The local-base transnational communities also play an important role in establishing 1.5-generation KoreanAmericans’ cultural identities in their daily lives. All participants’ current school lives and daily routines belong to Korean immigrants’ local-base transnational communities regardless of whether their parents immigrated with them or not. Since their current school was located near a popular destination city for Korean immigrants, they often visited Korean grocery stores, restaurants, and churches in Korea town. All participants were also part of Korean student circles in school. Those Korean grocery stores, restaurants, churches, and social networks are good examples of the local-base transnational communities in which they exchange and reproduce materials, funds, information, rituals, and social ties (Goldring, 1998; Smith, 1998). Mary explained why she joined such Korean American communities. She said that she felt comfortable when she spent time with Korean friends and did not want to lose her native language.
heritage language courses (Cho et al., 1997), and differentiated instruction tailored specifically to students’ backgrounds, needs, and interests (Peyton, Carreira, Wang, & Wiley, 2008).
Moreover, Lee (2005) asserted that socio-psychological needs, in addition to linguistic development, should be addressed. Yang further supported this suggestion and stated that teachers need to set realistic goals for their students, encourage them, and create instruction that helps decrease frustration and intimidation. King and Fogle (2006) also proposed that parents have realistic expectations for their children. Lee (2002) asked the students in his study to provide their input on creating an ideal Korean language program. Most of them suggested that the instructors be bilingual and understand what it is like to be Korean American, as opposed to being only Korean. Additionally, they requested that learning materials resonate with the culture of KoreanAmericans. Many of their textbooks originated from Korea and were unfamiliar to their learning styles. They also recommended workshops that taught parents techniques for helping children understand the significance of Korean preservation.
New Jersey and its vicinity are heavily concentrated with Asian Americans, many of whom are currently infected with HBV. Despite a rapidly growing population of KoreanAmericans in New Jersey, a majority of these people have not been accessed by the currently available HBV screening program. During the period between December 2009 and June 2015, Center for Viral Hepa- titis (CVH) and Asian Liver Center (ALC) of Holy Name Medical Center carried out a total of 128 community outreach HBV screening events in Central and Northern New Jersey. Serologic screening and survey were pro- vided to a total of 7199 Korean American adults (mean age 52) throughout these events. All the participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core IgG antibody (anti-HBc).
This study has several limitations. The researchers used a qualitative approach, a self-administered survey, which may have introduced response bias and resulted in missing items. Future research should use a mixed methods approach, using various research methods, in- cluding in-depth interviews and content analysis, to bet- ter understand the relationships between social support and health information–seeking behaviors for KAs. Simi- larly, online surveys did not allow the researchers to reach those who had no Internet access and to control for geographic variations. For example, KAs living in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area may have different communication characteristics than those living in rural areas. Although the survey was anonymous and confi- dential, respondents may have been reluctant to disclose information, which resulted in missing values for back- ground information. It is possible that respondents who answered the survey had higher education levels and were more affluent than those who did not answer the sur- vey. Thus, the findings cannot be broadly generalized. More rigorous sampling approaches in future studies would help to insure more diverse samples. Also, more in-depth quali- tative studies (in-depth interviews or focus groups) will help us to better understand health information-seeking behav- iors among KoreanAmericans.
Lastly, our ﬁndings are similar to previous studies that report familism (i.e., valuing their families before themselves), unreal- istic optimism (i.e., believing that they would not get CRC), and crisis health orientation (i.e., seeing a doctor only if they have symptoms). As consistent with past studies ( Cummings & Quintela, 2007 ; Hurh, 1998 ; Kang & Crogan, 2008 ), participants in this study put family interest before individual interest, which is in ﬂuenced by Confucianism ( Kang, 2004 ). KAs live in the US where western cultural values (e.g., individualism, equality, freedom, self-assertion, and self-reliance) dominate, and accul- turation may in ﬂuence KAs’ beliefs and values, but many Asian immigrants including Koreans keep their traditional cultural values somewhat intact while adopting selected dimensions of American values and social attitudes ( Chun, Chesla, & Kwan, 2011 ; Hurh). In this study, the mean number of years living in the US for participants was more than 24 years (range 8e38 years; Table 1 ). Regardless of the length of residence in the US, many participants valued their families more than themselves, which suggests that their attachment to Korean cultural values such as family interest over individual interest seems unaffected by length of residence in the US.
components. In particular, researchers should focus on comparing changing beliefs as well as increasing spousal support.
Implications for Nursing
A culture-specific intervention using a Korean-language DVD targeting KA couples was effective in increasing mammogram use among KA women. A significant aim of the intervention was to provide and emphasize appropriate information to rephrase KA women’s common beliefs. Examples of those beliefs include, “No screening is needed if they don’t have symptoms,” or, “Women who don’t have family history of breast cancer would not get breast cancer.” Intervention messages included, “If you have symptoms, it could be too late to get screened,” and, “Studies showing only one-fourth of women who were diagnosed with breast cancer had a family history, so you cannot be sure you will not get breast cancer because of a lack of family history.” Nurses in community health and primary care settings should incorporate culturally targeted education instead of generic education. Given the success of the KIM-CHI program, nurses should consider specific health beliefs and social support systems (e.g., spouses) when educating patients. The DVD format could easily be used to educate KA women in community settings (e.g., clinics, community agencies). Nurses could potentially adjust the KIM-CHI education model for use with women of other ethnicities.
Studies that evaluated behaviors associated with fruit and vegetable consumption in adults had not adequately considered the differences between White American and Asian-American dietary behaviors (Trudeau et al., 1998; Staser, Saywell Jr., Zollinger, Kunapareddy, & Joseph, 2011). People’s dietary behaviors tend to reflect their cultural and economic environment. Chinese Americans, especially living with older adults in the household are likely to maintain the traditional Chinese diet consisting of rice, fish, vegetables, and fruit (Satia-Abouta, Patterson, Kristal, Teh, & Tu, 2002). Korean-Americans consume a diet rich with salt and calories but a low consumption of dairy products (Kim, Kim, Juon, & Hill, 2000; Park, Murphy, Sharma, & Kolonel, 2005). For example, KoreanAmericans eat a traditional diet of steamed rice, kimchi, and a soy sauce stew daily despite their level of acculturation (Kim et al., 2000;Yang, Chung, Kim, Bianchi, & Song, 2007). The typical Vietnamese-American diet includes frequent use of salt, fried or oil-added foods, low use of canned or prepared foods, and moderate use of fresh vegetables (Duong, Bohannon, & Ross, 2001).
ARE Americans practicing Communism? THE TEN PLANKS OF THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO
In 1848 Karl Marx and Frederick Engels wrote a book outlining a political ideology, titled "The Communist Manifesto". Marxism's basic theme is that the proletariat (the "exploited" working class of a capitalistic society) will suffer from alienation and will rise up against the "bourgeoisie" (the middle class) and overthrow the system of "capitalism." After a brief period of rule by "the dictatorship of the proletariat" the classless society of communism would emerge.
Asian Americans with Disabilities
Keywords: Asian American, disability, social stigma, model minority, language access Description: Asian Americans with disabilities face social stigma from Asian cultures and
invisibility from the model minority myth. Along with the structural barriers related to immigrant status, these obstacles negatively impact Asian Americans’ access to disability-related services.
Seventy-four percent of Americans believe CEOs are not paid the correct amount relative to the average worker. Only 16 percent believe they are. While responses vary across demographic groups (e.g., political affiliation and household income), overall sentiment regarding CEO pay remains highly negative.
Two unique one-day programmes that bring to life the cultural experience of the Anglo-Americans in Florence. Each day is introduced by an expert lecturer and the
British Institute archivist who put the day in context, in the splendid setting of the Harold Acton Library of the British Institute of Florence.
prevalence of obesity contribute to higher rates of chronic illness. Longer life expectancy is one important reason why more Americans are developing chronic illness. Improved health care for many acute illnesses and diseases helps to keep people alive longer, thereby raising the chance for them to develop a chronic disease while allowing them to live longer when they do. In the early 1900s the leading causes of death included infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, diphtheria, nephritis, and bronchitis. Today, these diseases have been largely eradicated or are easily treated. Noncommunicable diseases (including many chronic diseases), which accounted for less than 20 percent of deaths in 1900, now
Lack of saving among Americans is not a recent phenomenon. Starting in the mid-1980s, the saving rate in the United States has declined steadily and it has been hovering around zero for several years. The survey provides a crude measure of saving by asking respondents whether, over the past year, household expenses (not including the purchase of a new house or car or other big investments) have been greater, equal or less than income. Expenses have been greater than income for 12% of individuals and about equal to income for 36% of individuals. Thus, about half of individuals have not saved last year. When looking at both the stock of (precautionary) savings and the flow of saving, one finds that a large fraction of the economy is exposed and vulnerable to shocks.
Source 1 : MPG1/284 : This is a contemporary map engraved by William Hole based on descriptions by the discoverer of Virginia, Captain John Smith. The map uses a mix of English and Native place names.
Source 2-7 : CO1/1 : These are extracts from the diaries of one of the Virginia settlers, possibly Captain Gabriel Archer, and show the life of the settlers as well as their interaction with the native Americans.
Undocumented Asian Americans fear deportation from disability services
Asian Americans with disabilities face language barriers when accessing disability services
Asian Americans with disabilities vary in their ability to access services
Although not statistically significant, Hispanic Whites scored lower in mental health even among a generic measure of mental health. Furthermore, Hispanic Whites reported less comorbidities than Non-Hispanic African Americans (0.14 vs. 1.30, P-value = 0.001). All, but two Hispanic White patients reported 0 comorbidities while all, but one patient of the latter group reported at least 1 comorbidity. The top 3 comorbidities reported were hypertension (high blood pressure), dyslipidemia (high cholesterol) and cardiovascular disease (heart disease) re- spectively. Hypertension accounted for 50% of the comor- bidities reported including being the only comorbidity reported by the Hispanic White group. Additionally, there was no statistically significant difference found between the EDSS scores of Hispanic Whites and Non-Hispanic African Americans indicating that the statistically signifi- cant differences found were independent of the severity of their EDSS based disability. Hispanics with MS had an average EDSS score of 4.21 and African Americans had an average of 4.75. Moreover, Hispanics with MS had an average MS disease duration of 5 years compared to 5.2 years for Non-Hispanic African Americans. There were also no statistically significant differences found between the use of illicit drugs or the use of interferon medications between the two groups, as interferons have been reported to exacerbate depressive symptoms . Of the 42% of Hispanic Whites and Non-Hispanic African Americans on interferon MS medications, 70% of those were Hispanic White and 30% were Non-Hispanic African American. Rebif and Betaseron were tied for the most commonly re- ported interferon medication. There were no other statis- tically significant differences found in the remaining MSQLI measures between Non-Hispanic African Ameri- cans and Hispanic Whites.
From tracing these early American approaches Lowe goes on to identify much of the detail of American decision making and the rationales underpinning behind it. He outlines changing perceptions of Taiwan and National Security Council paper 68 of 1950 as the broad context of the decision to act in Korea in the face of the DPRK attack. The latter demonstrated a general fear of communism in American foreign policy, the former determined tough stances in the face of the threat in Asia. He shows how MacArthur acted ahead of orders in despatching military aid to south Korea and that the Americans initially relied on his assessments of the ROK's army in deciding to send in ground troops. He shows how early decisions were driven by military considerations and that Truman gave MacArthur the lead while he was successfully pursuing the 'rollback' of the north's forces despite his unease over the general.
2. However, Asian admittance into elite private colleges has stalled even as immigration rates and college-agedness of Asian immigrants has skyrocketed, and indeed in some Ivy League schools has decreased, suggesting hidden racial admissions quotas. Comparison of such data with admissions statistics from California public universities, where affirmative action is banned and where Asian Americans make up almost half of incoming academic classes, renders this reality even starker.