With existence of global warming, it has been frequent occurrence of urban wa- ter inundation. People are paying more and more attention to the collection and treatment of rainwater. Byanalyzing GIS catchments, a rainwater garden is de- signed in areas where river water is part of the middle reaches of rivers, and mi- cro-environmental treatment is conducted on rainwater and the domestic se- wage of residents. Treated rainwater and sewage are discharged into the river again. The design of Rainwater Garden not only helps to reduce the heat island effect in the city, ease the urban hustle and bustle, form the ecological diversity of cities’ environment, sequester carbon and clean the air, but also provides the public with a place to visit. It can also serve as an education demonstration base (as show in Figure 8).
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a restoration and rehabilitation proposal based on the main existing elements of the topography of the landscape, a design grounded in the geophysical parameters of the site and the cultural heritage features in its vicinity. These references are a useful source to develop a sustainable landscape restored to the original site profile and character. The environmental impacts of a disused softstone quarry at Tal-Ksajjem, within the limits of the village of GĦarb (coordinates: 36°3'58" N and 14°12'45" E), were assessed (Fig. 1, Fig. 2). The natural and rural character of Gozo was acknowledged through the Structure Plan for the Maltese Islands . Nowadays, it is designated to become an ecological island . The study area measured 1km diameter centred on the site, an area deemed sufficient for the island which measures 14.5km by 7.2km. The specific objectives were the following:
The results of this research demonstrate that people prefer a well-designed landscape that includes a variety of plant materials. However, if we examine the results from question three we observed an indifference to the presence of a garden by the nursing staff (29.2%), ad- ministrative staff (22.7%), and medical students (19.4%). The respective percentage of the medical staff is particu- larly low (10%). A possible explanation for the afore- mentioned results is that nurses and administrative staff have a high workload, which directly results in not al- lowing them to spend much time outside of the hospital buildings. They prefer to spend their free time in places that allow for more social interaction and entertainment. Similar studies have been carried out by Cooper-Marcus and Barnes , in which they used a combination of behavioral observations and interview methods to evalu- ate four hospital gardens in California. They found that restoration from stress, including improved mood, was by far the most important category of benefits derived by nearly all users of the gardens - patients, family and em- ployees. Similarly, another study of a garden in a chil- dren’s hospital identified mood improvement and resto- ration from stress as primary benefits for users .
The objective of this paper is to study the design and environmental impacts of KMP expressway. The goal of this investigation is to distinguish all noteworthy structure and regular effects emerging from the development and usage of this task. The examination tries to set up present natural conditions at the undertaking site by accessible data bolstered by field concentrates and information accessible from optional sources, wherever vital; to foresee the effects on pertinent ecological credits because of the development and task of proposed venture. The study seeks to establish present environmental conditions at the project site by available information supported by field studies and data available from secondary sources, wherever necessary; to predict the impacts on relevant environmental attributes due to the construction & operation of proposed project.
Dr. Welcomme and his colleagues made it clear that riverine habitats and ecosystems can be self renewing and ecosystem integrity can be effectively restored in the form of a series of "beads" or "patches" of prime aquatic and floodplain habitats. These would include those areas most vulnerable to periodic inundation by low frequency flooding, such as the major erosion and scour areas most impacting levee integrity during the 1993 floods, and the low lying areas associated with tributary confluences. Such areas are desirable because they are most amenable to restoration and maintenance by natural riverine hydrologic forces. Scientific principles such as those initiated by SAST using satellite imagery, coupled with ground truthing should be used to map all potentially prime habitat areas along our river corridors. Prime candidate habitats could then be prioritized to focus efforts and funding on those areas or reaches most acceptable politically and socially.
Substantial new planting of trees and shrubs is included within the designs. Where feasible native planting should be targeted. Often when design and planting takes place, it focuses predominantly on horticultural rather than biodiversity value. This practice is generally adopted due to a perception that horticultural species require less maintenance than native alternatives, but this is not necessarily the case and biodiversity benefits can be missed by not selecting native species. There is an increasing body of evidence to suggest that the greatest biodiversity value is achieved by planting with native/naturalised species. A number of studies comparing gardens planted with native species compared with more conventional horticultural gardens (with exotic species) found that bird and butterfly diversity was greater in ‘native gardens’ (French et al. 2005; Daniels & Kirkpatrick 2006; Burghardt et al. 2009). Corbet et al. (2001) found that native insects rarely make use of exotic species when compared with natives. There are a number of British native species that can be planted in a conventional gardening manner to provide a wonderful show throughout the summer (Baines, 2000). For hedgerow planting hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) and dog rose (Rosa canina) create huge interest in a small amount of space that can be further enhanced with climbers such as old man’s beard (Clematis vitalba), honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum) and hop (Humulus lupulus). This would help provide habitat for many species of invertebrates and birds, support foraging bats, and perhaps other small mammals.
A better solution is likely to be a web-based interactive intelligent decision support system that is dynamic and regularly updated at both global and regional scales. The key point is that increased availability of information to all involved in landscape change is likely to have a longer term benefit. The more knowledge we have about consequences, the more creative the solutions may be to avoid negative impacts and increase positive contributions. Such a tool could provide an ability to continue evaluating the success of a design through monitoring implementation processes, using a post- occupancy evaluation approach. For example, during project implementation a record of types of machinery used, all fuel consumed, boundary transfers of all resources and pollutants, and labour- hours could be kept. This would create a collection of accurate data to use in future assessments. One output of such a system could be in the form of a matrix that could be printed onto a master plan like a plant list, to show visually the carbon-heavy components of a design. A representation of the total carbon dioxide output minus the carbon sinks to identify the net carbon dioxide emissions and its possible impacts on the local environment, could be a useful additional tool.
Interestingly, top five regional exporters of environmental goods remained the same across all three major categories of EGs. The Renewable Energy (RE) category is the most prominent among EGs in terms of the export and import volumes. In terms of exports, this sector is dominated by China (accounting for 51% of total regional exports) followed by Republic of Korea, Japan, Singapore and Malaysia. China’s performance can be partly attributed to the major investments by the government in renewable energy sector. In 2009, China – with $39.1 billion investments in the renewable energy sector – replaced the United States ($22.5 billion) to emerge as the world’s largest investor in renewable energy. C hina’s investments are even more remarkable in terms of share of GDP: in 2010, renewable energy investments reached 0.55% of GDP, which was more than double that of the United States at 0.23% (Zhang, 2016). Currently China’s solar panel production is estim ated to account for some two-thirds of global production 3 – this boom in productive capacity has caused significant downwards pressure on global prices. As discussed in box 2.1, the emergence of China as a prominent player in the global renewable energy sector was strongly driven by public policy support ranging from national development strategy, national legislations and sector specific policies.
The main hurdles to be overcome when restoring an area are the effects of historical land use on the substrate, dispersal constraints of biota into the restoration area and its spatial character and degree of fragmentation (Honnay et al. 2002). A popular method of approaching the first of these issues has been to amend the abiotic environment (Hilderbrand et al. 2005). Primarily undertaken where the physical and chemical environment has been severely altered by activities such as mining, deforestation or river engineering, techniques to reinstate the original condition are employed. For instance, mitigation may include nutrient removal or addition through manipulation of topsoil and use of fertilisers, hydrology modification or amendment of shade and canopy cover (Bradshaw 1997; Gómez-Aparicio et al. 2004; Hart et al. 2002; Hölzel and Otte 2003; Mabry et al. 2010). This approach without further intervention assumes that the correct abiotic environment will result in the desired ecosystem establishing and was commonly practiced in grassland environments in the 1970s and 1980’s (Kiehl 2010). Whilst the importance of the abiotic environment cannot be undervalued, creating conditions similar to those found in a desired reference site does not guarantee its establishment (Bradshaw 1997; Hilderbrand et al. 2005). Further intervention may be required to reinstate important biotic-abiotic interactions or overcome biotic constraints such as a limited species pool preventing natural dispersal or an increase in invasive, non-desirable species within the area (Suding et al. 2004).
Mobile-driven AR is identiﬁed as being a highly pertinent emerging technology for landscape architectural education as site visits are historically integral to its ped- agogy. The site for Master of Time is the Brisbane City Botanic Gardens, selected due to its close proximity to QUT’s campus and historic landscapedesign. In order to facilitate maximum usage, it is accessible for free via Apple ’ s App Store and the Google Play Store, which not only allows its primary user group QUT ’ s ﬁ rst year Landscape Architecture students to partake in the local learning experience, but also members of the public, including local and international tourists, as well as prospec- tive landscape architecture students. The educational aim of the prototype is to teach users about the underpinning foundations of landscape architectural design. Encompassed within this is viewing the City Botanic Gardens through the eyes of landscape architects and exploring the fundamental ‘ ways of seeing ’ that is core to disciplinary practice. These ‘ ways of seeing ’ are closely aligned with the technology ’ s ability to add layers of understanding and knowledge to real spaces. The overall project aim sees its educational core not simply being based on a transferal of knowledge, but using the technology to assist in facilitating a shift in perspective.
undeveloped areas, vegetated areas remain of high eco- logical fidelity and unique biodiversity but are currently under threat due to urbanization commensurate to a booming mining economy and a rapidly growing popu- lation. Despite the undeniable benefits of this socio- economic growth towards human well-being, the rate of change associated with this development has led land- scape architects, citizens and conservationists (among others) to sound their concern over the planning and environmental management (i.e., by government agen- cies and developers) of disturbed lands and remnant landscape patches having high ecological integrity (Hobbs et al. 2011). Equally current landscape architec- tural and development practices do not always fit well into the complexities of the SWAFR’s old climatically buffered and infertile landscapes (OCBILs, Hopper 2009). In this respect, development has generally been predicated on established northern hemisphere prac- tices, e.g., within the context of designated young often disturbed fertile landscapes (YODFELs). As an example of such development, artificial lakes, reminiscent of those found in a verdant English countryside, are con- structed into the free-draining dunes of the coastal heath. High-input landscapes, both nutrient and water demanding, are designed around these lakes, while the historical banksia woodlands and coastal heath are pre- dominantly removed. The sloping topography of sec- ondary dune systems is also substantially erased and replaced with terraced suburban blocks. As a conse- quence, the ‘designed’ and constructed landscapes that are replacing these (newly) historical, biologically rich landscapes bear no ecological or aesthetic resemblance to their precedents. Within adjacent residential landscapes, anthropologists have also shown how residents create ‘landscapes of attachment’ , constructing gardens to create a sense of belonging. Counter to the endemic landscape, this is achieved by preferencing exotic species over native (Trigger and Mulcock 2005). Urbanization, on private and public land, diminishes the footprint of the robust and biologically rich endemic landscape of the SWAFR, in turn, replacing it with constructed landscapes of lessor ecological value.
Dr. Eckart Lange is Professor and Head of the Department of Landscape at the University of Sheffield. He is a Member of the Scientific Committee of the European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen, Denmark, in the area of Spatial Planning and Management of Natural Resources and an elected Academic Member of the Landscape Institute (Royal Chartered Body for Landscape Architects in the United Kingdom). His research focuses on how landscape and environmental planning can influence and direct anthropogenic landscape change, while developing innovative methodologies of how advanced virtual landscape visualizations and modeling can be used to explore human reaction to these changes.
Large urban green manicured lawns, people prone to get close to nature, love nature aesthetic taste, improved urban culture and urban people's cultural tastes. In the garden city of Singapore, the new high-rise buildings only to 35%, and the remaining land for stations, roads and buildings in the open space between the trees, grow flowers, grass, trees everywhere and white, encrusted vine, so can improve the living environment. July 2003, the Shenyang municipal government launched an important strategic move-Construction Gold Gallery that "the central urban corridor" Through several years of construction, the "Golden Corridor" has become the architectural symbol of its environmental and ecological landscape of the modern road service industry gathering area, the core control area international metropolis image display area and the northeast of the city center and became Shenyang axis vibrant life and creating a brilliant new century gold corridor. Meanwhile, Shenyang City, in order to meet 2013 Games for Youth Street and other streets in the city's more than 20 focus tree pool, car-free island of green coverage project implementation to achieve the organic unity of adaptability, ornamental and ecological nature, so greening of urban roads to achieve good visual effects and ecological effects.
In the first poster, McCarthy simultaneously represented four categories of systems and outcomes as identified by the four neighbouring local government authorities: education, active transport, social–cultural attributes and bushcare (see figure 2). In the case of transport, a combination of public transport (light- rail) and ‘non-car’ movement (cycling and walking) was linked to outcomes. Through a diagram of transport systems and positive health outcomes (namely increased safety and an enhanced, more closely connected experience of place), McCarthy’s work effectively communicated how synergistic and multifunctional systems enabled a spectrum of social, health and environmental benefits as interlinked, high-quality public spaces to engender social interaction: an exemplar for new forms of open space, where a drainage and rail corridor also becomes an opportunity for greater social engagement. This implied that The GreenWay was indeed an example of the three principles of landscape infrastructure identified by Hung (2013): ‘flexibility and adaptability’, ‘localised management’ and ‘multi-functionalism’.
In LEED, when constructing a green home, builders have the choice of following programs, rating systems, and laws. A home can use substantially less energy than the average home? To achieve carbon-neutral and net-zero energy design, buildings must be responsive to their local climates. A home built with non-toxic and non-VOC off-gassing materials? Volatile organic compounds are found in many common household and building products such as paints, varnishes, paint strippers, and cleaning supplies. A true green home acknowledges the importance of all building elements, from designing an air-tight, well-insulated wall system to choosing high-quality windows. The whole building approach will consider a high- performance: accessibility, aesthetics, cost effectiveness, functionality, productivity and health, history, safety/security, and sustainability. Aesthetics applies not just to the outside architecture, but to the interior design, the surrounding landscape, the neighboring buildings and the community. Functionality is to consider the owners' future needs, such as potential spatial changes from re-modelling. The indoor environment can have a strong effect on occupant health and the productivity of occupants, particularly young children and the aged, whose auto-immune systems are more susceptible to toxic materials and off-gassing fumes. Excessive noise, glare, drafts, heat, humidity or cold can be potentially damaging or dangerous.
ABSTRACT: Iran has mountainous landscapes and half of its surface is occupied by highlands. Moreover, Iran is an arid country and deserts are located at lower altitudes. Most metropolitan areas are positioned in mid-altitudes between mountain and desert. Cities grow upwardly toward the highlands under pressures of urbanization and desertification. Foothill ecotones are a zone between upland mountains and midland plains. Upwardly sprawl of urban centers has transformed the structures and functions of these ecologically strategic belts. In this article, we analyzed the transformational trend of the ecotonal zone in the southern slopes of the central Elburz (Tehran-Karaj urban region). Landsat 7 ETM+ (2000) and 8 OLI (2013) are used to monitor spatial and temporal variability of landscape metrics. The land covers are grouped into four classes: vegetation cover, open space, built area, and water body. Seven landscape metrics are used including: NP, CAP, MPS, AW-MPS, MNND, PARA, and TE. Our results indicate that NP, AW-MPS, TE, and PARA increased whereas CAP and MPS decreased. These results are a sign of the fragmentation process across the ecotonal strip.