core capabilities and four knowledge-building activities which are crucial to a knowledge-based organization (KBO). Arthur Andersen and APQC (1996) have advanced a model comprised of seven KM processes that can operate on an organization’s knowledge: create, identify, collect, adapt, organize, apply, and share. While the framework advanced by van der Spek and Spijkervet (1997) identifies a cycle of four knowledgemanagement stages: conceptualize, reflect, act, and retrospect. Lai and Chu (2002) proposed another framework by integrating the previous frameworks. It consists of three aspects, knowledge resources, knowledgemanagement activities, and knowledge influences.
organizational routines. Procedures that are culture-bound can be embedded into IT so that the systems themselves become examples of organizational norms. An example is Mrs. Field‟s use of systems designed to assist in every decision from hiring personnel to when to put free samples out on the table to transmit the norms and beliefs held by the head of the company to organizational members through systems. Technology enforced knowledge application raises a concern that knowledge will continue to be applied after its real usefulness has declined. And, that the dominant logic may persist after the underlying assumptions have changed. This may lead to perceptual insensitivity of the organization to the changing environment. Organizations may find themselves doing “more of the same” better and better, with diminishing marginal returns. The institutionalization of “best practices” by embedding them into IT might facilitate efficient handling of routine, „linear‟, and predictable situations during stable or incrementally changing environments. However, when change is radical and discontinuous, there is a persistent need for continual renewal of the basic premises underlying the practices archived in the knowledge repositories. What this highlights is the need for organizational members to remain attuned to contextual factors and not to blindly apply knowledge without appropriate modification to the current environment.
practice” where clinicians enter well-defined input data at appropriate times and the output of the systems is realizable in the clinic . The conflict between these requirements and the evolving, contingent, emergent nature of medical work contributed toward difficulties in the adoption of CDSSs . Instead of seeing CDSSs as vehicles for rationalizing medicine, developers of modern CDSSs are more likely to take a socio-technical approach, which recognizes that introduction of CDSSs needs to take into account their potential affect on the division of work among care providers and how CDS would shape and, in turn, be shaped by the organizational structure and practices of providers . In this context, the goals of modern CDS go beyond the original focus of producing expert-level advisories and extend to include support for tasks such as producing better documentation, retrieving relevant literature, and facilitating communication among providers. These additional goals contribute toward improving the overall quality of care. In his review from 1994, Miller notes the differences between the CDSSs of the early 1970's and those of the 1990's . The trends that Miller saw in the 1990's— a shift toward specialized and focused system, interacting systems that are integrated into the clinical environment and workflow, and the importance of evaluating CDSSs and designing them to be cost-effective—are also seen in systems that were developed during the last decade. In addition, researchers now recognize the need to consider patient preferences  and base the knowledge represented in CDSSs on evidence .
The three knowledgemanagement initiatives are: creation, dissemination and application. Once organizational objectives are set (the usual case is setting the performance indicators to include both financial and non-financial) and existing knowledge is assessed, a relevant knowledge strategy (such as innovation) can be crafted which will give a helpful start to all the knowledge workers. Knowledgemanagement can be applied to individuals, groups, or organizational structures. It has a strategic and normative aspects as well as the operational use. Identifying external knowledge means analysing and describing the company’s knowledge environment. A surprisingly large number of companies now find it difficult to maintain a general picture of internal and external data, information and skills. This lack of transparency leads to inefficiency, uninformed decisions and duplication. Effective knowledgemanagement must therefore ensure sufficient internal and external transparency, and help individual employees to locate what they need. Companies import a substantial part of their knowledge from outside sources. Relationships with customers, suppliers, competitors and partners in co-operative ventures have considerable potential to provide knowledge – a potential that seldom fully utilized. Firms can also buy knowledge which they could not develop for themselves by recruiting experts or acquiring other particularly innovative companies. Systematic knowledgemanagement must take these possibilities into account. Knowledge development is a building block that complements knowledge acquisition. Its focus is on generating new skills, new products, better ideas and more efficient processes. Knowledge development includes all management efforts consciously aimed at producing capabilities which are not yet present within the organization, or which do not yet exist either inside or outside it. Traditionally, knowledge development is anchored in the company’s market research and in its research and development department; however, important knowledge can also spring from any other part of the organization. In this building block, we examine the company’s general ways of dealing with new ideas and utilizing the creativity of its employees. When considered from the point of view of knowledgemanagement, even activities that were previously regarded simply as production processes can be analysed and optimised so as to yield knowledge. While knowledgemanagement offers cost savings, the real value is in more forward-looking knowledge workers that drive technological innovation process to make innovation possible, bringing together the technical and commercial worlds in profitable ways (Darroch, 2005).
Abstract. Knowledge exchange across organizational boundaries is
of primary relevance for the success or failure of organizations, especially in R&D environments. Using methods of social network analysis, the argument presented here is explored through an empirical case study on inter-organizational knowledge community building between different research institutes of the Fraunhofer- Gesellschaft, a large German organization for contract research in all fields of the applied engineering sciences. Expert knowledge communication and networking processes are evaluated by a multi- level approach. Institutionalization of knowledge transfer is studied with regard to the development of the informal contacts between the community members and the inter-organizational linkages on an aggregated level. The main focus is put on the relationships of knowledge exchange between the formal organizational boundaries and the informal inter-organizational network structures. The paper aims at exploring possibilities for interventions to facilitate and strengthen community building processes based on the results of the social network analysis.
Another system that shares some similarities with PRIME is Answer Garden 2 (AG2) , which supports astrophysicists in data analysis tasks. AG2 provides an integrated interface that allows users to locate and use about one thousand software components, their associated documentation, tutorials, frequently asked questions, data analysis recipes, or to ask a specific scientific community for help. It relieves users of the burden to remember the different data analysis tools, data formats, interfaces, and help systems, and provides shared recipes on how to use them. In particular, AG2 facilitates the collection and dissemination of organizational knowledge by building a database of commonly asked questions that ‘grows “organically” as new questions arise and are answered’ . However, AG2 does not allow for different types of tasks, explicit task characterizations, or proactive, situation-specific distribution of those commonly asked questions.
Knowledge is a vital asset for any organization. There are two types of knowledge, tacit and explicit knowledge. Knowledgemanagement has become a serious topic in the last decade. Knowledgemanagement turned into an essential part of the organization due to high importance. The common stages of the knowledgemanagement process are storing, gathering, structuring, sharing, controlling, generating, distributing, codifying, using and exploiting. The main purpose of this study is to examine the knowledge, knowledgemanagement and knowledgemanagement cycles and how they are playing vital role in managing the knowledge. Knowledge is prestigious entity and organizations cannot survive without knowledge because it's offering lots of benefits in the professional world.
Maintaining knowledge sources in areas were knowledge is changing quickly is a costly undertaking. On the other hand, we argue that there is a vast amount of knowledge freely available and already maintained by some group with an interest in it. Hence, the knowledge maintenance problem can be reduced for a VAT by maintaining the information needs that it has instead of maintaining resources that fulfill these needs. Thus, our approach models the information needs of a VAT and uses existing resources for fulfilling these needs. The reduction in knowledge maintenance is based on the assumption that it is much less costly for a VAT to maintain a list of questions than to maintain a list of questions and their answers. The questions that the VAT maintains can be parameterized. The parameters can be bound before the question is send to a knowledge source with context-specific values. E.g. a question can be: “Give me information about EJB technology provided that the EJB- Skill-Level is ?x and the EJB-Server is ?y”. Before the question is send to a knowledge source, the skill level can be bound to “low” and the EJB-Server can be bound to “JBoss”. These two pieces of information can be extracted from the current task of the project. Obviously, this requires a model of tasks and task-specific information needs; such a model is described in the remainder of this paper.
Smaller institutions often struggle to develop procedures that are relevant and effective, and accepted by staff. Typically, such smaller institutions lack the resources to commit to the design and development of performancemanagement procedures. Whilst the authors accept and acknowledge that there is no ‘one best model’, they do believe there are some important decisions along the way which can contribute to the acceptance and passage of the intended system into use. Although this paper limits the inquiry to data collection and interpretation to key design factors, the reader should appreciate that critical decisions will continue to be made long after the data has been analysed, and indeed throughout the design, development process and implementation processes.
Electrical plug loads comprise an increasingly larger share of building energy consumption as improvements have been made to Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems. It is anticipated that plug loads will account for a significant portion of the energy consumption of Sustainability Base, a recently constructed high-performance office building at NASA Ames Research Center. Consequently, monitoring plug loads will be critical to achieve energy efficient operations. In this paper we describe the development of a knowledge-based system to analyze data collected from a plug load management system that allows for metering and control of individual loads. Since Sustainability Base was not yet occupied at the time of this investigation, the study was conducted in another building on the Ames campus to prototype the system. The paper focuses on the knowledge engineering and verification of a modular software system that promotes efficient use of office building plug loads. The knowledge- based system generates summary usage reports and alerts building personnel of malfunctioning equipment and unexpected plug load consumption. The system is planned to be applied to Sustainability Base and is expected to identify malfunctioning loads and reduce building energy consumption.
Gittell (2005) on his part has explained key success factors in organizational performance, which include leadership, culture strategy and coordination. Another tool of measuring performance is the balanced scorecard. It also entails rules that give top administrators an understandable assessment of business. Business rules that explain results of actions already taken are considered. These financial measures have operational measures that deal with customer satisfaction, internal processes and the organization‟s innovation and improvement activities. For managers to be able to view performance in several areas simultaneously one has to consider the complexity of managing an organization. According to Kaplan and Norton, (2012) it entails looking at business from the following dimensions: internal processes; Innovation and learning and financial perspective.