reported to be home to between 68 and 80% of the country’s medium and large-scale manufacturing industries (Oketola and Osibanjo 2007) – and the City of Lagos is expanding rapidly with the ambition to become an international hub for trade and industry. Odo-Iyaalaro, Shasha and Ibeshe Rivers are the main trans-urban rivers in the state. They receive domestic and industrial waste from numerous sources, and all finally empty into the Lagos Lagoon. The lagoon is dredged, and the sediment is used for building. Lagoon fish are sold in the open market and consumed, and the water is also used for irrigation and recreation. Exposure routes thus exist that could result in significant impact of PTM in the lagoon on human and environmental health.
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Heavy metals have been implicated as Lagoon pollutants from sources such as agriculture, mining and manufacturing industries and waste water treatment works. A study was carried out in the University of Lagos lagoon to investigate the seasonal bioavailability of the heavy metal contaminants Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. The physical parameters pH, redox potential, temperature, TDS and conductivity were measured on site. Dried sediment samples were extracted using the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential procedure and analysed by ICP-OES. A certified reference material (CRM), BCR 701 (lake sediment) was used for quality assurance with recoveries ranging between 80-120%. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) showed that there was a significant difference between metal distribution in the dry and wet seasons. Cu, Pb and Zn were in the available fractions (carbonate, Fe/Mn oxide and organic). Cu was highest in the Fe/Mn oxide and organic fractions. This indicated that an increase in organic matter and reducing agents will avail the Cu. Zn was distributed in all fractions while Pb was found in the Fe/Mn oxide fraction (3.93- 21.3 %). Results showed that the bioavailability of Cu, Pb and Zn was high. Metal bioavailability by BCR indicates a potential risk of pollution in lagoon sediments as the available metals exceeded the permissible Sediment Quality Assessment Guidelines (SQAG’s) from Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
In this study, sixteen USEPA priority PAHs (table 1) were analyzed for in sediment samples from 12 locations on the lagoon. Many PAHs are inducers of cytochrome P450s and thus resulting in mutagenic and carcinogenic effects . The larger compounds (five or more rings) are not only difficult to biodegrade but also tend to be carcinogenic . Exposure of marine organisms to PAH can cause deleterious effects at the site of contact via the circulatory system, various organs and tissues . Their significant availability in the sediments of Lagos lagoon is a matter of great concern. As part of our on-going studies on the Gulf of Guinea and the Lagoons of the region, it was considered necessary to investigate the levels of POPs in the Lagos Lagoon. The aim of this study was therefore to trace the sources, the level and the spatial distribution of PAHs in the sediments of Lagos lagoon as a corollary to our earlier study of PAHs in the Lagos Lagoon water system.
Limited studies exist on impacts of dredging activities on marine environ- ments, particularly on the composition of water during the course of dredging operation. In addition, paucity of information on fisheries responses, distribu- tion and abundance in the Lagos lagoon poses challenges which demands urgent observation. The present study seek to investigate the impacts of sand dredging on the ecology of Lagos lagoon in Ibeshe coastal community area, viz-a-viz its influence on water composition, fish and fisheries distribution as well as the perception of coastal community dwellers to environmental effects of sand dredging are discussed.
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Activities of men and women have been identified in artisanal fisheries, despite the facts that Lagos State government disclosed that the state government will no longer tolerate any form of abuse on children in the state yet we do see some children on Nigerian waters especially on Lagos Lagoon every day, therefore there is need to study the activities, percentage number of children involved, age distribution, the roles played by these children, their contribution to fish production, percentage attending school and the effects on their livelihood.
The seasonal and spatial distributions of physicochemical parameters that determine water quality was studied in the Lagos Lagoon. Nine locations were selected according to the activities that take place in the areas. Parameters that determine water quality were measured during the months of February and July that represent dry and rainy season. Physical water quality parameters such as salinity, EC and TDS showed strong seasonal variation amongst stations and evaporation seem to be a major controlling force for these parameters in the lagoon. Generally, the data obtained suggests that anthropogenic disturbances and the establishment of several types of activities with increased point and non-point storm water runoff shunted directly into Lagos Lagoon has negatively affected the water quality and made relationships between most of the parameters and the different locations complex.
In the male crabs, immature (Stage I) and developing (Stage II) as shown in Figure 8, there is the presence of thick testicular wall, primary and secondary spermatocyte with septa. The ripening stage- Stage III had spermatozoa, tertiary spermatocyte and peritoneum (Figure 9), while the Table 1. Monthly variation in sex ratio in Callinectes amnicola from Lagos Lagoon
Abstract: The Lagos lagoon is a major geographical feature in Lagos Metropolis and is the largest of the network of lagoons that stretch from the Republic of Benin through to the Nigerian Niger Delta. Some parts of the Lagos lagoon waterfront has degenerated into a slum with non-distinctive housing, mainly shanties at various points, wood processing, sand dredging, markets and commercial fishing activities. Water-based tourism is a proven revenue earner globally, usually providing revenue for the government and a source of enjoyment, employment and recreation to the residents and visitors alike. The tourism potentials of the lagoon remain largely untapped. To determine the place of landscape features of the Lagos Lagoon in its suitability for tourism, the paper evaluates its landscape characteristics and compares the perception of users of water-based recreation destinations along the its waterfront with those of users of similar tourist attractions along the Lagos coast. The aim of the study is to answer questions of landscape perception and assessment of the area and to identify other factors which may be of relevance to its tourism development. Using structured questionnaires with pictures of the landscape features of the lagoon, field survey and interviews, the study identified the communities, problems, and factors influencing tourism at three venues on the lagoon waterfront and three water tourism venues along the Lagos coast. Results show that the landscape characteristics of the lagoon have a very significant effect on tourism in the area. It also identified the major factors influencing the tourism development of the Lagos Lagoon. The outcome of the research will be of benefit to property owners in the area, architects, landscape architects, tourists, visitors, industry practitioners and policy makers in determining appropriate facilities and land-use planning options in developing the natural resource. Keywords: Landscape assessment and perception, tourism, water-based recreation, suitability and Lagos Lagoon
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DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2018.86034 588 Open Journal of Geology mental conditions . The proportions of sedimentary organic matter that ori- ginate from aquatic as opposed to terrestrial sources can be distinguished from compositional differences between algae and vascular land plants. The elevated C/N ratios found in sediment records implies periods of enhanced aquatic pa- laeoproductivity . Phytoplanktons usually have low C/N ratios, of 4 and 10, while vascular land plants, that are cellulose-rich and protein-poor, have C/N ra- tios of 20 and above . However, for the first time in Nigeria, this study en- tails multi-proxies approaches to evaluate the palaeoclimate, palaeoenvironment, document the information achieved within the Lagos lagoon Quaternary sedi- ments and to give credence to the present climatic conditions which are of prime importance to the changing earth that is influenced by man and natural activi- ties.
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Habours are sheltered parts of sea areas where ships, boats, and even barges can berth to offload and take on goods and services. The Lagos habour is part of the Lagos lagoon. The Lagos habour in Lagos Nigeria serves as the only exist for the outflow of lagoonal waters to the sea and inflow of sea waters resulting from tidal rise (Onyema et al., 2008). According to Egborge (1994) the Lagos habour is Nigeria’s most important sea-port and the first inlet from the Atlantic Ocean beyond the Republic of Benin. It is composed of three stone moles in the form of habour break waters. According to Nwankwo et al. (2004) the construction of the East, Training and West moles along the Lagos coastline (harbour) was more of an economic than ecological consideration. It achieved the protection of ships from waves in the habour and created Tarkwa bay. However, it changed the hydrodynamics and sediment regime that resulted in the accretion of sand at the light house beach and retrogation at the Victoria beach which is located to the east of the east mole of the harbour (Ibe, 1988; Nwankwo et al., 2004; Onyema, 2007a).
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surface of the water which gradually withered away possibly as a result increasing salinity associated with the dry season. Temperature for both stations fell within recommended limit of 28 to 31°C (FAO, 2002). Temperature affects the rate of metabolic activities in organisms. Although higher values were recorded in the dry season than the wet season, as reported by Etesin et al. (2013) and Makwe and Chup (2013), the difference between seasons in both stations was not significant. Electrical conductivity (EC) values of 377.78±23.38 and 534.52±51.39 were recorded for Ologe lagoon and Badagry creek respectively. Higher values of EC were recorded during the dry season than the wet season. This is in agreement with the findings of Allison (2006) and Kingdom et al. (2013). Although these values are within the recommended <700 μmhos/cm (WWB, 2009; Ezzat et al., 2012), the slightly high values can be attributed to the effects of evaporation which is more pronounced in the dry season.
armpits, Uzeh et al. (2012) worked on microbial assessment of armpits of selected students of University of Lagos, Lagos Nigeria and recorded that both male and female that used deodorants had lower bacteria counts since deodorants are known to work by suppressing the growth of microorganisms and hence armpit odors. Kloos and Jorgensen (1982) estimated Staphylococcus aureus carriage on the anterior nares and most areas of the skin including the armpits of apparently healthy persons to be 20.00% to 30.00%, Ibe and Wariso (2005) also reported that 30.00 to 40.00% of adults are asymptomatic carriers of Staphylococcus aureus. Bruer (2002) observed that Staphylococcus aureus can be isolated from skin of 5 to 30% of normal individuals and that persistent nasal carriage is present in 20.00% of normal adults. Stewart and Beswick (1997) estimated that about 5.00 to 10.00% of any populations are carriers. Chin (2000) also estimated 20.00% nasal carriage among population and noted that areas of the world which lack water and soaps and are filthy have higher incidence of Staphylococcus aureus infection.
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This is connected with the arrival of freshwater brought by Martenzes channel after the reclamation of the field due to the restriction Velipojë and arrival of sea water from the narrowing of the canal that connects the sea and water balance (precipitation). It is too high in recent decades, and especially these last two years, where temperatures in the summer season have spent average temperature values. Knowing the characteristics of salinity is helping us to know the features of the plant and the animal world and especially for the growth of organisms such as species of fish, etc. Besides the natural factors in this lagoon as well as all other lagoons of the Adriatic coast it feels a lot during the last 60 years of pressure from human society itself. The Viluni lagoon after 1958 has reduced its surface by 2100 ha to 638 ha as a result of drying of wetlands and deforestation bringing and the disappearance of a portion of the marshy vegetation and other organisms that grow in this chase. The Ecological importance of these habitats is not only in terms of natural communities and species they contain, but also in the environment, the role they play in controlling the quality of waste water by dumping industrial and urban discharges in these lagoons. A clear example is the Kune- Merxhani lagoon and it discharged today Vaini lagoon where urban waste of the city of Lezha. The Wetlands are seen not only as a source of food but they are also seen as filters of pollutants coming from inside the earth and wet surfaces near wetlands used as purification plants wastewater great economic importance. In the recent years due to scientific interest and practical father, these are called kidney nature (Viluni lagoon), for the protective effect cleaners but also because of the presence of very habitats that represent economic value.
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The climate change increases the rate and intensity of extreme weather events and the effects are already evident across the length and breadth of Nigeria. They include but not limited to desert encroachment in the northern part of Nigeria, many rivers drying up, gully erosion in the south eastern part of the country, rising sea level and flooding in various parts of the of the coastal areas of the country. Within the Gulf of Benin in which Nigerian coastal boundaries lies in, it has been estimated that the 50-year mean sea level rise is about 3 mm/year, which will translate to about 50 m coastline retreat in the next 50 years. The people living in the low lying coastal areas of Southern Nigeria, particularly in Lagos are under threat. About half of the population of Lagosians living mainly in slums are exposed to this danger. All these will lead to damages to the few existing infrastructures and threats to the safety and health of the populace. For these amazing facts, efforts need to be made to drastically reduce the common incidence of building and infrastructural failures and the high casualty as to be able to face unpredictable challenges that might emerge from the climate change.
An investigation based on in-situ surveys combined with remote sensing and GIS analysis revealed fast shoreline retreat on the side of a major waterway, the Malamocco Marghera Channel, in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. Monthly and long-term regression rates caused by ship wakes in a reclaimed industrial area were considered. The short-term analysis, based on field surveys carried out between April 2014 and January 2015, revealed that the speed of shoreline regression was insignificantly dependent on the distance from the navigation channel, but was not constant through time. Periods of high water levels due to tidal forcing or storm surges, more common in the winter season, are characterized by faster regression rates. The retreat is a discontinuous process in time and space depending on the morpho- stratigraphy and the vegetation cover of the artificial deposits. A GIS analysis performed with the available imagery shows an average retreat of 3-4 m/yr in the period between 1974 and 2015. Digitization of historical maps and bathymetric surveys made in April 2015 enabled the construction of two digital terrain models for both past and present situations. The two models have been used to calculate the total volume of sediment lost during the period 1968-2015 (1.19×10 6 m 3 ). The results show that in the presence of heavy ship traffic, ship-channel interactions can dominate the morphodynamics of a waterway and its margins. The analysis enables a better understanding of how shallow-water systems react to the human activities in the post-industrial period. An adequate evaluation of the temporal and spatial variation of shoreline position is also crucial for the development of future scenarios and for the sustainable management port traffic worldwide.
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Four (04) sampling campaigns were conducted in 2018 following the four seasons. Indeed, this work is included in a study on the impact of the CHU-MEL effluents on the zooplankton community of the Cotonou Lagoon, which takes into account the two seasons quoted above. The sampling campaigns took place respectively in January (long dry season (LDS)), in June (long rainy season (LRS)), in August (short dry season (SDS)) and in October (short rainy season (SRS) of the year 2018. During each campaign, five (05) samples (with the interval of 3 hours between two consecutive samplings) were made between 7 am and 7 pm at the end of the ducts discharging the effluents into the lagoon. This time is the accessible moment to the sampling site.
In this work we aimed to determine if different sources of anthropogenic impact of different water bodies may affect the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents of macroalgae biomass. To this end, samples of water and macroalgae were collected every second month in Urías lagoon (UR) and in Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón (AL and EP) lagoonal system of NW Mexico. The order of concentrations of dissolved N was UR> EP>AL (P<0.001), that of reactive P was EP>UR>AL (P < 0.001). The N content of the macroalgal biomass of the three lagoons was not significantly different, but the P content was significantly (P <0.001) lower in UR than in EP and AL. The N: P ratios in algal biomass seemed to indicate that N was below optimum values for growth in AL and EP, while P was below optimum in UR. However, the algae N and P contents were consistently high in the three lagoons, indicating adequate concentrations of external nutrients for optimum growth.
A study performed by Ritter et al. (1990) on animal waste lagoons in Delaware included the monitoring of a swine waste lagoon. The swine waste lagoon that was studied was in operation for five years before the study began. The clay liner of the lagoon was not inspected during construction to determine if it met Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) specifications. Typically, the swine lagoon was emptied completely two times per year, possibly causing the liner to crack due to repetitive drying and rewetting of the liner. This cracking of the liner could lead to large amounts of seepage being lost from the lagoon. Three shallow wells (4.6 m depth) were located down gradient of the lagoon and showed average NH 4 -N concentrations of 100 mg/L over the course of the three-year study. In
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The most significant constraint of the wind force is the wind speed. Wind speed varies with the day and the season of the year and even some extent from year to year. Wind energy has inherent variances and hence it has been expressed by distribution functions. For this rationale, understanding wind ratings via Weibull distribution is very important. In this paper, We model the wind speed in Ikeja area of Lagos, Nigeria (Ikeja being the capital of Lagos, and Lagos being the most populous city of Nigeria, the second fastest-growing city in Africa and the seventh in the world) using among other methods, the Linear Least Square Method (LLSM) to estimate the Weibull distribution parameters, namely, shape parameter (k) and scale parameter (c). The Weibull distribution is an important distribution especially for reliability and maintainability analysis. The suitable values for both shape parameter and scale parameters of Weibull distribution are important for selecting locations of installing wind turbine generators. The scale parameter of Weibull distribution is also important to determine whether a wind farm is good or not.
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festival is been held and coincidentally the valedictory version held in honour of the initiator of the festival. The study adopted survey method with the use of questionnaires, key informant interview and participant observation for data collection. A total of 400 questionnaires were administered physically to the respondents but only 387 questionnaires were returned valid. Data gathered were analyzed and presented with the use of simple percentages, charts and proximity matrix. Findings of the study revealed that about 80% of the participants at the festival have positive attitude towards it and 78.4% appreciates the culture of the host community. 84% of the participants had positive experiences during the festival and 71.3% were satisfied with the events and indicated that they would like to come for the festival another time. More so, some of the participants advised that the government should improve on awareness campaign for the festival and provide more security. The social concentration that occurs at festival time and the increased economic activities consolidates the sense of advancement that is of concern in this study. The temporary realignment that transforms public places and the local people in them during festival time is a manifestation of the changes that occur with daily community relationships. The study concludes that the Lagos Black Heritage Festival is a worthy means of promoting Lagos culture and socio-economic advancement. It is hoped that readers of this article would find this study useful.
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