Degree-days, a measure of heat unit accumulation, is a method to predict key events in the azalea lacebug life cycle. Egg hatch is predicted to occur at 213 degree- days above 10.2°C (50.4°F). Complete development is predicted at 394 degree-days above 11.2°C (52.2°F). Microclimate effects can be very important. Heat reflect- ing from buildings can accelerate the life-cycle process relative to weather station data. There is an online phe- nology and degree-day calculator that can be customized by location, at: http://uspest.org/cgi-bin/ddmodel.pl
Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) is the most valuable tree species in Croatia due to the high quality of wood, but management of oaks forests is demanding . Over the past five to six years this particular tree species has suffered heavily from the attack by a leaf sucking insect known as the oak lacebug (OLB), Corythucha arcuata . It has established a stable population across Europe, where it is an alien (allochthonous) species . As it has no natural enemies in the ecosystem, it has become an unequaled invasive species . This invasive alien species (IAS) is a very important negative biotic factor which threatens the health of pedunculate oak and hinders sustainable forest management . Foliar damage occurs in spring, after overwintering, when adults start to feed on leaves and lay eggs in late April or early May. The greatest damage occurs after larvae hatch from masses of eggs in early June and feed intensively on the underside of leaves, causing discoloration and destruction of leaf tissue with subsequent reduction of the assimilation surface. Initially, the infected leaves are covered with small black excrements and yellowish dots that represent OLB feeding. Intensive feeding from May gives an autumnal appearance to the entire tree by late July and early August . Consequently, the second and possibly the third OLB generation exerts an additional negative impact . Eventually, in the period of acorn fructification the leaves turn yellow and dry, without any green surface. In combination with other negative abiotic and biotic factors, this results in premature fall of acorns . The negative impact of OLB infestation on reproduction causes particular concern in view of the fact that Croatian lowland oak stands have high ecological and economic importance. Their importance is documented by their share in state
Abstract. One new species of lacebug (Heteroptera, Tingidae), Phymacysta stysi sp. nov., is described from the Miocene Dominican amber, and its relationships are discussed. It belongs to the extant Neotropical genus Phymacysta Monte, 1942. A key of Phymacysta species including the new species and the fossil species of Leptopharsa Stål, 1873, from Dominican amber is given.
Inoma, like Eremophila is relatively depauperate in temperate and tropical Australia, and a hypothesis of recent codiversifi cation of these taxa in arid Australia, at least species pairs in central Australia, can be posited. However, as stated previously, the phylogenetic analysis is not presently suggestive of cospeciation patterns, whereas geographic infl uences are putatively more important than host plant affi liation. Future studies will address these factors, through a broader systematic survey of Eremophila species, particularly in the McDonnell Ranges of the Northern Territory, and across the Eastern and Western Desert areas of endemism, particularly those infl uenced by the Simpson Desert. To date, we have sampled but < 10% of all Eremophila species and only a handful of Dicrastylis species. Further survey will explore the host breadth of Inoma species, including a search for new species belonging to this genus of lacebug, and the surveying of plants with glandular trichomes.
bug, Stephanitis pyri (Aysal and Kıvan 2008). Such models for predicting insect development are important for insect control, which can improve the timing of pesticide application with minimal use of pesticides (Ascerno 1991). The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of temperature on the developmental periods, fecundity, adult longevity, and survivorship of C. ciliata under controlled environmental conditions, and to determine the thermal constant (K) and the lower developmental threshold (C) for C.
Semantic similarity between two words which means that the two words whose meanings are similar. To find out the meaning between bug report and source code file we use machine learning approach. There are two phases: training phase and testing phase. The training which consist of bug reports and corresponding bug ids which indicates the semantic similarity between bug reports and source code files. Every bug reports in the training data which indicates the set of features. At training time, we range all bug reports and feature extraction functions to compile a feature vector per bug report. The feature vectors are stored in a matrix. We train a supervised learning method from the features and the bug ids of the training examples As the bug ids in the evaluation set that we use are binary, we build a classifier. At testing time, features are generated for the bug ids in the test set in a similar fashion as in the training phase, and a final prediction is made with the classifier trained in the training step.
Through this work introduced an automated bug system which can be effectively used in the software companies. We will be getting ranked list of pages that can occur the bug and it will be automatically assigned to the correct developer who has developed the code. And also remove the duplication of the bugs. And also computed the semantic similarity between the bug report and source code file. From the previous experiments it was proved that learning to rank approach is having higher accuracy which is being used in our system. In the future work we can use additional types of domain knowledge such as stack traces and also features used in the defect prediction system. Also plan to use ranking svm in nonlinear kernels. Also to find how to prepare high quality datasets.
We present an implementation of this algorithm in a C library called Lace 1 , which has the same interface as Wool. We evaluate the performance of Lace using several benchmarks, including standard Cilk benchmarks and the UTS bench- mark . We compare our algorithm with Wool and with an implementation of the receiver-initiated private deque algorithm  in the Lace framework. Our experiments show that our algorithm is competitive with both Wool and the private deque algorithm, while lifting both limitations described in . Compared to the private deque algorithm, our algorithm allows stealing of all tasks in the shared deque without cooperation of the owner, while the private deque algorithm requires cooperation of the owner for every steal transaction.
these religious institutions often refer to the work to be undertaken by their members, since work was an important element of their activity. Work was important to these institutions for two reasons. Firstly, they could not depend solely on charitable donations, but needed to support themselves. In the 1590s, for example, the English traveller Fynes Moryson noted that the Zitelle, the young orphan girls based on the Giudecca island in Venice, lived there 'by the work of their hands'. The second reason why work was important is that it was central to the ethos of these institutions: it was an intrinsic part of the strict notion of charity which they embodied. Pamela Sharpe has recently highlighted that lace-making was perfectly attuned to Puritan ideas about work in seventeenth-century England - raising that hoary old notion of the Protestant work ethic. But ideas about hard work as a suitable form of charity for the poor, were not confession-specific in this period. The statutes of the new Venetian orphans' hospital, the Mendicanti (set up in 1600) state that a large part of the day was to be dedicated to work 'in order to raise the children away from idleness and also to keep them in discipline and fear' ('per allevare li figlioli lontani dall'occio et anco per custordirli nella disciplina e timore'). Lacemaking was a useful occupation for the poor vulnerable women grouped together in such charitable institutions - it kept them busy, it reminded them of their rightful social place, and it also kept them in an ideal religious state: in discipline and fear.
The noise rate slice for bug reports is of great importance. Bug reports are one of the most frequently used instru- ments to measure code quality when being mapped to code changes. But feature requests, improvement requests, and even documentation issues can also be mapped to code changes implementing a new feature, implementing an improvement, or fixing code comments. Thus, we cannot rely on natural filtering mechanisms that rule out misclassified BUG reports belonging to any report category that will not cause code changes being applied to source files. Studies that use bug data sets might be impacted by data noise as shown in Table V. The noise rates in this section include issue reports that might not be mapped to code changes or files. We will discuss the bias caused by bug data noise later in this paper.
Time_t is never, ever at fault in any Year 2000 bug. Year 2000 bugs usually involve one of three things: The user interface, i.e., what year do you assume if the user types in "00"; a database where only the last two digits are stored, i.e., what year do you assume if the database entry contains a 00 for its year; and, in rare instances, the use of data items (such as the struct tm data structure's tm_year member in a C or C++ program) which store the number of years since 1900 and can result in displays like "19100" for the year 2000.
A rich source of information for a software developer working on the project, a software project bug repository provides. To understand how changes were made on the project in the past, For instance, the developer may consult the repository to understand reported defects in more details. Either as the result of a search or a recommendation engine, when accessing the projects bug repository, a developer often ends up looking through a number of bug reports. A developer must peruse are relevant to the task at hand, typically only a few of the bug reports. Other times a developer must read the report, sometimes a developer can determine relevance based on a quick read of the title of the bug report, which can be lengthy, involving discussions amongst multiple team members and other stakeholders. For example, a developer using the bug report duplicate recommender built by Sun et al.  to get a list of potential duplicates for bug #564243 from the Mozilla system,1 is presented with a total of 5,125 words (237 sentences) in the top six bug reports on the recommendation list.
Bugs are prevalent in software. As a result, any technique that can automatically detect software bugs and suggest fixes will lead to fewer delivered bugs and improved software quality. Many automatic bug finding tools have been proposed, including Bandera , ESC/Java , FindBugs , JLint , and PMD . They use a range of techniques to detect bugs and suggest fixes, including pre-defined bug patterns [1, 14], theorem proving , and model-checking . These bug finding tools adopt a horizontal approach, using techniques that are applicable across all projects. To date, there are very few tools using the vertical approach of leveraging patterns in a specific project and performing project-specific bug finding. Recent work using this vertical approach includes , which focuses on detecting bugs in method usage pairs, and  which focuses on return value checking. In this paper, we present a vertical bug finding approach that extracts and memorizes a broad range of patterns in buggy code and uses the previous bug patterns of a specific project to find project-specific bugs in new changes or other parts of the source code.
Abstract—Bug Tracking for Improving Software Reliability (BTS) is a systematically approach that can be useful to staffs and the administrators in any organization. Bug Tracking System gives the facility to assign the jobs in the organization and also permits the supervisors to way the bugs consumed by the employee for their specific job. A report group ability is sustained in BTS that allows the supervisors to analyses whom are those services by the worker are utilized and those which are not used. This system can help administrators for Bug estimation each project or application. The tool helps teams to files their Bugs and analyses. This application goals at the construction of a Bug Tracking System. This system will be accessible to all developers. Its skill agrees developers to motivation and creating the database chart.
techniques, including random words and Tony Buzan’s mindmaps and six thinking hats. More importantly, though, we caught a creativity bug that had far more impact than any specific technique. Since then we have slowly changed the way we work day-to-day in many small but important ways, not to mention the creative things that we have done outside of work. And we are librarians: a profession with more of a reputation for tradition than for innovation, not especially known for an ability to think outside the books.
As also shown in Fig. 5, a number of bug reports ac- tually contained no useful information at all. Often, this was because the BTS was being entirely misused by users. Examples included: Firefox Bug 333204, Facebook Bugs 11460 and 13181, and Eclipse Bugs 157392 and 229028, all of which contained no or meaningless content; Firefox Bug 577566 and Facebook Bug 9843 which were in a for- eign language, and so are less likely to be understood by the developers; Firefox Bug 643736 which was actually a bug in a specific website, and which had ‘Chrome/IE’ (i.e. two other browsers) listed as the build identifier; Facebook Bug 5718 which contained a job application; and Facebook Bug 3551 which simply contained a picture of some flow- ers. These types of bugs are the minority however, which should be somewhat encouraging for application developers. However, handling these bugs still incurs some cost for de- velopers. Whilst some are relatively harmless and can be closed swiftly, others may require the developer to engage in a reasonable level of investigation before concluding that the bug is not valid.
Bug Tracking, Help Desk Ticketing, issue raising, search facility, help information, issue resolution. Issues related to software projects can be raised, tracked and resolved by Employees of different departments. Resolved issues can be allowed to access from Knowledge Base as Knowledge elements. The different groups and representatives can interact each other through emails. The issue tracking system does all the jobs that are done in conventional system but ,here , everything is done in more formal and efficient manner. All the users of organization can interact with each other through the Issue Tracking System. This system acts as an interface between the employees thereby enabling them to forward their issues to the centralized Issue tracking system. Hence, making the work easy for both the issue raiser and the resolved. It totally avoids the involvement of middlemen in getting resolution for a particular issue.The Issue Tracking system is an intranet application, which provides information about issues in software projects, in detail. This product develops a system that can be used by all the departments of a software organization. In the conventional method, all the issues are dealt manually .The progress of the issues are also checked in person, which is a tedious task. Here, in Issue Tracking, it fulfills different requirements of administrator and employees of a software development organization efficiently. The specific purpose of the system is to gather and resolve issues that arise in different projects handled by the organization.