Lake Mohawk: The Lake Mohawk Country Club has an active lakemanagement program and a Lake Master Plan. As part of the 2002 Phosphorus Management Program, the stormwater control system around the lake was updated, including nineteen siltation basins around the lake. An innovative, in-lake alum dosing system was also installed in the lake to bind alum with phosphorus, reducing the phosphorus levels available for algae. The dosing system is designed to release alum at a rate equal to the inflo wing phosphorus loading. Additionally, an alum blanket was applied in two separate years in an effort to control nutrient recycling from the sediments. The lake has benefited from a five-fold decrease in phosphorus levels. A destratification aeration system was installed in the deepest parts of the lake to ensure complete mixing, thus maintaining dissolved oxygen levels and further facilitating the alum blanket functions. The Country Club has also engaged in a thorough pub lic outreach and education program, coupled with restrictions on phosphorus fertilizers and household products and requests to the local golf course for integrated pest management practices. The Mohawk Lake Country Club entered into a septic management program in both Sparta Township and Byram Township, much like the Cranberry Lake program.
Lakemanagement plans are a valuable tool for considering the future of the wildlife resources in and around your lake and its watershed. The DNR can provide advice on how to identify and inventory the existing wildlife. This inventory of wildlife, and the habitat areas they use, will help set lakemanagement goals that protect and enhance this important resource. Wildlife population goals are best achieved by creating and protecting critical habitat areas on your lake. Wildlife will also benefit from efforts to improve the lake’s watershed. Like the lake itself, wildlife considerations extend beyond the water’s edge. Aquatic wildlife often spend part of their time in streams, wetlands and upland areas some distance from the lake. In many cases, the availability of this habitat is critical to their survival. The buffer areas along the edges of inlet streams and upstream lakes and wetlands provide travel corridors for wildlife. These corridors are particularly important for song birds, frogs and turtles. Protection and restoration of wetlands is critical to both fish and wildlife as well as to improving the quality of water flowing into the lake.
On the other hand, scholars strongly advocate for strong stakeholders integrations. For instance, GWP (2012) explains that fragmented framework for lakemanagement cannot meet the inter-relationships among the sectors. The idea is that lakemanagement should be integrated into various sectors and stakeholders in joint approach. The Ethiopian Environmental Protection Organ establishment proclamation No.295/2002 states that EPA has power and duties ‘in consultation with the competent agencies, propose incentives or disincentives to discourage practices that may hamper the sustainable use of natural resources or the prevention of environmental degradation or pollution’. This means that environmental protection sector ought to be involved and consulted in the issues of natural resource management and investment projects implementation. However, these kinds of practices of sectoral integration during investment project in the study area are infrequent.
Foremost to the development of a proper lakemanagement plan is the inclusion of all interested stakeholders such as lakefront residents, recreational users, waterfront businesses, municipal and county public works (where public roads are a major potential issue), municipal and county parks (where significant active recreational facilities are near the lake), or members of a lake association. The inclusion of those who have the greatest vested interest in the lake and are in the closest spatial proximity to the waterbody will provide incentive for both accurate and consistent data, two characteristics that are paramount to water quality monitoring. A water quality monitoring plan may be developed by volunteers or laypeople, but should include input from a qualified lake professional in order to monitor for those parameters that are most pertinent to lake systems while avoiding common pitfalls associated with collecting unnecessary data or frequent collection of parameters which generally exhibit little spatial or temporal variability. In addition, water quality monitoring can be carried out by lake professionals or volunteers, but only by the latter after they have received proper training. Once the personnel who are going to develop the monitoring plan are selected, some common questions and concerns need to be addressed. Given that lakes are dynamic systems, exhibiting variability in space and time due to both natural and anthropogenic factors, a water quality monitoring plan must account for this variability. At a minimum, most water quality monitoring plans are conducted monthly, from May through September, as this period represents the “growing season” for lakes in the Highlands Region. The growing season is the critical time during the year when the symptoms of eutrophication and excessive plant and algal growth are most pronounced and are the greatest nuisance to lake users. As such, many lakes, especially large lakes (surface area > 50 acres or complex in shape), should be monitored for in-situ parameters on a bi-weekly basis while discrete and plankton parameters should be monitored, at a minimum, on a monthly basis during the growing season.
While in-lake nutrient concentrations were substantially reduced after the alum application and hypolimnetic aeration, a shift from the phytoplankton communities dominated by cyanobacteria to diatoms and chlorophytes has been observed (Figure 5 and Figure 8). Although there is no single factor that drives phytoplankton community dynamics; in reality, it is due to the complex combination and interactions of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena, such as light, temperature, nutrients and food-web structure (Kosten et al., 2012). However, it has been widely accepted that phosphorus is typically the limiting nutrient in lakes and has strong correlation with phytoplankton production (Carpenter, 2008; McCauley et al., 1989; Prairie, Duarte, & Kalff, 1989; Schindler, 2012; Schindler et al., 2008); therefore, phosphorus is commonly used as a primary trophic indicator (Carlson, 1977). Eutrophic lakes with internal phosphorus loading during vertical thermal stratification are particularly favorable for the massive development of cyanobacteria because cyanobacteria are able to regulate their buoyancy and access nutrient-rich hypolimnetic water (Carey et al., 2012).
Interpreting physicochemical monitoring data as repre- senting good or poor water quality, or even lake health as a whole, is problematic for two main reasons: the suite of parameters that are monitored may be limited; and the contribution that any single parameter has with respect to quality or health is not well identified and may vary considerably depending on the nature of the system of interest. For example, in Australia, existing guidelines, such as ANZECC (2000) and Queensland Water Quality Guide- lines (DERM, 2009) present reference condition values for slightly to moderately disturbed freshwater lakes in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), but these are probably not appropriate or realistic for existing urban lakes, because they assume that urban lakes were once in an undisturbed state or that the influence of an urban catchment is min- imal, as the reference condition values are based on natural lake ecosystems. Additionally, the use of reference condi- tion values can lead to the assumption of an equilibrium, or constant state, while aquatic ecosystems are generally in a state of flux (Reeves & Duncan, 2009), driven by climatic, seasonal or external influences (e.g. stormwater runoff) and changing primary productivity. While urban lakes may demonstrate high quality and health when first constructed, this is generally considered a temporary state in the absence of effective management of the lakes (Leinster, 2006).
To determine the integrated management concept of Dibawah Lake Catchment Area, the SWOT method is used. The SWOT method is a strategic planning method used to evaluate strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. In applying this analysis the location of the study is elaborated and discussed in terms of what are the Strengths (S), Weaknesses (W), Opportunities (O) and Threats (T) in the Lakes area. From the description, then the weighting and ranking are given based on the level of importance and current needs. After that, the strategy is determined which is the biggest weight (handling priority) whether the S-O, S-T, WO or WT strategy. After determining which strategy is the priority, then each strategy is outlined based on its priorities. The final stage is to load it in the form of a LakeManagement Matrix.
In the case of extreme low lake stage, the maximal value for the raw score is 52 weeks / year x 36 years = 1,872 weeks. However, based on our observations of the impacts of just 15 weeks of lake stage below 10 ft during the 2001 drought, we can assign this value as the worst case situation, knowing that it produced impacts that took multiple years to recover (e.g., lost apple snail populations, extensive woody vegetation in shoreline areas). We take this duration for <10 ft stage (15 weeks / year = 540 weeks in a 36 year model run) and set it as the point equivalent to a score of 0 on the standardized scale. To convert from a raw score to a standardized score, the following simple regression equation is applied:
Lake Norman is made up of 520 miles of pristine shoreline that includes Eastern Lincoln County, creating the perfect lifestyle. With close proximity to major interstates, but with out the frantic pace of a metro environment, Lake Norman offers attractive business opportunities, waterfront living, a talented workforce of professionals to meet every business or family need. People have discovered that Lake Norman is a great place to live, work, and play.
model is subject to a number of fundamental assumptions. First of all it is supposed that, in the present phase of sedi- ment recovery, no permanent accumulation of settling phos- phorus takes place. That is, all fresh organic phosphorus which is transfered to the sediment is assumed to undergo fast recycling. Though a 100% recycling rate is somewhat unlikely to occur in nature, there are indications that a large part of settled organic P is mineralized within short times. Hupfer and G¨achter (1995) found that 70% of settled P is lost from the sediment of the stratified Lake Sempach during early diagenesis. For the deep Lake Arendsee Hupfer and Lewandowski (2005) estimated that about 60% of settled P is recycled within two weeks and a fraction of only 10% was found to be subject to long term storage. In the polymictic Havel Lakes an efficient recycling of organic matter is likely due to the aerobic conditions. The advantage of this assump- tion is obvious: Since settling of organic P and mineraliza- tion equate to zero, we can neglect the distinction between the observed net P release rate of the sediment and the gross release rate, which is due to the decay of the sedimentary P excess PX. Thus, we can directly use r TP (Sect. 4.1) to cal-
importance of Lake as per Islamic rules and culture all the respondents said that “It‟s Allah Gift” and we should respect it and should try our level best to protect and conserve the Lakes (Fig 18). The main reason why Islam and Islamic principles have been used as a vehicle in several awareness campaigns in predominantly because they can easily reach all strata of Muslim society. These principles derive from divine law they might have a stronger appeal on population. Even the less educated ones that might not have a proper ecological education have a knowledge of Quranic and Sharaitic principles because the importance of Islam goes well beyond a mere religious environment and it exerts a very big influence on everyday life in Muslim society (15). In the present study we also found that the information regarding any issue the Muslims people of Bhopal heard from Immams, elders or any reliougious leaders. But regarding the lake and its conservation techniques are not so much taken into account.
affected by anthropogenic intervention, are a typical issue being under crucial scientific and practical research. This is aimed at both prevention of natural and the human society benefits. The Kinneret-River Jordan ecosystem was under complete natural impact until the early 1930s of the previous century, while later on the “Anthropocene Era” of this system was started  accompanied by natural climate change. The latest periodical season (1970–2018) was especially a very sensitive factor of significant impact on this system due to two major constrains: (1) water consumption and agricultural development in the watershed and (2) lake water supply. The major changes of regional climate change and the modifications within the Lake Kinneret Limnological trait are briefly presented: elevation of air tempera- ture and Lake Kinneret water, decline of precipitation, agricultural and hydrologi- cal management of the Hula Valley land, decline of lake water level, reduced input loads of nitrogen and phosphorus accompanied by reduction of nitrogen and a slight elevation of phosphorus in the Kinneret Epilimnion, dominance replace- ment of Peridinium by cyanobacteria, chlorophytes, and diatoms. The tentative objective of this paper is aimed at an answer to the question: why and how were those changes developed? It was previously documented  that Nitrogen sources for Lake Kinneret are mostly external and mostly effective is nitrate from the Hula Valley Peat soil degradation and fishponds and domestic sewage. Therefore, after removal of sewage and restriction of fishponds, input loads of organic nitrogen were reduced significantly and the supply of nitrate is primarily precipitation- dependent. Nevertheless, input loads of phosphorus from the watershed were reduced but P availability for the Lake Kinneret biota was slightly enhanced due to internal flux from the sediments and dust storm deposition. The dynamic changes of Phytoplankton composition in Lake Kinneret followed the nutrient alterations: the nitrogen consumer Peridinium was declined and cyanobacterial nitrogen fixers were enhanced .
Facilities management has developed for more than twenty years in China; it is still at the infancy stage. China’s entry into WTO brings opportunities as well as challenges to the trade of facilities management. In order to survive and develop in such a situation, it is necessary the enterprise to improve the service quality of facilities management and establish a service quality system which is focus on customers. The thesis firstly introduced the present situation of the service quality of facilities management in China and research done on this aspect both at home and aboard. Then it presented an in-depth analysis in the following respects such as service, service quality and its measurement subsequently, it explores the necessity of structuring the measurement system of service quality in facilities management. Finally, the thesis presented a service quality measurement framework by carrying out an empirical research on the Chongqing Longhu Facilities Management Company. The author adopted a holistic measurement method - SERVQUAL to analyze the service quality of Dragon Lake Residential Community which was managed by this company, and found the critical incidents that influence the service quality in this property. Based on the research results, the author also gave
In addition, the annual actual evaporative loss from Bosten Lake increased significantly between 1980 and 2011 , and the annual actual evaporation loss might increase with the warmer temperatures in the future. Hence, under future climate change, the inflow of Bosten Lake would be reduced, and the outflow may be in- creased due to the reduced runoff and groundwater and increased evaporation. The water volume and surface water level of Bosten Lake would be further decreased. Indeed, by the end of November 2012, the lower reaches of the Kaidu River were dry for a total of 32 days, including 12 consecutive days from 28 September to 9 Octo- ber. The water level of Bosten Lake declined to 1045.25 m a.s.l.; this value was close to the threshold level (1045 m a.s.l.) below which the pumping systems in Bosten Lake cannot function. Further pumping from Bosten Lake into the Kongqi River below this threshold would dry out the wetland ecosystems around the lake, sub- stantially affecting the fish and wildlife that depend on those wetlands.
precipitation of phosphate with calcite commonly occurs in hardwater lakes during summer, and is favoured by increased pH (Stumm & Morgan 1995). The use of calcite barriers was compared for three forms of material (crushed limestone and two forms of precipitated calcite, SoCal™ and eSCal™) in laboratory reactors for natural lake sediment in australia (Hart et al. 2003b,c). These trials demonstrated that the two precipitated calcites could effectively reduce p release from sediments under anaerobic conditions, whereas the limestone was ineffective. The maximum binding capacity for SoCal™ and eSCal™ were 3% and 1% (by weight), respectively, at high external p concentrations (Hart et al. 2003b,c). The long-term effectiveness is determined by the stability of calcite barriers and the binding capacity for p. The calcite barriers dissolve in systems where the water is undersaturated with CaCo 3 . a speciation computer modelling programme (e.g., pHReeQC) (United States Geological Survey 2009) may be used to calculate the saturation indices for lake waters at various pH and temperature conditions, which indicate whether the calcite would dissolve or precipitate under these ambient conditions.
Additional chemical, geotechnical, and elutriation tests were performed for sediment core samples acquired by BBL during September and October 2002. These data, as presented in Appendix B and discussed in Section 5, have been used to conduct portions of the engineering evaluations in this FS. Dry bulk density results are presented for sectioned sediment cores from 26 stations. The average of the 26 core intervals taken from 0-15 cm was 0.14 grams per milliliter (g/mL) 2 , while the average of the 26 core intervals from 15 cm deep to base material was 0.23 g/mL. Eleven sediment samples had the following average geotechnical properties: 33.9% organics; 35.2% moisture content; 23.2% solids (wet weight [w/w]); 2.17 g/mL solids specific gravity; and 0.27 g/mL dry density. Sieve analyses averaged 69.7% passing #200 sieve, with average sand content of 30.3%. Evaluations of sediment heavy metal analyses are presented in Appendix B. The sediment data for 13 metals were compared to Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Cleanup Target Levels (CTLs) for Soil and to the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA's) June 2000 probable effects concentration (PEC) levels for fresh water sediments. None of the sediment samples exceeded PECs for fresh water; however, many of the samples exceeded FDEP cleanup target levels for arsenic in soil. Because of these exceedances for arsenic, reuse of sediments applied in the region as soil blended material would likely require additional management such as institutional controls. Elutriation tests for three samples showed, after resuspension and settling, that supernatant phosphorus concentrations were not elevated (and were actually reduced slightly), while the 24-hour elutriate showed elevated turbidity, suspended solids, aluminum, and iron concentrations.
The physico-chemical characteristics of water of Dihaila Lake Karera Bustard Sanctuary (Madhya Pradesh) have been studied. The physical parameters of water of Dihaila Lake including odour, colour, transparency, ambient and water temperature and chemical parameters including electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, phosphate, and dissolved oxygen, were analyzed. The seasonal values of physico-chemical characteristics on various water sampling stations at different sites have been given in table 2. The range of variation in various physico-chemical characteristics and their seasonal mean along with standard deviations has been given in table 3. It is estimated that freshwater wetlands alone support 20 percent of the known range of biodiversity in India (Deepa and Ramachandra, 1999). Due to increasing demand for food, freshwater, timber, fiber and fuel, the wetland ecosystem has been changed dramatically. There is a substantial loss in the diversity of life on earth, with 10-30% of the mammals, birds and amphibian species currently threatened with extinction. The fresh water populations have declined consistently with an average decline of 50% between 1970 and 2000 (Loh et al., 2005).
In view of the still under-developed status of the fishery, it is proposed that licensing will be on demand as long as the minimum fish sizes in the landings or a total of the recommended gill net units are not reached. In accordance with the Constitution, the licence is issued against the payment of a fee. However, that fee can be kept at a nominal level for the time being to avoid putting any brakes on the development of the fishery. Later on, it could be used as a way to control total effort . In lake Ardibo if a licensing is practiced (i.e. fishermen written commitment with the government regarding the resource utilization like allowed legal fishing nets, boats, how much can produce per month, allowed fishing days or months, closed seasons or breeding seasons, lake fishery management, watershed management, illegal fishing control, reporting to the concerned office about their fish catch, and other issues will be included here), then the certificate commits the fisherman in two aspects first to respect the fishery regulation and secondly collaborate in the data collection done by fisheries officers. Fishermen not respecting theses commitments could have their licenses revoked. Fishing without a valid license could results in the confiscation of all the gears used.