We employed a cross-sectional design and used two different tasks, which were originally used by Lee and Kim (2007), one an interpretation task focusing on comprehension, and the other a sentence completion task which focused on production. In the interpretation task, the participants were asked to select the best matching picture for the sentence from three choices that were supplied. In the sentence completion task, the participants were asked to fill in the blanks with the appropriate inflected forms of the given infinitive verbs. The data were collected from 55 L2 Korean learners and 18 Korean native speakers. The 55 students were studying at the Korean Education Center in the Korean Consulate General in Sendai, Japan (age range = 27-63, mean age = 49.5). We divided the participants into three groups according to their proficiency level.
Our findings suggest that the amount of time middle-school students spend on L2 test preparation and their ability or inability to take a university-entrance level language test (TOEFL iBT or TEPS) may play an important role in mediating L2 motivation in this test-intensive context. Those spending less time preparing for L2 tests, or those who have not taken a university-entrance level L2 test, tended to have more negative L2 motiv- ation. These findings support the assertion that the language assessment environment may be adversely affecting the motivation to learn English for a significant number of lan- guage learners in this context. It is important to note that while 33 % of the participants were given the opportunity to take a university-level language proficiency test, 67 % were not. The score obtained on this test may not be as important as getting the opportunity, a signal of achievement in and of itself. As mentioned earlier, students are generally not en- couraged or permitted to take such tests unless they can perform fairly well on simulated tests first. It is also important to note that while participants differed significantly on four of the five measures of L2 motivation based on whether they took a TOEFL or TEPS, this variable did not correlate significantly with ‘Ought-to Self + Instrumentality (prevention)’ , suggesting many students shared a similar sense of obligation and desire to please others in order to avoid the negative consequences of failure.
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As intrinsic motivation is often linked with the desire to better understand the target language cultural group, the desire to integrate into the target culture itself plays an important role in the attitudes of learners. Gardner states that learning an L2 is “not simply learning new information (vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, etc.) which is part of [one’s] own culture but rather acquiring symbolic elements of a different ethnolinguistic community.”[p. 311] According to Gardner because learning an L2 requires the learner to include the aspects of a different culture into their own life, “the student’s harmony with his own cultural community and his willingness or ability to identify with other cultural communities become important considerations in the process of L2 acquisition.”[p. 312] It is argued that the acculturative changes individuals make when coming into contact with each other are relevant to individual experience of learning L2 and further these experiences are important because they can impact stress and psychological well-being. As shown, it is important to instill a sense of openness towards the target culture in second language learners to help strengthen intrinsic motivation, and therefore, encouraging a positive attitude.
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A crucial question that the existing data did not allow us to investigate is whether learners of English map any in the input to an existential feature set, thus contrasting with the lower proficiency learners of Korean and Chinese, who appeared unable to identify existential uses of wh-words. Not surprisingly, a clear outcome of this paper is that there is a need for further research into how acquisition of existential quantifiers proceeds. The Feature Reassembly Hypothesis provides a structured framework for such research, and future studies that are specifically designed to test the two key tasks, mapping and feature reassembly, should be able to shed light on some of the questions that have arisen here. For the mapping task, it is crucial to be able to observe (i) when mapping occurs (if it occurs at all), and (ii) how learners deal with more than one mapping possibility. For (i), an ideal study would investigate learners of both lower and higher L2 proficiency, so as to better ascertain whether a particular mapping is made early or late. For (ii), translation tasks (as Choi 2009 used) may enable more accurate assessment of how learners interpret particular forms when there are several candidate lexical items in the L1 for a given L2 item.
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Korean wh-expressions are generally assumed to be variables, whose quantificational force is determined through binding by a quantificational operator (like Chinese wh-expressions) (Aoun & Li, 2003; Cole & Hermon, 1998; Gill, 2004, Gil & Tsoulas, to appear; Kim, 1989; Nishigauchi, 1990; among others). According to Choi (2009), the features on sentential particles that head C play a key role in determining quantificational force. In (18-a), a wh-operator occurs when the question particle nayo has both wh- and interrogative features [+wh, +Q], while an implicit existential operator occurs when nayo has [−wh, +Q] features. (Choi suggests that the phonological reflexes of these different feature sets are the falling intonation of wh- questions and the rising intonation of wh-questions.) In (18-b) and (18-c), neither the conditional particle myen nor the progressive declarative isseyo is associated with a [+wh] or [+Q] feature, therefore in these cases too, an implicit existential operator gives nwukwu its existential quantifier sense. 8
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Our results in Figure 9 show that using a mixture of grammars allows the induction algorithm to find more patterns that fit arbitrary criteria for language dependence. The intuition supporting this is that in simpler models a given grammar must represent a larger amount of data that is better represented with more vague, general purpose rules. Dividing the re- sponsibility among several grammars lets rare pat- terns form clusters more easily. The incorporation of informed structure in M3 further improves the per- formance of this latent mixture technique.
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We introduce a novel sub-character ar- chitecture that exploits a unique com- positional structure of the Korean lan- guage. Our method decomposes each character into a small set of primitive phonetic units called jamo letters from which character- and word-level represen- tations are induced. The jamo letters di- vulge syntactic and semantic information that is difficult to access with conventional character-level units. They greatly alle- viate the data sparsity problem, reducing the observation space to 1.6% of the orig- inal while increasing accuracy in our ex- periments. We apply our architecture to dependency parsing and achieve dramatic improvement over strong lexical baselines. 1 Introduction
Several software tools that we have developed for use in second language contexts address the need of the developer in managing native language support. The first of these tools provides an easy interface for recording and checking native language terminology (as used in our dynamic ‘tool tip’ support). A major overhead in creating such support is the need to generate a usable database of corresponding native language terminology. In this instance, we have two software components. The first allows the designer to enter individual English words or phrases, as might be found in Menu items or equivalent English tool tips. A target native language is selected (e.g., Malay) and the user composes or checks equivalent terminology (Figure 3).
A potential diﬃculty with this research is that I conducted it in the institution where I work, with the consequent risk that respondents would seek to provide the ‘right’ answers – i.e. the ones they imagined I wanted to see – rather than sincere responses. In an endeavour to counteract this danger, the questionnaire began with a signed statement aﬃrming that the research was an entirely personal initiative, was not commissioned or even encouraged by the university administration, and that the respondents’ answers would not have the slightest bearing on the grades they would receive during their degree course. It was stressed that the questionnaires would remain entirely anonymous unless individuals elected to provide the optional datum of their student enrolment number (which would later permit comparison between reported motivation and re-enrolment for the second year of the course). Unsurprisingly, the majority chose not to give this piece of information and thus preserved their anonymity.
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As techniques for lending user support both of the varieties of on-line help and each of the interaction-support tools described above addresses aspects of system functionality. Their role in support is centred on 'what' the user can do with the system, or 'how' such possibilities can be achieved. To this end, on-line help conventionally yields information on the subject of system control while interaction-support tools facilitate the easy redo or undo of user interaction. In what follows, we describe a significant area of user-support that does not merely address aspects of system functionality. This is an approach to the provision of 'bilingual support' for information systems whose primary delivery language differs from the local mother-tongue.
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ternate sentences for each error. The main interest of their study is the use of a syntax-based sentence generalization method to maximize the likelihood that at least one of the alternatives will have at least one hits on the Web. They achieve accuracy of 69% in error repair (no error detection), on a small set of clauses written by FSL Learners. Very little work has been done to actually exploit knowledge of a L2 author's first language, in cor- recting errors. Several authors (Wang and Garigliano, 1992, Anderson, 1995, La Torre, 1999, Somers, 2001) have suggested that students may learn by analyzing erroneous sentences pro- duced by a MT system, and reflecting on the prob- able cause of errors, especially in terms of interfer- ence between the two languages. In this context however, the MT system is used only to generate exercises, as opposed to helping the student find and correct errors in texts that he produces.
The final discussion prompt asked study participants whether and how gender, age, and foreign status influenced their interpersonal and intercultural experiences while in Korea. Male study participants did not report gender as a hindrance in their stay; however, female study participants struggled with gender-related issues in off-campus environments, described difficulties such as misreading socially accepted fashion standards and interacting with older male Korean speakers. Study participants considered age an obstacle to improving their Korean language skills and understanding of Korean culture. Korean, typified by honorific structures that dictate linguistic rules for interaction with those younger, the same age as, or older than oneself, frequently created uncomfortable face-to-face interactions between study participants and Korean speakers. Furthermore, study participants perceived their foreign status as an advantage as Koreans rarely assumed they had prior knowledge of Korean language or culture before arrival. Forgetting honorific structures, for example, might be overlooked by Korean speakers if the study participants made any attempt at using Korean. Foreign status, however, was not without disadvantages; study participants felt it restricted their practice of spoken Korean, with scholarship-mandated language partners and roommates seeking English-speaking practice.
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Thus, each individual is really stuck; he or she is bound to live in permanent functional dependence of others; it is a link in the chain that links everyone. These strings are not visible and tangible, like iron shackles. They are more elastic more variable, more changeable, but no less strong. And it is this network functions that people perform in relation to each other, to it and nothing else, we call ‘society’ (Elias, 1994, p. 23). But seen as an active participant and main character in the process of learning a foreign language, the student has the right to learn, to perceive the relativity of reality, seeing different aspects of the culture studied, so he or she can then compare them and value their differences. However, the best way would be that the learner developed a worldview and culture that is not based on the principles of the target language culture, either guided by principles of their native language. It must take place for a ‘third culture’ or a ‘cultural space between’ that one developed over reflections on the cultures studied and discussed (Tavares, 2002, p. 23-24).
to her, teaching involves a continuous analysis of one’s own work, the experiences of others and the search for new means to improve teaching. This means that a teacher does not just set out to teach (English language for example), without taking into consideration certain basic factors. He/she must consider the nature of the language to be taught; is it a first, second or foreign language to the learners? Are there likely problems that the language may present to the learners? What content is relevant in that particular situation? In considering the teaching methodology to be employed, the teacher should also ask the following questions:
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This is a quantitative study aimed at examining the attitudes of EFL students toward the use of iPad in language learning. Most questionnaire items were modified from previous researches, (such as Albirini, 2006; Itayem, 2014; Leis, 2014; Wang, Teng, & Chen, 2015). One hundred and nine EFL students had completed a survey containing 30 items. Answers were arranged in a five-point Likert-type scale. The survey contained two sections: (1) general information; and, (2) attitudes towards the use of iPad in language learning. The first section of the survey required respondents to provide basic demographic information such as gender, age and the academic year. The second part of the instrument is composed of 30 items. This measurement tool which was of the Likert type is made up of the following options; ‘Strongly Disagree’, ‘Disagree’, ‘Undecided’, ‘Agree’, and ‘Strongly Agree’.
Among our key ﬁndings is the observation that, for this particular formulation of the task, the choice of learning algorithm appears to be more important than clever feature engineering. In par- ticular, the most effective teams employed se- quence models (e.g., RNNs) that can capture user performance over time, and tree ensembles (e.g., GBDTs) that can capture non-linear relationships among features. Furthermore, using a multitask framework—in this case, a uniﬁed model that leverages data from all three language tracks—can provide further improvements.
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In a similar vein, Casasanto (2008) has pointed out that the anti-Whorfian school of thought is at fault in lumping two dif- ferent questions together. According to him, the conflation of two distinctively different questions “do we think in language?” and “does language shape thought?” created an artifact in the argument structure and the logical flow of which the anti-Who- rfian UG group claimed. Pinker (1994) asserts that the founda- tional categories of reality are not “in” the world but are im- posed by one’s culture, calling the direct relationship between thought and language a “conventional absurdity” (p. 47). He further calls the Whorfian hypothesis a myth. However, Garn- ham and Oakhill (1994) argue that using the different number of words for snow (the well-known example) used in Eskimo and English to support or debunk the relationship between lan- guage and cognition is questionable, because the difference in the number of words in the two languages is resulted not from the fundamental difference in thought but from the needs of the environmental condition. They note that one group of English speakers (i.e., skiers) uses a number of different words to refer to snow, which is different from that used by typical English speakers. Casasanto (2008) calls for a need of reframing of Whorf’s inquiry into the relationship among language, concept, and experience by discrediting Pinker’s (1994) assertion against LRH. He argues that “language can shape the way people think even if they do not think in language” (p. 65).
Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then survey and identify salient themes in the growing body of work relating to plagiarism, primarily fro an L2 writing/applied linguistic perspective. These themes include terminological distinctions; views of the role of textual plagiarism in language learning and a writer’s development; a concern with students’ and teachers’ sometimes differing understanding of plagiarism; and disciplinary differences in perceptions of plagiarism. We review research into the role of the electronic media in changing orientations toward plagiarism, the potential role of culture as a cause of plagiarism in the work of L2 writers, and pedagogical approaches to guiding students away from plagiarism. Methodological issues in researching plagiarism are sureveyed, and the article concludes by suggesting directions for future research.
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Figure 5: Accuracy evolution w.r.t. beam size Efficiency was not the main motivation for this work and for the shared task. However, it is worth- while to examine the empirical complexity of the al- gorithm w.r.t. beam size and w.r.t. sentence length. As shown in Figure 6, the average speed at beam=1 is around 740 tokens by second. At best, we ex- pect a linear decreasing of the speed w.r.t. to beam size, motivating the use of a normalized speed by multiplying by the size. Surprisingly, we observe a faster normalized speed than expected for small beam sizes, maybe arising from computation shar- ing. However, for larger beam sizes, we observe a strong decrease, maybe related to beam manage- ment through (longer) sorted D Y AL OG lists, but also to some limits of term indexing 8 . The same experi- ence carried for large beam sizes on the Hebrew lat- tices does not exhibit the same degradation, a point to be investigated but which suggests some kind of
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In accordance of specialty the Korean Ministry of Education autonomously entrust with a subject that should be examined. In 1999 the first two faculties of Korean linguistic and Korean culture for foreigners were organized on a base of the Korean Department at Kyunghee University. Korean as a foreign language curriculum is divided into two courses: Korean language department and Korean language education. Graduated credits is 130 and the major courses, basic major 6 credits and for the selected major should get 48 credits in total 54 credits students can graduate. So, curriculum Korean major of Kyunghee University and etc. The Korean language curriculum of Korean universities, after graduating Ministry of Culture and Tourism’s Korean teachers' qualifications that should be taken under the premise, The Framework Act of the National Institute of Korean language designated in “Table 1” as “mandatory courses and number of class hours” standartly curriculum should be organized, all university almost identical and just some college characteristics of individual choice of subjects. And these Korean educational processes applying to college, in the Russian federal university Russia's federal governments about foreign language education, regulation and Educational environment or condition is different, it should be considered [7,8,16].