Abstract: Many countries around the world suffer from the lack of a sea port directly linked to the rest of the world. Such countries are called "landlocked countries". This leads to Weak competitiveness of their products in the global market, as well as to the high cost of the imports. Africa has the largest share of these countries, with 16 of the 43 landlocked countries around the world. The aim of this paper is to propose a general framework for criteria that can be used to choose between ports in transit countries that can be used for import or export. These criteria are related to the assessment of the sea ports in terms of infrastructure and tariffs. It is also related to transport infrastructure from the transit country to the landlocked country and the level of safety. The study identified nine criteria that could be used to compare between ports in transit countries. Using Full Consistency Method (FUCOM) to evaluate those criteria showed that the number of navigation lines is the most important criteria followed by the port service level.
Over the past few decades, transport corridors have received particularly close attention, while contributing to growth and regional integration efforts in Africa. Of recent, several reports noted that transport corridors play key roles in region- al integration in Africa. African Union programs such as NEPAD and the pro- grams developed by the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) all place priority on enhancing interconnectivity and facilitating trade. They do this by focusing on transport corridors as microcosms of integration and spatial devel- opment on the continent. Thus, inefficient and over expensive logistics and transport corridors have negative effects on trade and are hindering growth and development. These negative factors hinder landlocked countries and promote isolation, driving up the prices of imports, and reducing the competitiveness of exports and businesses in West and Central African countries (Nathan Asso- ciates, 2013) . Depending on the circumstances, transport corridors are by nature either competitive or supplementary to each other. In the case of the West African corridors, there is significant competition between the corridors as they do serve the same countries. Based on the report issued by ATWA (2015) , these transport corridors are categorized into divisions, such as the transit corridors and the intra-regional corridors. The first division connects a seaport or gateway to LLCs, while the second division crosses several countries on the latitude, from west to east (the Abidjan Lagos Corridor for example). A transit corridor normally serves one coastal country and then competes with other re- gional corridors for transit traffic to the landlocked countries. They serve as routes for regional trade.
25 Read more
The paper developed the intermodal terminal network framework for the case study of the intermodal transport through the Togolese corridor. The present framework consisted of determining the optimal intermodal terminal location using the mathematical linear programming model computed in the LINGO software. This involved the modelling of the transport network, while taking into account the demand forecast of year 2023 of the 3 LLCs. This demand forecast was required to determine the viability of such a project. This research adds val- ue to the transport sector in Togo and is unique in the sense that it’s the first of its type to identify an optimal intermodal terminal location on the Togolese cor- ridor through the use of an optimization method of mathematical linear pro- gramming. The present research identified the city of Mango as the optimal lo- cation for the intermodal terminal. The Mango city is located 550 km north of Lomé (Capital city of Togo). The optimization results reveal the optimal inter- modal terminal location in terms of total transport cost minimization for con- tainers cargo in direction to 3 LLCs of Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. In line with the findings and in regard to the increasing trade volume due to the ever grow- ing demand for transport cargo to and from the landlocked countries of Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger, this case study highlights the merits of the intermodal transport for the Togolese transport industry and, advises policy makers to take into consideration its results.
17 Read more
Adam Smith was the first to point out and link the existing pattern between the inland geographical areas (landlocked countries) and its association with lower levels of development in 1776 (Faye et al., 2004). On the other hand, from a total of 182 countries, it was observed that 38 were landlocked – without access to the sea (approximately 20% of the total) – and that the remaining percentage had a sea coast. It has also been shown that less than 10% of the countries that are landlocked, are part of the first quartile in the classification of high income countries (Lahiri and Masjid, 2012; Feenstra et al., 2015; Fulk, 2017).
29 Read more
landlocked countries which provides a lot of insight to some of the issues under research. Similarly a lot of academics and scholars have done extensive research on matters relating to landlocked countries and their corresponding challenges to access the seas. According to the United Nations Information Service (2015), landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) lack territorial access to the sea which means they can face significant challenges in trade, transport and infrastructure amongst other areas. Ocean ports are a central and necessary component in facilitating trade. Yet, there is only limited comprehensive information available on the efficiency of ports, much less evidence of the effect of port efficiency on trade (Blonigen and Wilson 2006). This is very true in the sense that water transport is the cheapest and most reliable due to the fact only water connects almost all the continents in the world. Secondly the capacities of cargo carried by water transport far exceeds those that can be transported by rail, air and road hence by economies of scale, water transport becomes very cost effective and every country needs so form of access to water transport. A port is the interface
95 Read more
Chapter 5 presented findings and implications from the research. The findings recapped the challenges faced by LLDCs, literature on dry ports and findings from analysis of data. The findings revealed that dry ports offer a superior opportunity for a landlocked country to improve its maritime access, to minimise transportation costs and to improve regional and international trade and competitiveness. Moreover, the shift of cargo from road to rail was seen as a very sustainable way to transport goods over long distances since road freight transport is affected by diminishing returns such as congestion and empty returns (Rodrigue & Notteboom, 2014, p. 21). Therefore, dry ports are an important subset of a modern integrated logistics system. Notably, Southern African countries have embraced dry ports as seen in the City Deep dry port in South Africa, Isaka Dry Port in Tanzania, Ethiopia 54 and various dry port initiatives by the Walvis Bay Corridor Group (WBCG) 55 in the republic of Namibia. WBCG leased land for dry ports to landlocked countries such as Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe 56 . These dry port initiatives can be said to be a marketing tool aimed at increasing seaport hinterland access, thereby increasing port throughput. It was also found that many seaports in Southern Africa are marketing their services and competing for the position of African hub ports and regional African gateways 57 . Findings from questionnaire responses supported public-private partnerships sighting benefits of efficiency. Most respondents also confirmed the importance of dry ports.
102 Read more
traffic with main destination to landlocked countries such as Burkina-Faso, Ma- li, Niger and other neighboring West African states (Figure 3). Major cargoes transported via the port of Lomé include; refined petroleum products, Cotton, Rice, Fertilizer, used Vehicles, Textiles etc. (Table 2). The port of Lomé’s quay measures over 1720 meters allowing it to accommodate between 8 and 10 ships at a time and it has over twelve (12) ship-to-shore container cranes with the ca- pacity of 40 tons each. Presently, the port of Lomé consists of Pier 1, Pier 2, Oil Terminal, Ore terminal and a fishing harbor with a very low tide of (1.20 m) and moderate wind .
11 Read more
Geography can directly influence the economic development of a country and this is particularly true for landlocked countries that, by nature, do not have direct access to the sea to facilitate international trade. Landlocked countries (LLCs) are mostly dependent on the infrastructure of their transit neighbours to transport their goods to ports. Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger, the three landlocked Sahelian countries in West Africa, have traditionally used ports of coastal countries to the south including the Ports of Abidjan, Tema, Lomé and Cotonou. Combined, about 9 million tons of cargo (imports and exports) was moved in 2016 between the three LLCs. In this regard, the study sought to compare inland transport costs and performance metrics of various transit corridors in West Africa. Inland transport costs are a much larger share of total import/export transport costs for LLCs. The analyses involved determining the best gateway according the level of transport cost per corridor, as well as determining a single load centre for inbound and outbound cargo flows from the landlocked hinterland of West Africa according to the total cost of transportation. Using forecasted demand, the study found that the Port of Abidjan offered the lowest transport costs in the medium to long term. However, using historical data, the Port of Tema offered the lowest inland transport costs to shippers in landlocked West Africa. In addition, with the Port of Tema as gateway to landlocked West Africa, the logistics performance across its corridors is better than its competitors.
20 Read more
South Asia is considered to be one of the least integrated regions in the world today . Though the region inher- ited an integrated transport system from the British, this was fragmented not only by the partition of India in 1947 but also by its political aftermath. South Asia now needs to be re-integrated within the context of greater political harmony as it has entered into the second era of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). However, due to lack of integration of the transport sys- tem in South Asia, logistic costs are high and ranges be- tween 13–14.0 per cent of GDP, compared to 8.0 per cent in USA . Intra-regional trade among the SAARC member states was only US$ 14.7 billion in 2008 or around 6.3 per cent of their total global trade, compared to 60.0 per cent in NAFTA and 26.0 per cent in the ASEAN region. In order to augment trade flows within SAARC, integration of the transport network in South Asia is, therefore, crucial for landlocked countries such as Nepal and Bhutan and regions such as North-East In- dia which shares 98.0 percent of its border with Bangla- desh and only 2.0 percent of its border with the mainland India. This is also especially imperative from the per- spective of Nepal since it holds the highest share of in- tra-industry trade within the SAARC community.
On the other hand, two secretory isoforms, the NKCC1a and NKCC1b, have been identified in European eel, and only gill NKCC1a is upregulated following SW transfer (Cutler and Cramb, 2002). Thus, one cannot exclude the possibility of more than one secretory isoform being present in salmon gills, and that these may be differentially regulated. As with NKA, there was no straightforward correspondence between NKCC mRNA and protein levels, in either anadromous or landlocked salmon, as increased NKCC protein abundance was more profound than NKCC mRNA levels, possibly reflecting a lower turnover of this protein in salmon gills. Similar differences have been observed in anadromous salmonids (Tipsmark et al., 2002) and killifish (Scott et al., 2004b). On the other hand, a distinct upregulation of NKCC protein in landlocked salmon between May and June contradicts the apparent lack of a preparatory increase at the transcriptional level in these fish. Some of the discrepancies observed in present and other studies may be ascribed to the use of the T4 antibody, as it most likely recognizes both the secretory and an absorptive isoforms (Lytle et al., 1995).
12 Read more
In fact this thesis as was mentioned, there is no any magic fomula, it just constitutes a study of the possiblity for landlocked countries to come into maritime affairs, mainly shipping activities, looking at the possibility to diminish its risky and costly characteristics by establishing it as a shipping company of service to other countries (which can not or do not want to carry its national cargo), with vessels acquired on the second-hand market or by chartering.
156 Read more
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan have adopted significant legislative changes since the fall of the former Soviet Union in an effort to attract foreign direct investment into their energy sectors. Of the three republics, Kazakhstan has been the most successful in attracting foreign interest, but all three republics face significant challenges in further development of oil and gas infrastructure. Even if these countries are completely successful in bringing in foreign investment, a question will remain: who wins and who loses in these countries. Using updated data, this paper will use a computable general equilibrium model to measure the effects of FDI into Central Asia. Results of the model suggest that the region would be better off overall from foreign investment in its natural gas sector, due mostly to improvements in overall production efficiency and its overall terms of trade. However, the gain in the natural gas sector would come at the expense of production and net exports of non-petroleum related industries.
20 Read more
outline” (PCTCO) were chosen. The last mentioned variable potentially ranges between the poles of a landlocked country (=0) and a pure island country (=100). The variable “Mean Distance …” generally relativizes the maritime potential for those countries, which may have a higher percentage of coastlines in their total outlines but on the other hand also have relatively big landmasses; those countries are assumed to have a relatively lower maritime potential, which should be reflected in the MPI. Based on a principal component analysis check, each of the variables was weighted with the factor 0.5 in the construction of the MPI.
18 Read more
Statistical analysis of these predictors (including their first-order interactions) resulted in significant results in the cases of just four single variables. Our results indicate that the two most powerful factors in explaining the selling prices were proximity to a river and proximity to a lake. In both cases, the price of land diminished significantly with increasing distance from the edge of a water body, so the prices in their immediate vicinity are 3.5 to 3.7 times higher than are the prices of a similar land situated more than 5 km from the edge of a water body. The steepness of this land price gradient on the one hand and the results of the cited foreign studies relating to the proximity to seaside on the other indicate that the absence of sea in the case of a landlocked country is apparently more substantially compensated by the larger role played by these freshwater features. This is reflected in the substantially higher prices commanded for farmland in the vicinity of water features in comparison to averages or to values for similar land more distant from water.
11 Read more
investments induce foreign direct investment. There are few bases behind this notion: (a) foreign aid is centred at improving local economic development and sustainability, (b) aid is aimed to facilitate more market access opportunities for emerging markets and (c) aid is supposed to increase social capital of population, among others. At first it seems they are two different flows and no link exists, because FDI is a capital account item and ODA is a transfer payment item of current account though both are the balance of payments (BoP) entries. For example, one of the ways the link arises when donors who give assistance are also ones who conduct FDI, called ‘ vanguard effect ’ according to Kimura and Todo (2010). Why ODA should be important for attracting FDI? Private capital is crucial to transition economies at initial phases but need to be attracted. Private investors are more selective and attentive since the cost of investment in developing countries is high, created by insecure governments, weak legal system and underdeveloped infrastructure. If there is no improvement of business environment in recipient county from inside, then one viable option is the foreign aid to tackle this issue from outside. In this sense the role of foreign aid in adjusting financial constraints to attract a FDI is imperative. This creates the need for international organizations such as World Bank to intervene and assist countries in developing “new market thinking” to deal with donors and foreign private investors. This usually implemented via various foreign aid projects and programs. If there is in fact an ODA-FDI connection then it could, given a certain sufficient conditions, (a) facilitate improvement of domestic business environment (b) help in designing of domestic modern market mechanisms to better secure foreign investment (b) create grounds for public-private partnership, such as tiding aid with domestic private sector investments. This “cooperation” would be a contribution to long-term economic development and help recipient economies to position themselves in international arena. If there is no connection, then it calls attention to reassessing the mechanisms of ‘ aid architecture ’ for long-term civil society building goals. For multinational enterprises (MNEs) from developed nations it is equally important to gain positive public opinion and further explore new markets for profit seeking motives. For recipient local societies and their governments, it is crucial to devise policies to favour a particular foreign capital that could bring tangible contribution to domestic welfare improvements.
25 Read more
Juvenile landlocked Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) (mean ± SD initial weight 2.6 ± 0.7 g, fork length 6.3 ± 0.5) were reared in three different water velocities [0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 body length/s (BL/s)] for four weeks to determine possible effects of water velocity on growth, condi- tion, and survival. Fish were sampled for weight, fork length, condition factor, hepatosomatic in- dex (HSI), viscerosomatic index (VSI), and fin erosion after four weeks of feeding to satiation. At the end of the feeding trial, the fish were handled and transported to simulate stocking, with sur- vival observed over the following 10 d. Following four weeks of feeding, fish reared in 0.5 and 1.5 BL/s had the same growth and food conversion ratio, but fish reared at 3.0 BL/s had a significant reduction in both metrics. Furthermore, fish reared at 1.5 BL/s had a significantly higher condi- tion factor than fish reared in other treatments. No significant differences were found for HSI, VSI, fin erosion, or survival. The results from this study indicate that a moderate velocity (1.5 BL/s), which is necessary for circular tanks to be self-cleaning, is not detrimental to fish growth or condi- tion, but a faster water velocity (3.0 BL/s) negatively affects fish growth and food utilization.
10 Read more
Oil & gas fields. A natural falsification exercise is to investigate whether oil and gas fields have a similar trade effect to that of mines. While the asymmetric income effect (e.g., African countries with more mines consuming a larger number of sophisticated goods produced overseas), as well as yet another alternative channel whereby African countries with more mines import more mining machinery from overseas, should be at play for oil and gas fields as well, the infrastructure channel should not. The infrastructure channel relies on the assumption that the mine-to-coast infrastructure can be used not only to export minerals but also to trade a broad set of commodities. But while metals and other non-hydrocarbon minerals are mostly transported through roads and railways, oil and gas are mostly transported through pipelines. Clearly, the former may also be used for trade, while the latter cannot. 43 Thus, if the trade effect is due to those alternative channels, it should be there for both mines and oil and gas fields. If it is due to mine-to-coast infrastructure it should be there for mines only. We therefore extend the baseline regression with a measure of oil and gas fields. We use data from Horn (2003), who reports 878 on- and offshore oil and gas fields with a minimum pre-extraction size of 500 million barrels of oil equivalent including year of discovery from 1868-2003, geographic coordinates and field size measures. This data set builds on previous data sets (e.g. Halbouty et al. 1970) and attempts to include every giant oilfield discovered around the world. Oil, condensate and gas are summed, with a factor of 1/.006 applied to convert gas trillion cubic feet to oil equivalent million barrels. We define OG d
49 Read more
Some other pertinent issues stress in the agreement are: the desire to develop further both countries' international trade and economic interrelationship; and other instruments relating thereto or concluded under the auspices of the WTO; To recognizing the importance of fostering an open and predictable environment for international trade and investment; To recognizing that it is desirable that trade and investment problems between the Parties should be resolved by mutual agreement; To Recognizing the benefits to each Party resulting from increased international trade and investment, and that trade and investment barriers would deprive the Parties of such benefits; To recognizing the essential role of private investment, both domestic and foreign, in furthering growth, creating jobs, expanding trade, improving technology and enhancing economic development; To take into account the need to eliminate non-tariff barriers in order to facilitate greater access to the markets of both countries; and to consider that it would be in their mutual interest to establish a bilateral mechanism between the Parties for encouraging the liberalization of trade and investment between them. However, beyond this agreements are some critical issues which need to be examined. The major obstacles to Less Developing Countries (LDCs) export expansion whether in the area of primary products or manufactures have been the various trade barriers erected by developed nations against the principal commodity exports of developing countries. Jhingal (1995) succinctly captures this mood when he argues that the new protectionist tariff and non tariff trade barriers (eg excise, taxes, quotas, voluntary export restraints, sanitary regulations) imposed by rich nations on commodity exports of poor countries were the most significant obstacles to the expansion of the latter’s export earning capacities. These high effective tariffs inhibited LDCs from developing and diversifying their own secondary-export industries and thus acted to restrain their industrial expansion. The overall effect of developed country tariffs, quotas and non tariff barriers has been to lower the effective price received by LDCs for their exports, reduce the quantity exported and diminish foreign exchange earnings.
14 Read more