Lactating Females

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Foraging locations of female New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) from a declining colony

Foraging locations of female New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) from a declining colony

Abstract: Figure of Eight Island is located in the southern end of the Auckland Islands and hosts the smallest breeding colony of New Zealand (NZ) sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri). Between 1995/96 and 2005/06, pup production in this colony decreased by 57% (from 144 to 62 pups). In contrast, there was a 30% decrease in pup production in the largest colony in the north-east of the Auckland Islands over the same period. NZ sea lions in the Auckland Islands area are subject to by-catch deaths and resource competition from subantarctic trawl fisheries. The present study investigated where four lactating females from Figure of Eight Island foraged during the austral summer of 2007/08 and compared their foraging areas with female NZ sea lions from the northern Auckland Islands breeding locations (Enderby and Dundas islands) and with fisheries activities. Females foraged south of Adams Island (the southernmost Auckland Island), predominantly at the edge of the Auckland Islands shelf, but those from Figure of Eight Island made shorter foraging trips within more concentrated areas than females from Enderby or Dundas islands. The 59 female NZ sea lions satellite-tracked to date from Figure of Eight, Enderby and Dundas islands foraged over the entire area of the Auckland Islands shelf and many (including three of the four females from Figure of Eight Island) had extensive overlap with subantarctic trawl fisheries. Further research is needed to determine whether the foraging behaviour of females from Figure of Eight Island is linked to their greater decline in pup production.

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The ilio marsupialis muscle in the dasyurid marsupial Sminthopsis
douglasi: form, function and fibre type profiles in females with and
without suckling young

The ilio marsupialis muscle in the dasyurid marsupial Sminthopsis douglasi: form, function and fibre type profiles in females with and without suckling young

Ten females bred in captivity were obtained from a colony of Sminthopsis douglasi Archer 1979 kept at La Trobe University (Woolley, 1995). Eight of the females were suckling young. Young less than 40 days of age were removed from the nipples and formed part of a separate study on growth and development, while those older than 40 days were fostered to other mothers. The adult females were killed by gaseous anaesthetic overdose, and a midline incision was made through the pouch and abdominal skin to expose the mammary tissue and ilio-marsupialis muscles. Branches of the muscles supplying particular nipples were identified, and 3–5 mm lengths were removed, blotted dry on filter paper and then placed under paraffin oil on a base of Sylgard 184 (Dow Chemicals, Midland, MI, USA). Some of the lactating females did not have a full complement of young and so muscles

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Increased depression-related behavior during the postpartum period in inbred BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains

Increased depression-related behavior during the postpartum period in inbred BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains

with their nulliparous female counterparts. In the forced swim test, nonlactating and lactating primiparous fe- males showed greater immobility and shorter distance traveled compared with nulliparous females in CAJcl and B6J strains. Interestingly, nonlactating primiparous females did not differ from nulliparous females in CAJcl strain in terms of distance traveled in the open field test, suggesting similar general locomotor activity. Moreover, there were no differences in distance traveled among B6J females in the different reproductive states. These results suggest that general locomotor activity might not affect the observed increase in immobility. It is a well-known problem that conducting behavioral tests, even with identical apparatus and test protocols using same inbred mice, may not guarantee identical results; unknown en- vironmental factors could contribute to variations in be- havioral outcomes [80, 81]. Although sources of the environmental factors are unclear, it is crucial to show which results are highly statistically significant, robust, and reliable. Thus, we reevaluated behavioral phenotypes in independent cohorts of mice to confirm the reliability of our results. The results showed that some statistically significant differences between nulliparous and lactating primiparous females in the first cohort of CAJcl mice were not observed in another independent cohort of mice. For example, the marginally significant decrease in the sucrose preference found in lactating females on the first examination of the four inbred strains was not ob- served in the other experiments. One possibility is that the estrous cycle that could cause variations in behav- iors, especially in nulliparous females ([64, 82, 83]; but [64, 84, 85]), was not controlled in this study. Neverthe- less, the results that the reduced locomotor activity and the increased depression-related behavior in lactating CAJcl females were replicated in two independent exper- iments in this study

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Limits to sustained energy intake

Limits to sustained energy intake

Several manipulations have been performed on lactating mice to investigate where limits occur in this system. Swiss Webster mice have been shown to raise a maximum of 14 pups (even though some litters were manipulated up to 26 pups), with the lactating females increasing their food intake throughout lactation and with increasing litter size (Hammond and Diamond, 1992). Hammond and Diamond (Hammond and Diamond, 1994) extended the duration and level of demands placed on the lactating mother by restricting the access of pups to food until they were 21 days old, and found that the mothers did not respond by elevating their food intake above that achieved by mothers raising 14 pups during a normal lactation. However, when lactating mice were also challenged with cold- exposure, they were able to increase their food intake further (Hammond et al., 1994). By surgically manipulating the number of teats on lactating female mice, Hammond et al. (Hammond et al., 1996) found that females with only two teats were unable to raise any pups, and that females with five and 10 teats with the same mammary pressure (pups per teat) raised pups that did not differ in their body masses, even though the mothers with five teats had only half the number of pups to raise.

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Initial clinical trial of epratuzumab (humanized anti CD22 antibody) for immunotherapy of systemic lupus erythematosus

Initial clinical trial of epratuzumab (humanized anti CD22 antibody) for immunotherapy of systemic lupus erythematosus

Males or non-pregnant, non-lactating females, ≥ 18 years of age, were eligible to participate provided they had a diagnosis of SLE according to the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria (fulfilled ≥ 4 criteria), with SLE for at least 6 months, and at least one elevated autoantibody level (antinu- clear antibodies/ANA and/or anti-dsDNA) and moderately active disease (a score of 6 to 12 for total British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) disease activity) at study entry. Patients were excluded if they had prior rituximab or other anti- body therapy, allergies to murine or human antibodies, experi- mental therapy within 3 months, active severe CNS (central nervous system) lupus, laboratory abnormalities (hemoglobin < 8.0 g/dl, WBC (white blood cells) < 2,000/mm 3 , ANC

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Peak energy turnover in lactating European hares: the role of fat reserves

Peak energy turnover in lactating European hares: the role of fat reserves

European hares (Lepus europaeus) in central Europe have high energetic costs of reproduction, mainly due to precocial, rapidly growing young that rely largely on energy-rich milk. Thus, hares in this climate build up large fat stores during winter that are then gradually depleted during the spring-to-autumn breeding season. We hypothesized that the diminishing fat stores of females over the breeding season might affect resource allocation, peak energy assimilation during lactation or the total investment in offspring. Therefore, we measured energy intake, milk quality and milk production throughout lactation in spring, summer and autumn in females raising (size-manipulated) litters with three young each, under a natural photoperiod but at buffered ambient temperatures inside our facility. Over the course of the breeding season, the amount of milk production remained constant, but the fat content of the milk decreased. Hence, total energy transfer to young decreased significantly in autumn. By using undecanoic acid as a tracer of body fat mobilization, we were able to show that milk fat partially originated from maternal fat stores, particularly in spring. The peak sustained energy assimilation rates of lactating females were significantly higher in autumn, due to increased rates of food intake. We conclude that fat stores allow female hares to downregulate energy intake and expenditure early in the breeding season, whereas late breeding forces them to reach peak energy intake levels. Accordingly, we suggest that in hares, peak energy turnover during lactation varies with the availability of fat reserves. Limits to the sustained metabolic rate serve as variable constraints on reproductive investment. Thus, there might be a trade-off in energetic costs to mothers rearing early versus late litters in the year.

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Limits to sustained energy intake  XV  Effects of wheel running on the energy budget during lactation

Limits to sustained energy intake XV Effects of wheel running on the energy budget during lactation

The notion of a central processing limit, however, has been disproved by repeated observations that when lactating rodents are exposed to the cold they are able to elevate their food intake above levels that at room temperature appeared to be limiting on performance (Hammond et al., 1994; Hammond and Kristan, 2000; Johnson and Speakman, 2001; Rogowitz, 1998; Zhang and Wang, 2007). It was consequently suggested that the sustained energy intake may rather reflect the summed requirements of the energy- consuming machinery, each of which may be working to capacity in different circumstances. Hence, in lactation the mammary glands may be working at capacity. Manipulations, such as increasing the number of pups, therefore did not result in elevated food intake because the female could not translate this extra intake into more milk. However, when lactating females were exposed to cold they did increase their intake because they could utilise the extra ingested energy to facilitate thermoregulation. This idea was called the ‘peripheral limitation hypothesis’. Hammond and colleagues (Hammond et al., 1996) provided strong experimental support for this hypothesis by surgically reducing the number of mammary glands in lactating mice, and demonstrating that the residual tissue was unable to compensate by increasing milk production, confirming the mammary glands were indeed working at capacity. This hypothesis was further confirmed by observations that in the cold some lactating rodents did not significantly elevate their milk production (Rogowitz, 1998; Zhao and Cao, 2009a; Zhao et al., 2010; Zhao, 2011).

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Effect of Arachis glabrata Levels in the Diet on Reproduction and Pre-Weaning Growth Performance of Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L) Fed on Panicum maximum

Effect of Arachis glabrata Levels in the Diet on Reproduction and Pre-Weaning Growth Performance of Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L) Fed on Panicum maximum

Abstract: In order to evaluate the level of inclusion of Arachis glabrata in the diet of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus L.) fed to Panicum maximum on the reproduction and pre-weaning growth performance, trials were conducted at the Laboratory of Animal Production and Nutrition (LAPRONAN) (FASA) of the University of Dschang between December 2016 and April 2017. For this purpose, 56 adult guinea pigs of local breed including 48 females and 8 males all 5 months old about and weighing on average 400 ± 50g were used. These animals were randomly distributed into 4 homogeneous lots of 12 animals and crossed with a ratio of 2 males for 12 females in a factorial design. Animals were submitted to iso-nitrogen rations (17% protein) associated with P. maximum. The animals in the control group received P. maximum at will and one concentrated food not containing Arachis glabrata (PMA0), while those of the other lots received in addition to P. maximum a concentrated food containing respectively 10 (PMA10), 15 (PMA15) and 20% of Arachis glabrata (PMA20). The results of this study show that the inclusion of the increasing level of Arachis glabrata had no significant effect (P> 0.05) on litter size. The rate of stillbirth was 9.10% in the animals receiving the ration containing 20% of Arachis glabrata compared to 0% for the other diets. The highest pre- and post-weaning mortality rates (30 and 33.33%, respectively) were recorded in animals receiving 20% and 10% rations of Arachis glabrata, respectively. The ration containing 10% of Arachis glabrata yielded the best fertility (75%), and net fertility (108.33%). Inclusion of 20% of Arachis glabrata in the diet resulted in the highest mean weights (P <0.05) in lactating females from birth to weaning. At birth and weaning, the highest average weight of piglets was obtained in control batch of animals. In terms of total gain (TG) and average daily gain (ADG), the ration containing 20% of Arachis glabrata recorded the most significant (P <0.05) values (105.36g and 5.20g / d respectively) at weaning. Thus, Arachis glabrata can be included up to 20% in the ration as a source of protein for improving production performances of guinea pigs in a farm environment.

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Contraceptive use among lactating women in Ganta Afeshum District, Eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, 2015: a cross sectional study

Contraceptive use among lactating women in Ganta Afeshum District, Eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, 2015: a cross sectional study

Compared to the national and pocket study findings, the magnitude of contraceptive utilization among lactating mothers in the study area was higher than the national survey findings. However, significant numbers of women were not using contraceptives in their postpartum period, making themselves at risk of pregnancy. Family planning advice during antenatal care, mode of delivery of the women and having a radio were significantly asso- ciated with the women ’ s postpartum contraceptive utilization. Family planning information dissemination using radio in the rural settings should be encouraged to increase the uptake of contraceptives in the lactating women. Strengthening of the family planning advice provision to the women during their antenatal care should be emphasized. Detail prospective studies should be con- ducted to investigate the effect of antenatal care service utilization on postpartum contraceptive utilization.

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THERMOPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY IN LACTATING AND DRY CAMELS (CAMEL US DROMEDARIES) UNDER SUMMER CONDITIONS

THERMOPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY IN LACTATING AND DRY CAMELS (CAMEL US DROMEDARIES) UNDER SUMMER CONDITIONS

Dairy camels are quite distinct from other dairy animals. This is mainly attributable to their ability to continue lactating even under severe conditions confronted in their natural environmental habitat (Saleh and Faye, 2011; Al-Saiady et al., 2012). Beside the environmental heat load, body heat production and the resultant increase in heat storage associated with lactation in dairy cattle were considered another impingement factors (Shearer and Beede, 1990; Ben Younes et al., 2008). Thus, due to the greater body heat storage, lactating cattle showed higher body temperatures compared to the non-lactating cattle (Araki et al., 1984; El-Nouty et al., 1990). This fact indicates that lactating animals may have greater susceptibility to environmental changes than dry animals. It is definitive, therefore, that lactating animals must dissipate both the heat gained from the environment together with their

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Measurement of Adiponectin in Lactating Dairy Cows And Adiponectin, Insulin, NEFA, and Glucagon concentrations during an IVGTT and an IVIT in Lactating vs. Non-lactating Holstein Cows

Measurement of Adiponectin in Lactating Dairy Cows And Adiponectin, Insulin, NEFA, and Glucagon concentrations during an IVGTT and an IVIT in Lactating vs. Non-lactating Holstein Cows

The North Carolina State University Animal Care and Use Committee approved of the experimental procedure and all animals were handled and maintained in accordance with the standards in The Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (FASS, 1999). Four, multiparous, Holstein cows of third (n = 3) and fourth (n = 1) lactations, and at 44.25 ± 3.3 days prepartum, were weighed and fitted with indwelling jugular catheters on day 1. The cows were kept in a dry lot before cannulation and were fed hay ad-libitum, and were given the lactating cow total mixed ration (TMR) (Table 1) during blood sampling. At the time of catheterization, the body weight (BW) of the cows was 721.8kg ± 46.5kg. Cows were returned to the outdoor dry lot enclosure and

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Analysis of nutrient intake and health status of the adolescent girls and adult females of rural areas in darjeeling district

Analysis of nutrient intake and health status of the adolescent girls and adult females of rural areas in darjeeling district

Present study was conducted on the rural females with the objective to assess their diet pattern, nutrient intake, nutrient deficiency, energy deficiency levels followed by recommendations for nutritional improvement. A household survey was conducted by questionnaire method on 400 rural poor families of Phansidewa block under Darjeeling district of West Bengal state to measure the various attributes related to the dietary intake. The average nutrient intake of the females is much less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances. The energy deficiency is highest in non-pregnant group. Females having serious levels of deficits in protein, calcium, iron, carotene and riboflavin consumption. Rural females are worse sufferers of protein, energy, mineral and vitamin deficiencies.

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Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to lactating domestic mammals

Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to lactating domestic mammals

Lactating domestic mammals are fed ketoisocaproate (KIC) with a diet containing limited leucine to improve the quantity and quality of the milk produced. This feeding method is particularly applicable to dairy cattle but also can advantageously be used with nursing domestic animals including cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and swine.

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Time Matters: A Perspective on Making Mgnregs As More Participant Friendly Livelihood Programme

Time Matters: A Perspective on Making Mgnregs As More Participant Friendly Livelihood Programme

dual role in the family than men. Women are put-up in a situation, where she has to play the roles of family caretaker as well as an earning adult member in most of the rural families of India. The dual role is burdensome for women unless and until the family members, community and environment play the supportive role. The situation is worst, if the women play the role of small / marginal farmer or head of the family, where adult male is absent or disabled or differently able. Their time management will become highly difficult one in relation with livelihood activities. Needs of women in their natural situations, like, pregnancy, lactating, menstruation, menopause, etc. are not given sufficient importance and support in the Indian society; and, they are left alone to duel it. Pregnant and lactating women are given one support – maternity leave – in the organised sector and women in the unorganised sector are given one support – financial support – by the government through maternity scheme. These are not at par with their needs and Indian society needs to walk a long distance to attain at least the sensitivity

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Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Breasfeeding Among Lactating Mothers in Rural Areas of Thrissur District of Kerala, India: A Cross-Sectional Study

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Breasfeeding Among Lactating Mothers in Rural Areas of Thrissur District of Kerala, India: A Cross-Sectional Study

knowledge on EBF. The second part of the questionnaire included a 3 point Likert scale to assess the attitude of the lactating mother towards breastfeeding, breastfeeding on demand and importance of breastfeeding over infant formulas. This 3 point Likert scale provided options such as agree, unsure and disagree. This scale helped in identifying the attitude of the lactating mother capturing the positives and negative attitudes towards breastfeeding. The final part of the questionnaire included a total of 5 questions on breastfeeding practices such as the duration of feeding, providing prelacteal feeds, along with nutritional practices such as consumption of traditional galactogogues by the mother for milk production which is highly practised in South India.

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Goswami

Goswami

Methods: This descriptive type of community based cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in rural and urban field practice areas attached to Department of Community Medicine, Pt. B. D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak. 500 Lactating mothers of 6-11 months old children were included in the study and data was collected using the pre- tested questionnaire on breastfeeding practices.

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Small Grain Silages for Lactating Dairy Cows.

Small Grain Silages for Lactating Dairy Cows.

The most common way to make feed more energy dense, without requiring fiber reduction, is to feed a fat supplement. Specific fatty acids produced in the rumen also play a critical role being viewed as signaling molecules involved in the expression of specific genes and the regulation of metabolic processes (Bauman et al., 2003). Following absorption, a major fate of fatty acids is their oxidation to energy (Bauman et al., 2003). The total diet of a lactating dairy cow can contain 4 to 5 % fat. Supplemental fat can be included up to 5% of DM bringing total fat in the diet to ~8%. The type and source of fat has an impact on amount that can be included in the diet. Greater levels of fat in the diet, however, can have an adverse effect by suppressing microbial fermentation. Forages generally are four to six % fat on a DM basis, and primarily in the form of glycolipids (Jenkins et al., 2008). Concentrates contain more lipids than forages and are in the form of triglycerides (TG).

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Ultrasound imaging of the lactating breast: methodology and application

Ultrasound imaging of the lactating breast: methodology and application

can be identified merging with the main duct. Duct diam- eters above two to three millimetres are considered enlarged and indicative of ductal ectasia [26,27] or may be related to mastalgia [28], however a range of duct diame- ters from 0.6 to 4.4 mm have been measured in asympto- matic women [28]. Ducts of the non-lactating breast are generally not distorted by compression, unless containing fluid such as blood, and can be distinguished from vessels by the use of Colour Doppler Imaging. Colour Doppler Imaging is useful for suspicious lesions within a duct as they may exhibit vascularity [27]. Normal terminal duc- tolobular units can be imaged as isoechoic structures (same echogenicity as the fat) shaped like a tennis racquet hence are only visible when surrounded by the more echogenic fibrous tissue [18] therefore identification is variable. Some authors believe each of the lobes (seg- ments) of the non-lactating breast can be imaged with ultrasound [25] despite the inability of surgeons to remove a lobe as a distinct entity [11]. Alternatively others refer to the glandular area as the mammary zone [18]. Dif- ficulty discerning lobes is very likely due to their inter- twined nature [2], however, the pattern of glandular tissue is observed more clearly by ultrasound than by mammog- raphy [22]. The retromammary fat appears as a hypoe- choic layer above the pectoralis muscles that displays a typical fibrillar pattern.

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Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to lactating domestic mammals

Method of feeding ketoisocaproate to lactating domestic mammals

Lactating domestic mammals are fed ketoisocaproate (KIC) with a diet containing limited leucine to improve the quantity and quality of the milk produced. This feeding method is particularly applicable to dairy cattle but also can advantageously be used with nursing domestic animals including cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and swine.

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Polyunsaturated fatty acids and fertility in female mammals - an update

Polyunsaturated fatty acids and fertility in female mammals - an update

85. Lucy MC, De la Sota RL, Staples CR, Thatcher WW. Ovarian follicular populations in lactating dairy cows treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (Sometribove) or saline and fed diets differing in fat content and energy. Journal of Dairy Science 1993;76:1014-27. 86. Colazo MG, Hayirli A, Doepel L, Ambrose DJ. Reproductive performance of dairy cows is

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