L2 students’ processes and composing strategies: development of

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Investigating composing strategies in the project papers of Arab postgraduate students

Investigating composing strategies in the project papers of Arab postgraduate students

Students at higher education are frequently required to write essays and project paper. In fact, writing is very much integral to the students’ learning experience in higher education. Writing essays trains students into the expectations of the discipline, and how to present their thoughts and reflection to their lecturers. Research into students’ writing at university has shown that the experience of writing not only helps students to become familiar with the standards and style of written expression expected in their disciplines, but it also helps them to clarify their understanding of the subject matter about which they are writing. This study examines the written work of five postgraduate students from the Middle East. The data collection procedures involved analysis of the students’ written work and interviews. The present study used several taxanomies of ESL writing strategies in order to investigate and understand the students’ conceptualization of their writing tasks. The findings revealed that the students employed several composing writing strategies in order to help them work with, think about and manipulate the materials required in order to do the writing task. The writing process was also interactive, which means that the students used and build upon their previous knowledge, skills and strategies in writing.
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Tracing Activity: The Multimodal Composing Processes of First-Year Writing Students.

Tracing Activity: The Multimodal Composing Processes of First-Year Writing Students.

Based on the data shown in Table 2 the only uses of technology that were common to all of the participants were the creation of PowerPoint presentations and participation in a video chat. Four students reported having previously created a presentation in a web-based presentation program, edited photos, and created videos. Curiously, four indicated that they had previously created a video using iMovie or similar software, while one, Amanda, reported never having done this. However, at the end of the semester, when I asked students during their interviews if they had ever composed a video using this software, not a single student indicated that they had done so prior to their digital autoethnographies. Several possibilities might account for this discrepancy. First, students may have feared appearing unprepared or underprepared to complete the project they were being asked to complete. A second possibility, and one that Tyler reported was true in his case, was that the students had opened the software on their computers and had used it for consumption purposes (such as a simple upload and playback), but had not used it for the level of production required by this assignment. For example, Tyler explained he had uploaded video footage recorded on a digital camcorder into iMovie following his high school graduation, but he had never attempted to create a video in the way that this project required. A single student reported having uploaded a video to YouTube, and none of them had ever added or revised
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L2 Writing Strategies Used by EFL Graduate Students

L2 Writing Strategies Used by EFL Graduate Students

Writing strategies are considered as a problem-solving task with goals to be accomplished. Therefore, writing strategies should be introduced and taught in the writing class. Students who are able to use writing strategies effectively can generate meaningful writings. From the findings above, it could be concluded that skilled writers use more effective planning and revising strategies compared to the less skilled writers. This study is in agreement with the studies conducted by Cumming (1989) and Sasaki (2000). Teachers should increase learners’ engagement with pre-task activities by facilitating them to plan their writing because. This activity would improve the quality of the language used during the task by reducing the overall mental burden. Planning directs learners’ attention and efforts to the writing process particularly when the task is complex. Less-skilled students paid very little attention to revision and editing strategies; consequently, teachers need to be aware of the role of revision. These strategies play an important role in the development of good writing. Teachers could also show the examples of revised works to the students; so, they will know how to revise and edit their work. This step should furnish sufficient opportunities for students to practice writing of different types.
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L2 writing self-efficacy, task-value, and strategies of Malaysian undergraduate students

L2 writing self-efficacy, task-value, and strategies of Malaysian undergraduate students

This study also expands the literature of L2 writing as it provides a better understanding of how individual differences such as value, beliefs and strategies affect L2 writing. To the best of the researcher’s knowledge, this is one of the first research attempts to use writing task value and writing strategies such as effort regulation strategies in the field of second language writing. This study yields new insights into how strategy use together with motivation involving ask value and self-efficacy jointly affect L2 writing processes. The findings help teachers to take appropriate pedagogical steps to increase learners’ L2 writing ability by giving positive training feedback, focusing on activities which can increase learners’ self-confidence and motivation. This study enjoys importance due to the fact that it focuses on the contribution of task value and self-efficacy in the L2 writing. This has principal importance for educators and teachers because motivational factors such as task value and self-efficacy are malleable and open to interventions. Cognitive ability is a factor, over which teachers do not have control, but motivational factors are controllable and teachers can undertake pedagogical interventions to enhance learners’ performance and encourage them to exert further effort in their learning and performance
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Achievement Goals in the Classroom: Students' Learning Strategies and Motivation Processes

Achievement Goals in the Classroom: Students' Learning Strategies and Motivation Processes

This pattern of relation is consistent with theoretical assumptions about the consequences of mastery achievement goals (Dweck, 1988; Nicholls, 1984) and provides field-based evidence of[r]

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The English Teachers Association of Western Australia. Professional Development Seminar: Composing Under Pressure: 9 Strategies

The English Teachers Association of Western Australia. Professional Development Seminar: Composing Under Pressure: 9 Strategies

Infographic to article In some cases, the factual content of a students’ piece of writing is less of a focus than their skills. Students can be encouraged to draw on their learning in other subjects to provide the content of the text types they produce in English. If the purpose of the writing task is for students to demonstrate their control of the textual features of a particular form or genre of writing, why not simply provide them with content matter to base their writing upon? After all, in an exam-style situation we often tell students it’s okay to “invent” facts and quotes for the purposes of constructing their text. After all, no real writer would sit down to write an article without the facts to hand. An infographic can be a simple and readily accessible source of a variety of facts and statistics with which students can be tasked to produce an interpretative text.
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Composing in schools: Tertiary composers meet secondary students

Composing in schools: Tertiary composers meet secondary students

The final question sought to discover how composition could be more effective taught and learned in tertiary and secondary education. A more extensive response can be given on after the final phases of the research but at this time it can be concluded that the interaction of tertiary students (and their mentors) provided a practical connection that was mutually beneficial. An unanticipated finding was that more composition students were in a position to consider school teaching as a career path as a result of this experience. A closer interrogation of the seemingly intangible aspects the composition process will also help students of composition at all levels to construct processes for the content and delivery of composition courses.
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College ESL Writers: Applied Grammar and Composing Strategies for Success

College ESL Writers: Applied Grammar and Composing Strategies for Success

Students often ask the question: “How long should a paragraph be?” One answer to this important question may be “long enough”—long enough for you to address your points and explain your main idea. To grab attention or to present succinct supporting ideas, a paragraph can be fairly short and consist of two to three sentences. A paragraph in a complex essay about some abstract point in philosophy or archaeology can be three- quarters of a page or more in length. As long as the writer maintains close focus on the topic and does not ramble, a long paragraph is acceptable in college-level writing. In general, try to keep the paragraphs longer than one sentence but shorter than one full page of double-spaced text.
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A comparative study of composing processes in reading- and graph-based writing tasks

A comparative study of composing processes in reading- and graph-based writing tasks

The present study explores a proposed inclusion of a RW task or GW task other than a writing-only task in an English proficiency exam administered to liberal arts and science majors enrolling in the course of Freshman English. The exam aims to determine students’ preliminary English abilities and if further English for Academic Purposes (EAP) support is needed. This change is to respond to a rising call for more authentic writing tests that simulate real-life writing situations. In considering whether RW tasks or GW tasks should be included in the exam, it is necessary to explore the underlying constructs of these tasks. This study sought to investigate the similarities and differences of writers’ processes elicited by the RW and GW tasks.
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L2 Reading in Thailand: Vocational College Students Application of Reading Strategies to their Reading of English Texts

L2 Reading in Thailand: Vocational College Students Application of Reading Strategies to their Reading of English Texts

The think-aloud protocol essentially provides a direct perspective of readers’ thought process during the reading task (Cohen, 1987, as cited in Akyel & Ercetin, 2009). Commonly, it is referred to as a verbal report in which the researcher elicits data by means of verbalization. It is a means by which the reader directs his or her own behaviors and problem-solving processes to solve reading-related problems faced (Tinzmann et al., 1990). It is adopted to investigate the reading process while the participants employ various strategies. Data obtained from the implementation of the think-aloud protocol are the sources to provide the key information in regards to the mental reasoning process of participants. A number of reading researchers adopt the think-aloud protocol, e.g., Ebrahimi (2012) who drew a comparison of different reading strategies with respect to reading English poems among EFL readers in Malaysia by implementing the think- aloud protocol as the research instrument. The utilization of the think-aloud protocol for the present study is complemented by interview data so as to ensure the veracity of the data obtained from the verbal reports regarding the participants’ thinking processes, and identify their employment of reading strategies.
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Composing Human and Machine Translation Services: Language Grid for Improving Localization Processes

Composing Human and Machine Translation Services: Language Grid for Improving Localization Processes

With the development of the Internet environments, more and more language services become accessible for common people. However, the gap between human translators and machine translators remains huge especially for the domain of localization processes that requires high translation quality. Although efforts of combining human and machine translators for supporting multilingual communication have been reported in previous research, how to apply such approaches for improving localization processes are rarely discussed. In this paper, we aim at improving localization processes by composing human and machine translation services based on the Language Grid, which is a language service platform that we have developed. Further, we conduct experiments to compare the translation quality and translation cost using several translation processes, including absolute machine translation processes, absolute human translation processes and translation processes by human and machine translation services. The experiment results show that composing monolingual roles and dictionary services improves the translation quality of machine translators, and that collaboration of human and machine translators is possible to reduce the cost comparing with the absolute bilingual human translation. We also discuss the generality of the experimental results and further challenging issues of the proposed localization processes.
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Working with Immigrant and Refugee Deaf Students: Strategies and Decision-Making Processes of Interpreters

Working with Immigrant and Refugee Deaf Students: Strategies and Decision-Making Processes of Interpreters

Chapter 1: Introduction Background In the spring of 2014, I was nearing the end of my first year as a K-12 educational interpreter when two new students were added to our team’s interpreting schedule. The students, both of whom were refugees, were to join several classes, including an art class I interpreted with several other D/deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students. One of the DHH teachers, the new students’ case manager, explained that the students were in the class to socialize with the other DHH students, who would be language role models, as well as to give them access to art as a visual means of expression. On their first day of class, it became apparent that the new students did not understand me, nor I them. Attempts to sign with them were met by a head shake and an eye-gaze to the floor. It seemed that one had never seen glue before; when the art teacher gave her a bottle, she opened it and almost began to cry as glue spread all over her project, the table, herself, and a neighboring DHH student. The other sat, not looking at anyone, drawing butterflies and flowers and attempting to write the word “school” on her poster paper. Slowly and haltingly, starting with colors and objects in the art room, we learned how to communicate and work with one another.
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Evaluating L2 readers vocabulary strategies and dictionary use

Evaluating L2 readers vocabulary strategies and dictionary use

Abstract A review of the relevant literature concerning second language dictionary use while reading suggests that selective dictionary use may lead to improved comprehension and efficient vocabulary development. This study aims to examine the dictionary use of Japanese university students to determine just how selective they are when reading nonfiction English texts for general comprehension. The findings suggest that high- intermediate and advanced learners are often selective when considering whether to look up a word. However, a third of the participants in this study were judged to have used the dictionary excessively. In addition, a quarter of the words looked up in the study were neither essential to the articles’ main points nor frequent or useful words, according to corpus research. It is concluded that some learners might benefit from training in selective dictionary use.
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Troublesome encounters: strategies for managing the wellbeing of postgraduate education students during their learning processes

Troublesome encounters: strategies for managing the wellbeing of postgraduate education students during their learning processes

Troublesome Encounters: Strategies for managing the wellbeing of Postgraduate Education students during their learning processes An ESCalate (HEA Subject Centre for Education) funded project: Charlotte Morris 2011 can be challenged. Students respond well when there is a positive connection and a feeling that supervisors are interested in them as a person. Keeping in touch with students and being there for them throughout the learning journey gives students a sense of security. They can play a pivotal role in helping students build up their own academic and support networks.
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Troublesome encounters: strategies for managing the wellbeing of postgraduate education students during their learning processes

Troublesome encounters: strategies for managing the wellbeing of postgraduate education students during their learning processes

Troublesome Encounters: Strategies for managing the wellbeing of Postgraduate Education students during their learning processes An ESCalate (HEA Subject Centre for Education) funded project: Charlotte Morris 2011 long-term research project is keeping the momentum going. It is a valuable skill for research students to learn to pace themselves, manage their energies and keep motivated throughout the journey. It is important to remember that it is normal to feel like giving up at times or to go through phases of being less

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Processes of Participation in the Development of Urban Food Strategies: A Comparative Assessment of Exeter and Eindhoven

Processes of Participation in the Development of Urban Food Strategies: A Comparative Assessment of Exeter and Eindhoven

Secondly, highlighted in the cases is the quality of participation: this describes the space the participants receive during the participatory policy process and whether this is a safe space to interact about a certain topic. In both cases, we have seen the exploration of new policy spaces, meaning that they attempt to go beyond “traditional” policy spaces where knowledge is purely evidence-based and expert driven. The use of foresight methods is one way of achieving this, as this is a tool that allows for new ways of generating knowledge. On top of that, it is argued that because the future holds no claims or relations, foresight offers a “safe space” in which actors from diverse backgrounds can interact. In Exeter, participants are largely driven by their own values, experiences, and concerns over a number of local issues, which they feel can be positively impacted by having a food strategy. These could be shared and expanded upon through the foresight process during workshops. Particularly interesting is that at first participants found thinking of the future difficult, but in most cases really got the hang of it and reported positively about this new way of thinking. Notable is the role of the process leader; he/she steers the process in a certain direction in which their own background often has a considerable influence. In Exeter, the convenor of the steering committee is regarded as a moral authority through his position with the local church, and a respected local champion for his history of work with community groups, and on local poverty (including food poverty) issues. Ultimately, the convenor oversees the process and is in a position to ensure that particular concerns are represented, including their own. In Eindhoven, this came to the fore in the sense that the process leader often was not satisfied with the ability to vision about the future of the city—which is a key characteristic for a planner. Secondly, they were also new to collaborating with the municipality. As such, much of the policy-making process was new to the process leaders too. Furthermore, one of the leaders left PT40 halfway through the UFS development. This slightly shifted the focus within the UFS, with a priority on themes around circular economy, as this was an interest of the leader that was now solely in charge.
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Processes of Participation in the Development of Urban Food Strategies: A Comparative Assessment of Exeter and Eindhoven

Processes of Participation in the Development of Urban Food Strategies: A Comparative Assessment of Exeter and Eindhoven

Sustainability 2017, 9, 931 2 of 18 powers” of cities have become “world-making” [ 15 , 18 ]. (“World-making” in the sense that cities have become the sites where power, knowledge, culture, etc. are most concentrated. Only a handful of cities now “drive world economic growth” [ 15 ]). Secondly, city-level governors can prioritize local challenges more effectively than state-level government because they are embedded in their locality, often dealing with daily problems in innovative and bespoke ways. Thirdly, while the state is known for being a slow apparatus having to deal with international relations, cities are primarily concerned with urban dynamics and just “have to get things done” [ 16 , 21 ]. The willingness of cities to take action is visible in the increasing number of urban strategies being developed all over the world. One reason for this being that “UFSs aim to place food on the urban agenda, capitalizing on efforts made by existing actors and creating synergistic effects by linking different stakeholder groups” [ 22 ]. Through a community-based food systems approach themes that typically overlap and link to various municipal departmental mandates—such as food security, public health, and social justice—can be addressed effectively [ 22 , 23 ]. Such policy tools can take on various forms, including food charters, food strategies, and food action plans [ 23 , 24 ]. These can be local or regional and would ideally be a part of local comprehensive plans and policies with touch points to the local food system. Local policies must reflect their unique local contexts [ 25 ] and incorporate “[h]istorical and cultural factors, . . . geographical setting and natural resources . . . and societal and political factors” [ 22 ]. These in turn will shape the “aims, objectives and actions that are appropriate and achievable” for a UFS [ 22 ].
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Development of the Analysis and Optimization Strategies for Prediction of Residual Stresses Induced by Turning Processes

Development of the Analysis and Optimization Strategies for Prediction of Residual Stresses Induced by Turning Processes

121 7.6. Outlook The demand for high-quality components with low cost and short production time pushes manufacturing companies to reduce costly, time- and energy-consuming methods for economically and accurately modeling manufacturing processes, and specially, machining operations. This opens up various directions for future research on finite element simulations and optimizations of unresolved machining and surface integrity problems. Challenging tasks are to reduce the high computational time and increase the results’ accuracy in simulations. By advancing computer software and improving numerical techniques in the finite element method, the simulation time of machining operations can be decreased. In addition, by modifying and enhancing input physical models into the finite element model such as material constitutive and frictional behaviors, the accuracy of the results can be augmented. On the other hand, the need for decreasing the budget devoted to apparatus, material, and human resources required for experimental measurements in the industry will make the cheap process of model building using FE method and multi-performance optimization of machining and surface integrity characteristics much more desirable. Therefore, considering the practical usage of finite element modeling and simulation-based optimizations, they will receive increasing attention and will be extended to all machining and metal forming processes in the coming years.
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The L2-cutoff for reversible Markov processes

The L2-cutoff for reversible Markov processes

the Ehrenfest chain, treated in Theorem 6.3. The treatment of these examples occupies the bulk of the paper and illustrates very well the delicacies of the cutoff phenomenon in the context of specified starting distributions. This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we recall various notions of cutoffs and quote useful results from [5]. In Section 3, we give criteria for the existence of a cutoff as well as formulas for the cutoff times in the case of families of Laplace transforms. The main result of Section 3 is Theorem 3.5 which is the technical cornerstone of this work. In Section 4, we observe that the chi-square distance between the distribution of a normal Markov process and its invariant probability measure can be expressed as a Laplace transform. This gives criteria and formula for cutoffs of families of ergodic normal Markov processes (normal here means that the generator is a normal operator, i.e., commutes with its adjoint). In Section 5, we spell out the results in the case of families of finite Markov chains (in discrete and continuous time). See Theorems 5.1, 5.3 and Theorems 5.4, 5.5. In Section 6, we apply these results to study the cutoff phenomenon for the Ehrenfest chain started at an arbitrary point. See Theorems 6.3, 6.5. In Section 7, we prove Theorem 1.1 and a number of related results. In Section 8, we study a family of birth and death chains on {−n, . . . , n} containing examples whose stationary measure has either a unique maximum or a unique minimum at 0.
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Computer-based multimodal composing activities, self-revision, and L2 acquisition through writing

Computer-based multimodal composing activities, self-revision, and L2 acquisition through writing

Russell, 2010, p. 410) and suggest that research on self-revision needs to focus on in-process rather than between-drafts revisions in order to unravel the mystery that continues to surround L2 writers’ self-revision. Limitations Despite these informative findings, the study has some limitations. First, it did not capture textual changes—except the addition of visuals—that students made at the final stage when they used Microsoft Word to format their papers. Students used Microsoft Word for the final revision because it was difficult for them to use Google Docs to format visuals for effective integration. Second, the researcher could not control for all possible factors that might influence noticing. For example, instructor’s responses to students’ questions about their papers during in-class activities could have facilitated their noticing of problems in their writing. Third, students’ comments suggest that pre-writing revisions might have impacted point-of-writing revisions and text quality; however, the study did not analyze the impact of pre- writing revisions on the rest of the writing process. In addition, the software that was used to integrate the listing activity into the writing process did not have spellcheck or grammar-check options. This made grammar correction challenging for the students in this research. Using software that allows for grammar check might be more helpful for low-level students to notice grammar errors unless there is need to control for factors that might influence students’ noticing (as was the case in the current study).
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