Organic farmers have become more interested in the marginally grown (neglected) cultivars, as spring forms of the hulled wheat varieties (eincorn, emmer wheat, spelta wheat) or intermediate forms of the soft wheat. 173 land races from the gene bank at the RI in Praha-Ruzyně were grown on the organic certiﬁed parcel and evaluated in 2008. The trial aimed to evaluate the conditions of the competitiveness to weeds, tolerance to diseases, assimilation of the sun shine and establishment of the yield. The results show that all the evaluated material inclines to the competitiveness to weeds. This ability is, nevertheless, reduced because of the inclination to the lodging (all the cultivars have long weak stalks). Eincorn and emmer wheat are resistant to mildew and brown rust, spelta wheat is less resistant cultivar and the intermediate cultivars incline to disease attack very much. Eincorn and emmer wheat have short and dense spikes, spelta wheat has long and sparse spikes. Perspective materials have been found in the study and trials. We are going to focus on a possible increase of the resistance to lodging, choice of the resistant cultivars to funga diseases and increase of the spike productivity.
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Genetic diversity of the wild varieties of the cultural crops or related species may contribute to an improvement of the qualitites of the grown crops [HANÁK, PECHAROVÁ et al., 1996]. The genofond of the cultural crops may be used for the breeding [ADARY, 1991, 1995; DENGCAI et al., 2003; DAVOOD et al., 2004; ASHKBOOS et al., 2004; REYNOLDS et al., 2007]; new species may be introduced there and the genetic resources may also be used in future research trials and activities, in cooperation with the other research institutes and organs [BAREŠ, 1998]. The land races have a wide and rich genetic base; they are therefore considered to be a valuable source of the tolerance to diseases and pests [BONMAN et al., 2007; DANXIA et al., 2007; COLLINS and HAWTIN, 1999] and improve the economic characteristics of the varieties [GOLLIN and SMALE, 1999].
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Seventy one accessions of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers belonging to 31 districts of three provinces across Pakistan were characterized. High variation was recorded in plant height, branches per plant, pods per plant, grain yield, biomass and harvest index. It has been derived from current studies that migration of germplasm or seeds were observed across various areas that might be due to frequent exchange of grains, between different markets and transportation without any provincial laws implementations. High phenotypic diversity indicates the potential land races collected from farmer’s field might be utilized for crop improvement programs viz., 27028, 27029, 27038, 27040, 27042, 27047, 27083 and 27097. Phenotypic diversity analyzed within each district indicated the possibility of migration of landraces at one hand and on the other hand variation appears attributable to different districts without influence that how frequently area was explored. Intra and inter-specific variances deviated from central tendency depicted on the map of Pakistan shall be proved beneficial for future germplasm collectors to devise strategy for collecting genes of interest. New expeditions may be conducted in the main cowpea growing areas with focusing geographically and ecologically distinct areas, rather than fields closer to motorable roads.
Forty five rabi sorghum land races were evaluated along with three checks M35-1, CSV 22R and Phule Chitra for three years (2011-2013) at ARS, Tandur to identify promising and stable donors for yield and related traits to be used in crossing programmes. Analysis of variance of pooled data over three years indicated significant differences among the genotypes and environments for days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, test weight, grain yield and fodder yield. Significant GxE interaction was observed for the six traits indicating differential response of the genotypes to different seasons. Environmental indices revealed early expression of flowering and early crop maturity in 2012 and 2013 respectively. The expression of plant height was good in 2013 and test weight, grain and fodder yields in the year 2011. This study identified that the land races Jamkhed local1 and RSV 1460 for breeding early duration types, RSV 1425 for improving the test weight, RS 1449 and Pusegaon local for grain yield improvement, Dharampur local, Nimbodi local, SSRG 170, SSRG 204, SSRG 203 and SSRG 236 for forage sorghum improvement are suitable.
In all 11 landraces of finger millet collected from four Tahsils of Thane district. Local names of the cultivars are meaningful revealing certain feature. The Pittarathi indicates its harvesting period i.e. before ‘Pitru Paksha’. Khandri indicating gaps on the fingers. Malgond is so called because it belongs to hill and having curved fingers. Kamala is named for its lotus like ear head. Lakhi indicates Dark reddish black grains .Kalperi possesses black spots on nodes. Shitodi means white colour grains. Bendri refers to grayish brown colour grains. Davtari refers to white stem. Table 1 showing range of the morphogenetic characteristics of these cultivars such as height of the plant ranging from 70 to 120 cm, number of panicles per head 6 to 14 and the length of panicle ranging from 6 to 12 cm.There are three landraces with reddish black grains . These are accession no F02, F09 and F10 i.e. Bendri halvi, Lakhi and Lal halvi . Accession no. F04 and F05 i.e. Malgond and Kalperi these two with copper red grains. Other five having light brown colored grains (Accession no.F01 F03 F07 F08 F11) and only one land race i.e. accession no. F06 Shitodi is with white grains. Days to maturity ranging from 70 to 160 days .Early maturing varieties are Pittarathi70 days, Lakhi 90 days and Lal halvi 110 days. Table 2 showing range of yield characteristics. Range of 100 grain weight is from 0.18 to 0.31gm and the grain yield ranging from 13 gm to 23 gm per plant. Accession F01 Dhavtari showing highest yield and the Lakhi (F09) showing lowest yield. Fig 2 Showing group of land races on the basis of their yield per plant. It showing that 3 cultivars i.e. F3 F5 F09 having yield between 12.01 and 15.00 gm, other three cultivars – F4,F2, F10 having yield between 15.01 to 18.00 gm , two cultivars i.e. F6 and F7 having yield between 18.01 to 20.00 gm and three cultivars F1, F8 and F11 Showing higher yield between 20.01 to24.00.
races genotypes from diverse origin and 27 mutants) blackgram genotypes of Odisha. These genotypes were grouped into twelve clusters. Cluster II and cluster V had maximum of nine genotypes each followed by cluster IV having eight genotypes. The inter cluster distance were greater than the intra cluster distance revealing that considerable amount of genetic diversity existed among the accession. The maximum and minimum divergence was revealed between cluster IV with XI and cluster I with X respectively. Cluster VI exhibited high mean values for number of clusters/plant, pods/plant and seeds/pod. Cluster V recorded high mean values for pod length and 100 seed weight. The characters contributing maximum towards diversity among the accessions are days to maturity (27.16 %), yield/plant (22.19 %), 100 seed weight (18.07 %) and plant height (15.85%) .These characters combining with early maturity are the major traits causing genetic divergence among the accessions. The genotypes in cluster XI with VI, XII with V and V with VI are having moderate divergence with high mean for many characters including yield and can be successfully utilized in hybridization programmes to get desirable transgressive segregants. It is assumed that maximum amount of heterosis will be manifested in cross combinations involving the parents belonging to most divergent clusters
Rice (Oryza sativa.L) the prime, most essential and important food crop of the world is also popularly called as ‘Global grain’ . Land races plays an important role in the local food security and sustainable development in agriculture (Tang et al.,2002). The major objective in rice breeding programme is to maintain the desirable traits with an increase in the yield potential of these land races. Genetic improvement mainly depends on the amount of genetic variability present in the population. The estimation of genetic diversity between different genotypes in the crop of interest is the first and foremost process in any plant breeding programme. However assessment of genetic diversity of rice land
L.) is a dioecious perennial cash crop and its cultivation is referred as most distinctive agricultural industry. This crop had been referred in the ancient Indian literature dating back to AD 473. Betel leaf had an esteemed position in human society from the dawn of civilization. The origin of betel vine is believed to be in Malaysia or in surrounding East Asian region. Eight crore sq. km. area in the whole of the world is estimated to be under betel vine cultivation. According to the 2000 cultivars of P. betle distributed in the whole world, ten were available in Nepal. Pakistan and Sri Lanka are the other important countries with respect to variability in land races. Based on the morphological characters and essential oil content, Singh (1994) grouped betel vine varieties in India into five main groups viz., Bangla, Desawari, Kapoori, Sanchi and Meetha. Meetha was grown on commercial scale in West Bengal only. The important morphological
240 | Page How to cite this article: Ezatollah Farshadfar, Mohammad Mehdi Poursiahbidi, Seyed Mehdi Safavi, Assessment of drought tolerance in land races of bread wheat based on resistance/ tolerance indices. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 2018, 6(4), 233-245.
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The study on land races of scented rice (Oryza sativa L.) of Assam revealed that there was remarkable variation in all the crop growth variables viz., seedling vigour, root volume, culm diameter, lodging behaviour, leaf area index (LAI), net assimilation rate (NAR), flag leaf area, specific leaf weight (SLW), rate of dry matter production (RDMP), dry matter accumulation and partitioning effi«:!ency.LAI in scented rice increased from 30 DAP to 60 DAP whereas SLW enhanced upto 90 DAP. The flag teaf area exhibited a significant positive relationship with grain yield. The cv. Kunkunijoha could maintain consistently high rate of dry matter production at all growth stages and high dry matter accumulation in panicle. This cultivar was identified to be a potential donor in scented rice variety development endeavour. One of the mechanism to improve the productivity in scented rice has also been identified to be through improvement in partitioning efficiency.
Genotypic variability exists for drought tolerance with some clones performing better under drought condi- tions . Selection and improvement of adapted genotypes for a particular environment can therefore, be done with the appropriate equipment and using selection criteria associated with drought tolerance . With this ge- netic management option, drought-tolerant varieties, once developed, would be a low economic input technolo- gy that may be readily acceptable by resource-poor, rain fed, small land holding farmers. Consequently, the ob- jectives of this study is to screen breeding lines and land races for drought tolerance in a quick screening me- thod, evaluate the selected breeding lines and land races for drought tolerance under field condition and iden- tify accessions that can perform well under water stress conditions without a significant loss of yield and qual- ity.
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A set of 96 short duration local land races collected from different corners of Odisha along with already identified drought tolerant donors from gene bank at National Rice Research Institute (NRRI), Cuttack and a few high yielding rice varieties were assessed for genetic variation in terms of 23 agro-economic traits including seed yield and ancillary traits; drought tolerance parameters (leaf rolling, drought recovery, leaf drying), physiological traits (leaf area and chlorophyll index), tolerance to nutritional stress (zinc tolerance) and bacterial leaf blight.
The genetic resources of emmer wheat are available and accessible to all the interested people in the Czech Republic. All the information may be found on EVIGEZ web sites. Spring forms of the emmer wheat land races, originating from the Czech or Slovak Republic, Germany and Russia, prevail in the collection of the Prague Gene bank's genetic resources. Organic farmers interested in the growing of the emmer wheat may choose one of three possible ways of gaining of the cultivars. Import of seeds from abroad (e. g. from Austria), selection and reproduction of material from the genetic resources (it is a time-demanding and expensive process) or they may choose Rudico, legally protected variety. It is a spring form of the emmer wheat cultivar being very resistant to wheat diseases (mildew, rust), lodging and competitive to weeds (as the plants are long enough). Concerning the qualitative characteristics, it contains a high proportion of protein in grain, its quality is not, however, suitable for usual bakery products. Growing of the emmer wheat cultivars enhances the agrobiodiversity on arable land and it represents an interesting market opportunity for organic farmers. Its seeds are also valuable raw materials with a high nutritive value.
A few date palm germplasm collections have been carried out to assemble the variability in the crop in Nigerian (Osuhor and Samarawiwa, 1981; Osuhor, 1982). These collections (land races) have been used to establish five field gene banks (ex situ) at the date palm substation, Dutse, Jigawa state, Nigeria between 1981 and 1990. The substation is situated
Poor seed quality resulting in the establishment of poor stand which is the major problem of production in the cultivation of soybean. The objectives behind study were to evaluate the standard germination, field emergence and field emergence index of the seeds obtained from three land races (Kulat brown, Kulat white, Mothi) and two improved varieties (NARC-II, Swat- 84) of soybean sown at four different dates at monthly interval from April to July during 2004, 2005 at New Developmental Farm, Agriculture University Peshawar. Standard germination, field emergence and field emergence index were significantly affected by sowing dates and varieties. In addition, to field emergence and field emergence index were observed to be affected by years. Sowing dates x varieties interactions were found significant for field emergence only. Maximum germination (74.6 %), field emergence (60.2 %) and field emergence index (79.1) were recorded for seeds harvested from May, April and April planted crops respectively. Kulat brown exhibited maximum germination (79 %), field emergence (66.1 %) and emergence index (83.6). In land races, germination, field emergence and field emergence index were detected as higher by 39, 58 and 12 percent comparatively to improved varieties. It is concluded that land races have the potential to emerge in various environmental conditions contrasted with improved varieties of soybean.
Four major blast resistant genes named Pi9, Pish, Pita and Pita2 those were previously identified as blast resistant genes in Bangladesh [8, 9] was targeted for this research. Four standard differential blast isolates (SDBIs) viz. H-11-64 (incompatible to Pita gene; also Pi9), H-1-8 (incompatible to Pish; also Pi9 gene), H-1-1(incompatible to Pita -2 gene) and H-11-67 (incompatible to Pi9 gene) were collected from Hossain  to identify those resistant genes in rice land races through pathogenicity test. Modified NIAS (National Institute of Advanced Studies) method  was used to preserve blast pathogen.
growers keep seeds from known infected plants; Race 1 can be transmitted occasionally by seeds when har- vested from wilt-infested fields. The probability of seed transmission of Race 2, when the pathogen attacks a pea plant at flowering to pod development stages, is much higher than for Races 1, 5, or 6 which usually kill a susceptible plant before blooming. Masheshwari et al. (1981) isolated FOP from surface disinfested seeds of six varieties grown in the Hoshiarpur district of Punjab (India), where pea root rot and wilt are a problem and climatic characteristics of the regions are in most cases favourable to the disease development. Infected plants may look normal at low temperatures, but at soil temperatures of 20°C and above, wilt devel- ops rapidly, resulting in the collapse of the entire aerial part. The disease could cause appreciable yield losses under favourable environmental conditions; it is a major yield-limiting factor in the dry-temperate zone. In conclusion, this study allowed us to put in evi- dence the presence of pea wilt in all regions surveyed, a geographic distribution map of four races of the FOP at the western Algerian regions has been compiled. Races of the fungus and the population types present in the area need to be evaluated for disease control management. Specifically this information assists when examining newly bred cultivars and for the develop- ment of new resistant cultivars. The first stage of any disease control program involves the examination of the disease and its distribution. Growers may choose cultivars according to the race predominating in the soil in a particular region. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is not a substitute for good cultural practices but must be used in combination with them, when possible and early to minimize future losses. Incorporation of useful resistance sources effective against diverse races into adapted genotypes will be necessary to minimise future losses. Effective seed hygiene is also very important in order to prevent spread and introduction of highly virulent strains of the pathogen into new areas.
tion during these type of events (Esteve-Lanao, et al., 2005; Weston, et al., 2000). Recently, a mean exercise intensity during a mountain running of 27 km (~89% of maximal HR) very close to that ana- lyzed in this study has been noted (Ehrström, et al., 2017). Similarly, the mean HR values found during races >45 km were in agreement with previous re- search on ultramarathon races (Fornasiero, et al., 2017; Ramos-Campo, et al., 2016;) or ultra-endur- ance events (Barrero, et al., 2014; Neumayr, et al., 2002). Mean values of ~82 and ~77% of maximal HR have been reported during mountain races of 54 and 65 km, respectively (Fornasiero, et al., 2017; Ramos-Campo, et al., 2016). These data were high- er than that earlier analyzed by Clemente-Suárez (2015) (~64% of maximal HR) during a mountain race of 54 km and 6,441 m of accumulative altitude change. Possibly, it was due to a lower competitive level of the subjects in that study. Neumayr et al. (2002) obtained a negative relationship (r=-.73) be- tween the race time and the percentage of maximal HR during an ultra-endurance cycling event (i.e., 230 km, ~10 h). In the same way, results from our study showed the relationship between race perfor- mance and effort exerted at high intensity.
I have shown this by making some simple and straightforward assumptions about how to think about populations through time. These assumptions help to shed light on the three puzzles described at the outset of this paper. First, whereas on most accounts of race, a person can be a member of more than one race, a person can be a member of only one population at a time, although they may be descended from more than one population or change their population during their lifetime. Population membership is always relativized to time. Race concepts that incorporate a population concept should do likewise. Second, we do not need different concepts to handle forward-looking and backward-looking populations; again, we just need to specify the time period under consideration for the population in question. Race concepts that incorporate a population concept may likewise need to encompass different points in history as well as future times. Third, we need to be very careful about inferring races and populations from genetic clusters, recognizing that the data reflect population structure from many points in time and resisting the temptation to privilege some points in time over others.
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On the contrary, the correlation between the per- formances of both age categories on Derby races confirms the previous findings of the above-men- tioned authors. Trainers of horses qualified to run Derby races focus the performance of their horses especially on the most prestigious distance. The merit of such an orientation is to grant the tardy horses sufficient time during the races for two-year- olds to complete their physical and, in particular, psychic development. These perspective derby horses generally break their first time out not ear- lier than in races for three-year-olds (in our group about one third of the horses), or, as two-year-olds, the number of their starts in easier races is limited and, as a rule, they start at the end of the racing season of two-year-old horses.